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Abusive head trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220065/clinical-profile-of-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-puerto-rico
#1
Joashlie M Méndez-Ruiz, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Yeira M Valdez-Pimentel, Miguel Torres-Narváez, Marianette Colón-Laboy, Gisela G Jiménez-Colón, José Rodríguez-Gómez, Christian J González-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Specialized epilepsy clinics receive many cases (20%-30% of total cases) in which the patients are diagnosed with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). In Puerto Rico, there has been a lack of research on and data about patients with PNES. This study examined the clinical profile of 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNES. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 34 clinical records of patients with PNES was conducted. The resulting profile was based on clinical interviews, the behavioral presentation of seizures, the history of traumatic experiences or abuse, and the relationship between PNES events and life stressors...
December 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208736/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-deficits-in-developing-mice-following-rotational-acceleration-deceleration-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Guoxiang Wang, Yi Ping Zhang, Zhongwen Gao, Lisa B E Shields, Fang Li, Tianci Chu, Huayi Lv, Thomas Moriarty, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80, and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Under 60 times of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173457/blast-injury-prevalence-in-skeletal-remains-are-there-differences-between-bosnian-war-samples-and-documented-combat-related-deaths
#3
Marie Christine Dussault, Ian Hanson, Martin J Smith
Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160091/probabilistic-description-of-infant-head-kinematics-in-abusive-head-trauma
#4
T O Lintern, M P Nash, P Kelly, F H Bloomfield, A J Taberner, P M F Nielsen
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse, but the mechanisms by which injury occur are often unclear. To investigate the contention that shaking alone can elicit the injuries observed, effective computational models are necessary. The aim of this study was to develop a probabilistic model describing infant head kinematics in AHT. A deterministic model incorporating an infant's mechanical properties, subjected to different shaking motions, was developed in OpenSim. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to simulate the range of infant kinematics produced as a result of varying both the mechanical properties and the type of shaking motions...
November 21, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105967/national-study-shows-that-abusive-head-trauma-mortality-in-sweden-was-at-least-10-times-lower-than-in-other-western-countries
#5
Jacob Andersson, Ingemar Thiblin
AIM: The validity of the diagnostic criteria for abusive head trauma (AHT) and its attributes have been widely debated. This national study investigated the possibility of false positive and false negative cases of fatal AHT in Sweden. METHOD: This was a retrospective evaluation of the records of 733 deceased infants up to the age of 365 days who were examined during 1994-2013 at the six forensic medicine departments. All the records were scrutinised for possible cases of AHT...
November 6, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084406/a-retrospective-study-of-cervical-spine-mri-findings-in-children-with-abusive-head-trauma
#6
Lance S Governale, Farah W Brink, Charles P Pluto, Victoria A Schunemann, Rachel Weber, Jerome Rusin, Beth A Fischer, Megan M Letson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing attention has been given to the possible association of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries with abusive head trauma (AHT). The aims of this study were to describe c-spine MRI findings in hospitalized AHT patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children under the age of 5 years with AHT admitted to hospital in 2004-2013. Those with c-spine MRI were identified, and the images were reviewed. RESULTS: 250 AHT cases were identified, with 34 (14%) undergoing c-spine MRI...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077582/neuroimaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#7
Philip Sparks, Tim Lawrence, Stephan Hinze
OBJECTIVE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repeated subconcussive and concussive head injury. Clinical features include cognitive, behavioral, mood, and motor impairments. Definitive diagnosis is only possible at postmortem. Here, the utility of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of CTE is evaluated by systematically reviewing recent evidence for changes in neuroimaging biomarkers in suspected cases of CTE compared with controls. DATA SOURCES: Providing an update on a previous systematic review of articles published until December 2014, we searched for articles published between December 2014 and July 2016...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075919/a-systematic-autopsy-survey-of-human-infant-bridging-veins
#8
Emma C Cheshire, Roger D G Malcomson, Peng Sun, Evgeny M Mirkes, Jasmin M Amoroso, Guy N Rutty
In the first years of life, subdural haemorrhage (SDH) within the cranial cavity can occur through accidental and non-accidental mechanisms as well as from birth-related injury. This type of bleeding is the most common finding in victims of abusive head trauma (AHT). Historically, the most frequent cause of SDHs in infancy is suggested to be traumatic damage to bridging veins traversing from the brain to the dural membrane. However, several alternative hypotheses have been suggested for the cause and origin of subdural bleeding...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956988/recognition-and-nursing-management-of-abusive-head-trauma-in-children
#9
Francesca Louise Payne, Daphin Nazareth Fernandez, Lucy Jenner, Siba Prosad Paul
Abusive head trauma (AHT) describes an injury to the head caused by a deliberate impact or shaking by a parent or carer. It can cause significant morbidity and mortality in infants, and is most commonly seen in those aged under 2 years. The initial presentation of AHT can include vague symptoms and the correct diagnosis may be missed by health professionals. Subdural haematoma, brain oedema and retinal haemorrhages are well-known features associated with AHT. However, other conditions such as birth trauma, accidental falls in infants and bleeding disorders can all mimic AHT, thus making its recognition difficult...
September 28, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939637/retinal-haemorrhage-in-infants-with-pertussis
#10
Naz Raoof, Susana Pereira, Shuan Dai, Jocelyn Neutze, Cameron Charles Grant, Patrick Kelly
AIMS: It has been hypothesised that paroxysmal coughing in infantile pertussis (whooping cough) could produce retinal haemorrhages identical to those seen in abusive head trauma. We aimed to test this hypothesis. METHODS: This is a prospective study of infants hospitalised with pertussis in Auckland, New Zealand, from 2009 to 2014. The clinical severity of pertussis was categorised. All infants recruited had retinal examination through dilated pupils by the paediatric ophthalmology service using an indirect ophthalmoscope...
December 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923026/dementia-and-cognitive-disorder-identified-at-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination-a-study-from-sweden
#11
Anette Ekström, Marianne Kristiansson, Karin Sparring Björkstén
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. METHODS: In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine...
September 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885391/abusive-injuries-are-worse-than-vehicular-injuries-should-we-refocus-prevention
#12
Brian D Robertson, Marisa Abbe, Jamie Pelletier, Halim Hennes
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the injury severity and outcome of motor vehicle and nonaccidental traumatic injuries and examine trends in mortality rates over time. METHODS: We reviewed data from 2005 to 2013 from a level 1 pediatric trauma center including demographics, injury severity, and outcomes. Primary outcomes of interest were mortality rates and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: Injury severity scores were significantly worse for nonaccidental traumas (NATs) (P < 0...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833451/infantile-retinal-haemorrhages-in-the-absence-of-brain-and-bodily-injury
#13
Joseph Scheller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691669/spontaneous-chronic-subdural-hematoma-in-young-adult-the-role-of-missing-coagulation-facto
#14
M Dobran, M Iacoangeli, A R Scortichini, F Mancini, R Benigni, D Nasi, M Gladi, M Scerrati
AIM: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is typically in elderly and rarely in young people. To prevent complications and re-bleeding after surgical treatment of CSDH it is important to assess the risk factors as coagulation disorders especially in young patients (below 65 years) with no history of head trauma, alcohol abuse or anticoagulant therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of 16 patients (12 males, 4 females) with age ranging from 27 to 59 years (median 48,25 years) operated for CSDH...
March 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685899/prevention-and-recognition-of-abusive-head-trauma-training-for-healthcare-professionals-in-vietnam
#15
Jennifer A Fraser, Tara Flemington, Thi Ngoc Diep Doan, Minh Tu Van Hoang, Thi Le Binh Doan, Manh Tuan Ha
AIM: This study presents results from an intervention designed to improve identification and response to abusive head trauma in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Vietnam. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen healthcare professionals (paediatric medical and nursing staff) completed a clinical training programme and participated in its evaluation. A pre-post-test and follow-up design was used to evaluate the outcomes. Questionnaires were used to collect data prior to training, at six weeks and at six months...
October 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685210/lifetime-cost-of-abusive-head-trauma-at-ages-0-4-usa
#16
Ted R Miller, Ryan Steinbeigle, Bruce A Lawrence, Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Marilyn Barr, Ronald G Barr
This paper aims to estimate lifetime costs resulting from abusive head trauma (AHT) in the USA and the break-even effectiveness for prevention. A mathematical model incorporated data from Vital Statistics, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, and previous studies. Unit costs were derived from published sources. From society's perspective, discounted lifetime cost of an AHT averages $5.7 million (95% CI $3.2-9.2 million) for a death. It averages $2.6 million (95% CI $1.0-2.9 million) for a surviving AHT victim including $224,500 for medical care and related direct costs (2010 USD)...
July 6, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665243/editorial-screening-for-spine-injury-in-abusive-head-trauma
#17
Cormac O Maher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665242/changes-in-use-of-cervical-spine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-pediatric-patients-with-nonaccidental-trauma
#18
Ahyuda Oh, Michael Sawvel, David Heaner, Amina Bhatia, Andrew Reisner, R Shane Tubbs, Joshua J Chern
OBJECTIVE Past studies have suggested correlations between abusive head trauma and concurrent cervical spine (c-spine) injury. Accordingly, c-spine MRI (cMRI) has been increasingly used in radiographic assessments. This study aimed to determine trends in cMRI use and treatment, and outcomes related to c-spine injury in children with nonaccidental trauma (NAT). METHODS A total of 503 patients with NAT who were treated between 2009 and 2014 at a single pediatric health care system were identified from a prospectively maintained database...
September 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609181/effect-of-the-earned-income-tax-credit-on-hospital-admissions-for-pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-1995-2013
#19
Joanne Klevens, Brian Schmidt, Feijun Luo, Likang Xu, Katie A Ports, Rosalyn D Lee
OBJECTIVES: Policies that increase household income, such as the earned income tax credit (EITC), have shown reductions on risk factors for child maltreatment (ie, poverty, maternal stress, depression), but evidence is lacking on whether the EITC actually reduces child maltreatment. We examined whether states' EITCs are associated with state rates of hospital admissions for abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years. METHODS: We conducted difference-in-difference analyses (ie, pre- and postdifferences in intervention vs control groups) of annual rates of states' hospital admissions attributed to abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years (ie, using aggregate data)...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605024/a-unique-type-of-birth-trauma-mistaken-for-abuse
#20
Carolyn V Isaac, Jered B Cornelison, Rudolph J Castellani, Joyce L deJong
Pediatric abusive head trauma is a challenging subject across many disciplines. Of particular importance is the identification of mimics of abuse, so cause and manner of death can be properly assigned. We present the case of suspected child abuse involving an infant who presented unresponsive to the hospital with hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and bilateral parietal fractures. An autopsy revealed fractures associated with organizing scalp hemorrhage and gross leptomeningeal congestion and hemorrhage. The fractures were circular with external displacement, rounded margins, and subperiosteal new bone formation indicative of healing...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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