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Sima Dameni, Atousa Janzadeh, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
BACKGROUND: and aim: Irisin is a new myokine that is secreted by myocytes during exercise, and plays a role in creating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. Considering the benefits of exercise in reducing pain, this study was carried out to determine the probable effect of irisin on neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in male rats. METHODS: To induce neuropathic pain CCI model was used. Animals were divided into groups of control, CCI, sham, CCI + vehicle, and CCI + irisin...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Takashi Ito, Yukiko Nakanishi, Noriko Yamaji, Shigeru Murakami, Stephen W Schaffer
It has been identified that skeletal muscle is an endocrine tissue. Since skeletal muscle aging affects not only to muscle strength and function but to systemic aging and lifespan, myokines secreted from skeletal muscle may be crucial factors for intertissue communication during aging. In the present study, we investigated the expression of myokines associated with skeletal muscle aging in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) mice, which exhibit the accelerated skeletal muscle aging. Among transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family genes, only growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was markedly higher (>3-fold) in skeletal muscle of old TauTKO mice compared with that of either young TauTKO mice or old wild-type mice...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Lian He, Wan-Yu He, La-Ta A, Wen-Ling Yang, Ai-Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vascular calcification, which involves an active cellular transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into bone forming cells, is prevalent and predicts mortality in dialysis patients. Its mechanisms are complex and unclear. We presume that irisin, a newly identified myokine also may play roles in vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. This study aims to evaluate serum irisin levels and establish their relation to vascular calcification and other parameters in hemodialysis patients...
February 22, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Hossein Shirvani, Ehsan Arabzadeh
PURPOSE: An imbalance in the production of adipokines and myokines impairs the energy expenditure, increases adipocyte and develops metabolic pathologies. Physical exercise is able to regulate the secretion of myokines and adipokines. The present study considers the metabolic cross talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training by regulation of PGC-1α. METHODS: A sample of 32 male Wistar rats (8 weeks old with mean weight 250 ± 55 g) were divided into four groups randomly: control of base (CO), control of 8 weeks (CO8w), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT)...
February 26, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Qian Xu, Yazhou Cui, Jing Luan, Xiaoyan Zhou, Haiying Li, Jinxiang Han
Many regulators have been identified to participate in the cross-talk between muscle and bone, however, most previous studies focus on secreting proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that exosomes from myoblasts C2C12 can promote pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 differentiation to osteoblasts. We revealed that the effect of C2C12 exosomes depended on its miR-27a-3p component, they can increase miR-27a-3p level in the recipient cells, and decrease its direct target adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) expression, thus activating β-catenin pathway...
February 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Theodora Stratigou, Maria Dalamaga, Georgios Antonakos, Ioanna Marinou, Evaggelos Vogiatzakis, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Irene Karampela, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
PURPOSE: Irisin, a newly discovered adipo-myokine, is implicated in the modulation of the adipose phenotype, increasing energy expenditure and ameliorating systemic metabolism. Our aim was to investigate circulating irisin in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and study its associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: In a large case-control study, serum irisin, insulin resistance and lipid parameters, classic adipokines, inflammatory and hepatic biomarkers, and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 120 consecutive patients with SH and 120 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and date of blood draw...
February 17, 2018: Endocrine
Sergio F Martinez-Huenchullan, Babu Raja Maharjan, Paul F Williams, Charmaine S Tam, Susan V Mclennan, Stephen M Twigg
Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Freddy J K Toloza, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Maria C Pérez-Matos, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Alvarez, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, Maritza Pérez-Mayorga, Martha L Arévalo-Garcia, Giovanni Tolosa-González, Carlos O Mendivil
Background: Myokines are a group of protein mediators produced by skeletal muscle under stress or physical exertion. Even though their discovery and effects in cell culture and animal models of disease have elicited great enthusiasm, very little is known about their role in human metabolism. We assessed whether plasma concentrations of three known myokines [myonectin, myostatin, and fibroblast-derived growth factor 21 (FGF-21)] would be associated with direct and indirect indicators of insulin resistance (IR) in individuals who did not have a diagnosis of diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kristoffer Ström, David Morales-Alamo, Filip Ottosson, Anna Edlund, Line Hjort, Sine W Jörgensen, Peter Almgren, Yuedan Zhou, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Carl Ekman, Alberto Pérez-López, Ola Ekström, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Markus Mattiasson, Pedro de Pablos-Velasco, Nikolay Oskolkov, Emma Ahlqvist, Nils Wierup, Lena Eliasson, Allan Vaag, Leif Groop, Karin G Stenkula, Céline Fernandez, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Ola Hansson
Obesity is a major health problem, and although caloric restriction and exercise are successful strategies to lose adipose tissue in obese individuals, a simultaneous decrease in skeletal muscle mass, negatively effects metabolism and muscle function. To deeper understand molecular events occurring in muscle during weight-loss, we measured the expressional change in human skeletal muscle following a combination of severe caloric restriction and exercise over 4 days in 15 Swedish men. Key metabolic genes were regulated after the intervention, indicating a shift from carbohydrate to fat metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gregory D Sloop, Joseph J Weidman, John A St Cyr
The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque, which develops from the organization of mural thrombi. These form in areas of slow blood flow, which develop because of flow separation created by changing vascular geometry and elevated blood viscosity. Many phenomena typically ascribed to inflammation or "chronic oxidative stress", such as the development of fatty streaks, "endothelial dysfunction," "vulnerable plaques," and the association of mild elevations of C-reactive protein and cytokines with atherothrombosis are better explained by hemorheologic and hemodynamic abnormalities, particularly elevated blood viscosity...
December 5, 2017: Curēus
A Gmiąt, J Jaworska, K Micielska, J Kortas, K Prusik, K Prusik, M Lipowski, A Radulska, N Szupryczyńska, J Antosiewicz, E Ziemann
Although regular physical activity is known to benefit health of aging populations, there are still many factors, which regulate exercise-induced adaptive changes. Among many vitamin D and myokines are under consideration. We, therefore, evaluated the influence of a single session of and regular Nordic Walking (NW) training combined with vitamin D supplementation on cognitive functions and muscle strength and some elements of the amino-acid profile. Thirty-five healthy elderly women (68 ± 5 years old) from health promotion programmes took part in the study...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Hagit Salem, Yekaterina Yatchenko, Mariana Anosov, Talya Rosenfeld, Gheona Altarescu, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Ruth Birk
Irisin is a novel secreted myokine, encoded by the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) precursor gene. Irisin plays a role in the female reproductive system in pregnancy and in embryonic development, and is associated with fetal size. It is expressed in the ovary, placenta and neonatal cord serum. We studied whether maternal and neonatal FNDC5 genetic polymorphisms are associated with preterm birth (PTB). Blood for DNA analysis was collected from Israeli mothers (n = 315) and from umbilical veins of their respected idiopathic preterm (24-36 weeks) and control term (>37 weeks) newborns (n = 161)...
January 30, 2018: Gene
Ji-Hyeon Kim, Do-Yeon Kim
BACKGROUND: The increase in the prevalence of degenerative brain diseases owing to the growing elderly population is becoming a serious social issue, and regular exercises can be effective in preventing and treating such diseases. Irisin, one of the myokines expressed in the muscles during exercise, is highly associated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of aquarobic exercises on serum irisin and BDNF levels to help prevent and delay degenerative brain diseases in elderly women...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
E Atici, E Menevse, A K Baltaci, R Mogulkoc
Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Kuniaki Nagamine, Hirotaka Sato, Hiroyuki Kai, Hirokazu Kaji, Makoto Kanzaki, Matsuhiko Nishizawa
Contractile skeletal muscle cells were cultured so as to wrap around an electrode wire to enable their selective stimulation even when they were co-cultured with other electrically-excitable cells. Since the electrode wire was composed of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polyurethane (PU), which is soft and highly capacitive (~10 mF cm-2), non-faradaic electrical stimulation with charge/discharge currents could be applied to the surrounding cells without causing significant damage even for longer periods (more than a week)...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dennis K Fix, Justin P Hardee, Song Gao, Brandon N VanderVeen, Kandy T Velazquez, James A Carson
The IL-6 cytokine family activates intracellular signaling pathways through glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and this signaling has established regulatory roles in muscle glucose metabolism and proteostasis. Although the IL-6 family has been implicated as myokines regulating the muscle's metabolic response to exercise, gp130's role in mitochondrial quality control involving fission, fusion, mitophagy and biogenesis is not well understood. Therefore, we examined gp130's role in basal and exercise-trained muscle mitochondrial quality control...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Nathalie Biniaminov, Susanne Bandt, Alexander Roth, Sascha Haertel, Rainer Neumann, Achim Bub
Regular physical activity and physical fitness are closely related to a positive health status in humans. In this context, the muscle becomes more important due to its function as an endocrine organ. Muscle tissue secretes "myokines" in response to physical activity and it is speculated that these myokines are involved in physical activity induced positive health effects. Recently, the newly discovered myokine Irisin thought to be secreted by the muscle in response to physical activity and might be related to the health inducing effect by inducing browning of white adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
Leslie E Neidert, Mohammed Al-Tarhuni, Daniel Goldman, Heidi A Kluess, Dwayne N Jackson
The purpose of this study is to investigate that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) released from skeletal and vascular smooth muscle can increase arteriolar diameter in a skeletal muscle vascular bed by reducing neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that the effect of myokine DPP-IV would be greatest in the smallest and least in the largest arterioles. Eight male Sprague Dawley rats (age 7-9 weeks; mass, mean ± SD: 258 ± 41 g) were anesthetized and the gluteus maximus dissected in situ for intravital microscopy analysis of arteriolar diameter of the vascular network...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Leonie Grube, Rafael Dellen, Fabian Kruse, Holger Schwender, Kai Stuehler, Gereon Poschmann
Secretome analysis faces several challenges, including detection of low abundant proteins and the discrimination of bona fide secreted proteins from false-positive identifications stemming from cell leakage or serum. Here, we developed a two-step secretomics approach and applied it to the analysis of secreted proteins of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells since the skeletal muscle has been identified as an important endocrine organ secreting myokines as signaling molecules. First, we compared culture supernatants with corresponding cell lysates by mass spectrometry-based proteomics and label-free quantification...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Martin Whitham, Benjamin L Parker, Martin Friedrichsen, Janne R Hingst, Marit Hjorth, William E Hughes, Casey L Egan, Lena Cron, Kevin I Watt, Rhiannon P Kuchel, Navind Jayasooriah, Emma Estevez, Tim Petzold, Catherine M Suter, Paul Gregorevic, Bente Kiens, Erik A Richter, David E James, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Mark A Febbraio
Exercise stimulates the release of molecules into the circulation, supporting the concept that inter-tissue signaling proteins are important mediators of adaptations to exercise. Recognizing that many circulating proteins are packaged in extracellular vesicles (EVs), we employed quantitative proteomic techniques to characterize the exercise-induced secretion of EV-contained proteins. Following a 1-hr bout of cycling exercise in healthy humans, we observed an increase in the circulation of over 300 proteins, with a notable enrichment of several classes of proteins that compose exosomes and small vesicles...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
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