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Yaeko Fukushima, Satoshi Kurose, Hiromi Shinno, Ha Cao Thi Thu, Nana Takao, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Takaaki Hasegawa, Toshiaki Nakajima, Yutaka Kimura
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. METHODS: The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m(2)) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Fengna Li, Yinghui Li, Yehui Duan, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Tang, Yulong Yin
Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the two largest organs in the body. Skeletal muscle is an effector organ, and adipose tissue is an organ that stores energy; in addition, they are endocrine organs that secrete cytokines, namely myokines and adipokines, respectively. Myokines consist of myostatin, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-15, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and myonectin; adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, and visfatin. Furthermore, certain cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, are released by both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and exhibit a bioactive effect; thus, they are called adipo-myokines...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Shantaé M Thornton, James E Krolopp, Marcia J Abbott
Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed "myokines," has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPARα and/or PPARδ as targets of IL-15 signaling...
2016: PPAR Research
Yanli Li, Xueqin Li, Dejun Sun, Shaoxi Cai
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Irisin, a recently discovered myokine, protects the mice from obesity. This study aims to determine the association of serum irisin concentrations with the presence and severity of OSAS. METHODS: This cross-sectional investigation was performed in 165 male OSAS patients and 98 healthy male subjects. Serum irisin concentrations were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Sven Briken, Sina Cathérine Rosenkranz, Oliver Keminer, Stefan Patra, Gesche Ketels, Christoph Heesen, Rainer Hellweg, Ole Pless, Karl-Heinz Schulz, Stefan M Gold
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have suggested beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive function in ageing adults and neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. Recent work indicates the same for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The biological pathways associated with these effects are however not well understood. OBJECTIVE: In this randomized controlled study, we explored serum levels of the myokine Irisin, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) during acute endurance exercise and over the course of a 9-weeks endurance exercise training period in n=42 patients with progressive MS...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
AIMS: Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets...
September 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
J M Oliver, S C Jenke, J D Mata, A Kreutzer, M T Jones
This study compared the acute cytokine response, and kinetic and kinematic profile following back squat exercise in resistance-trained men. In a randomized, cross-over design, 10 resistance-trained men (27±4 y, 1.80±0.07 m, 82.8±6.7 kg, 16.3±3.5% fat) performed the back squat exercise using traditional and cluster set configurations. Kinetic and kinematic data were sampled throughout each condition. Venous blood was sampled prior, immediately post, 30 min, 60 min, 24 h, and 48 h post-exercise for plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-15 (IL-15)...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Yuzhu Zhang, Haibo Song, Yuan Zhang, Fei Wu, Qian Mu, Miao Jiang, Fang Wang, Wen Zhang, Liang Li, Lei Shao, Shiwu Li, Lijun Yang, Mingxiang Zhang, Qi Wu, Dongqi Tang
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a newly discovered myokine that has been considered a promising candidate for the treatment of cardiovascular disease through improving endothelial function. However, little is known about the role of irisin in the progression of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a carotid partial ligation model of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet to test the anti-atherosclerosis effect of irisin. Irisin treatment significantly suppressed carotid neointima formation...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Xiaoxi Zhu, Melanie Kny, Franziska Schmidt, Alexander Hahn, Tobias Wollersheim, Christian Kleber, Steffen Weber-Carstens, Jens Fielitz
OBJECTIVE: In sepsis, the disease course of critically ill patients is often complicated by muscle failure leading to ICU-acquired weakness. The myokine transforming growth factor-β1 increases during inflammation and mediates muscle atrophy in vivo. We observed that the transforming growth factor-β1 inhibitor, secreted frizzled-related protein 2, was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of ICU-acquired weakness patients. We hypothesized that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 reduction enhances transforming growth factor-β1-mediated effects and investigated the interrelationship between transforming growth factor-β1 and secreted frizzled-related protein 2 in inflammation-induced atrophy...
September 21, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
K Witek, P Żurek, P Zmijewski, J Jaworska, P Lipińska, A Dzedzej-Gmiat, J Antosiewicz, E Ziemann
The study investigated changes in myokines, heat shock proteins, and growth factors in highly ranked, young, male tennis players in response to physical workload during the competitive season and their potential correlations with match scores. Blood collections were carried out at the beginning, the midpoint, and the end of the tournament season. Data analysis revealed a significant increase in interleukin 6 and its inverse correlation with the number of lost games (r = -0.45; 90% CI -0.06 to 0.77). Neither the irisin nor BDNF level changed notably, yet delta changes of irisin across the season significantly correlated with the number of games won...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hélio José Coelho Junior, Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi, Tiego Aparecido Diniz, Isabela Maia da Cruz Fernandes, Érico Chagas Caperuto, Marco Carlos Uchida, Fabio Santos Lira, Bruno Rodrigues
Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
M Belviranli, N Okudan, F Çelik
Irisin is a myokine/adipokine with potential role in obesity and diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to assess irisin levels and its association with insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers in premenopausal normal-weight and obese women. Ten obese (mean body mass index, 32.65±3.04 kg m(-2)) and 10 normal-weight (23.00±2.23 kg m(-2)) premenopausal women were involved in the present study. Anthropometric, and body composition parameters, blood chemistry, oxidative stress markers, and irisin concentrations of different groups were measured...
September 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Ge Meng, Hongmei Wu, Liyun Fang, Chunlei Li, Fei Yu, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Huanmin Du, Hongbin Shi, Yang Xia, Xiaoyan Guo, Xing Liu, Xue Bao, Qian Su, Yeqing Gu, Huijun Yang, Bin Yu, Yuntang Wu, Zhong Sun, Kaijun Niu
Enhanced muscle strength is often related to improved insulin sensitivity and secretion, control of lipid metabolism, and increased secretion of myokines. These factors have emerged as important mechanisms involved in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), implying that muscle strength may be a useful predictor for NAFLD. We aimed to assess the relationship between grip strength (GS) and NAFLD in a large-scale adult population. GS was assessed using an electronic hand-grip dynamometer, and NAFLD was diagnosed by the liver ultrasonography...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martin Whitham, Mark A Febbraio
Exercise reduces the risk of a multitude of disorders, from metabolic disease to cancer, but the molecular mechanisms mediating the protective effects of exercise are not completely understood. The realization that skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ capable of secreting proteins termed 'myokines', which participate in tissue crosstalk, provided a critical link in the exercise-health paradigm. However, the myokine field is still emerging, and several challenges remain in the discovery and validation of myokines...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Agnieszka Adamska, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Lebkowska, Robert Milewski, Maria Górska, Elzbieta Otziomek, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Slawomir Wolczynski, Irina Kowalska
Irisin is an adipokine/myokine which could be connected with insulin sensitivity. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by oligo- or anovulation, polycystic ovary, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum irisin concentration and insulin sensitivity (Mffm) as well as the effect of insulin infusion on circulating irisin levels in PCOS women as compared with healthy controls. Seventy seven women were enrolled in the study - 57 with PCOS and 20 healthy controls matched for BMI and age...
September 8, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Chiara Di Nisio, Rugia Shohreh, Fabio Manippa, Adriana Ricciuti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti
Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physical exercise and energetic homeostasis. The co-localization of irisin with neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic sections of paraventricular nucleus, which receives NPY/AgRP projections from the arcuate nucleus, suggests a possible role of irisin in the central regulation of energy balance. In this context, in the present work we studied the effects of intra-hypothalamic irisin (1μl, 50-200nmol/l) administration on feeding and orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Leonid V Kapilevich, Tatyana A Kironenko, Anna N Zaharova, Yuri V Kotelevtsev, Nickolai O Dulin, Sergei N Orlov
During the last two decades numerous research teams demonstrated that skeletal muscles function as an exercise-dependent endocrine organ secreting dozens of myokines. Variety of physiological and pathophysiological implications of skeletal muscle myokines secretion has been described; however, upstream signals and sensing mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. It is well documented that in skeletal muscles intensive exercise triggers dissipation of transmembrane gradient of monovalent cations caused by permanent activation of voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels...
December 2015: Genes & Diseases
Noriyuki Ouchi, Koji Ohashi, Rei Shibata, Toyoaki Murohara
Obesity is a major risk factor for progression of cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ producing various secretory molecules, also known as adipocytokines, and dysregulated production of adipocytokines participates in the pathogenesis of obesity complications, including metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders. Recent evidence indicates that skeletal muscle also functions as an endocrine organ capable of secreting a number of bioactive substances, also referred to as myokines...
September 23, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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