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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731614/economic-injury-levels-and-economic-thresholds-for-leptoglossus-zonatus-dallas-hemiptera-coreidae-infesting-seed-maize
#1
Josemar Foresti, Cristina S Bastos, Flávio L Fernandes, Paulo R da Silva
BACKGROUND: Although Leptoglossus zonatus is considered a secondary pest of maize grown for grain, when grown for seed, this pest can cause significant economic damage. There are no records of management recommendations for this pest. The objectives of this work were to quantify losses caused by L. zonatus to different genotypes used for seed maize production and to estimate the acute toxicity of select insecticides to L. zonatus using different application technologies. The ultimate goal was to calculate economic injury levels (EILs) and develop economic thresholds (ETs) for L...
July 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730342/transcriptome-analysis-of-three-cotton-pests-reveals-features-of-gene-expressions-in-the-mesophyll-feeder-apolygus-lucorum
#2
Dianyang Chen, Fangyan Chen, Chunyu Chen, Xiaoya Chen, Yingbo Mao
The green mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an agricultural pest that is known to cause damage to more than 150 plant species. Here, we report the transcriptomes of A. lucorum at three different developmental stages (the second and fifth instar nymphs and adults). A total of 98,236 unigenes with an average length of 1,335 nt was obtained, of which 50,640 were annotated, including those encoding digestive enzymes and cytochrome P450s. Comparisons with cotton bollworm and cotton aphid transcriptomes revealed distinct features of A...
July 18, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729614/knockdown-of-two-cadherin-genes-confers-resistance-to-cry2a-and-cry1c-in-chilo-suppressalis
#3
Zan Zhang, Xiaolu Teng, Weihua Ma, Fei Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins play an important role in the management of insect pests. Resistance to Bt toxins has been reported in many pest insects but the mechanism responsible for this resistance in rice crop pests remains largely unknown. Cadherin is one of several Bt toxin receptors. At present, only one cadherin gene, CsCAD1, has been documented in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. We amplified a nearly full-length transcript of another C. suppressalis cadherin gene, CsCAD2, and found that it has a different expression pattern to CsCAD1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727420/bio-inspired-development-of-p-st-maa-avermectins-nanoparticles-with-high-affinity-for-foliage-to-enhance-folia-retention
#4
Jie Liang, Manli Yu, Liya Guo, Bo Cui, Xiang Zhao, Changjiao Sun, Yan Wang, Guoqiang Liu, Haixin Cui, Zhanghua Zeng
Pesticides are chemical or biological substances to control pests and protect crop yield. Most pesticides suffering from large amounts of losses in the environment, lead to damage of ecological systems and food pollution. To reduce their losses and increase utilization rate, we have developed a bio-inspired by mussel avermectins nanoparticles (P(St-MAA)-Av-Cat) with strong adhesion to crop foliage by emulsion-solvent evaporation method and chemical modification. They were near spheres sharpness with a diameter around 120 nm...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725368/prospects-of-herbivore-egg-killing-plant-defenses-for-sustainable-crop-protection
#5
REVIEW
Nina E Fatouros, Antonino Cusumano, Etienne G J Danchin, Stefano Colazza
Due to a growing demand of food production worldwide, new strategies are suggested to allow for sustainable production of food with minimal effects on natural resources. A promising alternative to the application of chemical pesticides is the implementation of crops resistant to insect pests. Plants produce compounds that are harmful to a wide range of attackers, including insect pests; thus, exploitation of their natural defense system can be the key for the development of pest-resistant crops. Interestingly, some plants possess a unique first line of defense that eliminates the enemy before it becomes destructive: egg-killing...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724083/identification-of-candidate-genes-responsible-for-stem-pith-production-using-expression-analysis-in-solid-stemmed-wheat
#6
A J Oiestad, J M Martin, J Cook, A C Varella, M J Giroux
The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) is an economically important pest of wheat in the Northern Great Plains. The primary means of WSS control is resistance associated with the single quantitative trait locus (QTL) , which controls most stem solidness variation. The goal of this study was to identify stem solidness candidate genes via RNA-seq. This study made use of 28 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) linked to contained within a 5.13 cM region. Allele specific expression of EST markers was examined in stem tissue for solid and hollow-stemmed pairs of two spring wheat near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the QTL...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721745/pesticide-genotoxicity-in-cotton-picking-women-in-pakistan-evaluated-using-comet-assay
#7
Tayyaba Ali, Muhammad Ismail, Farkhanda Asad, Asma Ashraf, Usman Waheed, Qaiser M Khan
To control agricultural pests and meet the increasing food demands, pesticides use has been increased substantially over time. Although pesticides are relatively specific to their targets, they can affect non-target organisms and are hazardous for the population around the application areas particularly to the individuals engaged in different types of agricultural activities. This situation is worse in developing and under-developed countries where personal protective equipment is merely used and regulatory guidelines are hardly practiced...
July 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721609/susceptibility-of-diaphorina-citri-hemiptera-liviidae-and-its-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-hymenoptera-eulophidae-to-entomopathogenic-fungi-under-laboratory-conditions
#8
K H Ibarra-Cortés, A W Guzmán-Franco, H González-Hernández, L D Ortega-Arenas, J A Villanueva-Jiménez, A Robles-Bermúdez
Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721608/a-new-light-trap-model-as-an-alternative-for-controlling-pests-in-eucalyptus-plantations
#9
R G Mafia, E B Loureiro, J B Silva, J A C Simões, T G Zarpelon, N S Bezerra Junior, M B Damacena
Eucalyptus plantations can be affected by species of defoliating caterpillars. The integrated management of this group primarily involves a monitoring system, natural enemies, and biological products. Alternative control methods, including the use of conventional light traps, have not been adopted, mostly because of their low efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient light trap model was developed. The new model allowed the capture of 3.6 times as many insects as the conventional model, with a 261% gain in control efficiency...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719016/insecticide-resistance-of-adults-and-nymphs-of-asian-citrus-psyllid-populations-from-apatzing%C3%A3-n-valley-mexico
#10
Saúl Pardo, Ana M Martínez, José I Figueroa, Juan M Chavarrieta, Elisa Viñuela, Ángel Rebollar-Alviter, Mario A Miranda, Javier Valle, Samuel Pineda
BACKGROUND: Control of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the most important pest of citrus worldwide, is based on the use of insecticides, though unsatisfactory results have recently been reported. In this study, insecticide resistance of D. citri to three insecticides (bifenthrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) was examined. RESULTS: Three populations (designed Dci-CParácuaro, Dci-El Junco, and Dci-Antúnez) of both adults and fourth-instar D. citri individuals were collected in 2014 at two and one different times, respectively, from three locations (Crucero de Parácuaro, El Junco, and Antúnez)...
July 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718835/do-refuge-plants-favour-natural-pest-control-in-maize-crops
#11
Reinaldo Quispe, Marina Mazón, Alexander Rodríguez-Berrío
The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests' natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies...
July 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717209/non-target-effects-on-soil-microbial-parameters-of-the-synthetic-pesticide-carbendazim-with-the-biopesticides-cantharidin-and-norcantharidin
#12
Hainan Shao, Yalin Zhang
Considering the fact that biopesticides are increasingly used to replace synthetic pesticides in pest control, it is necessary to assess their ecotoxicity and especially their non-target effects on soil microorganisms, which is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of the synthetic pesticide carbendazim and the biopesticides (cantharidin and norcantharidin) on soil microbial parameters in a silt loam soil were evaluated. By using commercial formulations at the recommended and higher rates, both cantharidin and norcantharidin induced adverse effects on soil invertase, phosphatase activities and fungal gene structure, but these changes were transient...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717048/rna-seq-of-rice-yellow-stem-borer-scirpophaga-incertulas-reveals-molecular-insights-during-four-larval-developmental-stages
#13
Renuka P, Maganti S Madhav, Padmakumari A P, Kalyani M Barbadikar, Sathendra K Mangrauthia, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao K, Soma S Marla, Ravindra Babu V
The yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas is a prominent pest in the rice cultivation causing serious yield losses. The larval stage is an important stage in YSB, responsible for maximum infestation. However, limited knowledge exists on biology and mechanisms underlying growth and differentiation of YSB. To understand and identify the genes involved in YSB development and infestation, so as to design pest control strategies, we performed de novo transcriptome at 1(st), 3(rd), 5(th) and 7(th) larval developmental stages employing Illumina Hi-seq...
July 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716194/vaccicost-a-tool-to-estimate-the-resource-requirements-for-implementing-livestock-vaccination-campaigns-application-to-peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-vaccination-in-senegal
#14
Damian Tago, Baba Sall, Renaud Lancelot, Jennifer Pradel
Vaccination is one of the main tools currently available to control animal diseases. In eradication campaigns, vaccination plays a crucial role by reducing the number of susceptible hosts with the ultimate goal of interrupting disease transmission. Nevertheless, mass vaccination campaigns may be very expensive and in some cases unprofitable. VacciCost is a tool designed to help decision-makers in the estimation of the resources required to implement mass livestock vaccination campaigns against regulated diseases...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716095/development-of-real-time-and-lateral-flow-dipstick-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assays-for-rapid-detection-of-goatpox-virus-and-sheeppox-virus
#15
Yang Yang, Xiaodong Qin, Xiangle Zhang, Zhixun Zhao, Wei Zhang, Xueliang Zhu, Guozheng Cong, Yanmin Li, Zhidong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Goatpox virus (GTPV) and sheeppox virus (SPPV), which belong to the Capripoxvirus (CaPV), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. Therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of GTPV and SPPV is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases. METHODS: Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays combined with a real-time fluorescent detection (real-time RPA assay) and lateral flow dipstick (RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting the CaPV G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene, respectively...
July 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714917/larvicidal-and-nematicidal-activities-of-3-acylbarbituric-acid-analogues-against-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-and-pine-wood-nematode-bursaphelenchus-xylophilus
#16
Seon-Mi Seo, Hyo-Rim Lee, Ji-Eun Lee, Yong-Chul Jeong, Hyung-Wook Kwon, Joon-Kwan Moon, Mark G Moloney, Il-Kwon Park
Widespread concern for the occurrence of resistant strains, along with the avoidance of the use of highly toxic insecticides and their wide environmental dispersal, highlights the need for the development of new and safer pest control agents. Natural products provide inspiration for new chemical entities with biological activities, and their analogues are good lead compounds for the development of new pest control agents. For this purpose, we evaluated the larvicidal and nematicidal activities of 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, organisms of increasing global concern...
July 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714258/renal-neuroendocrine-control-of-desiccation-and-cold-tolerance-by-drosophila-suzukii
#17
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph G C Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological, and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in D. suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with D. melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capa, Leucokinin, DH44 and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrate a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714131/evaluating-a-push-pull-strategy-for-management-of-drosophila-suzukii-matsumura-in-red-raspberry
#18
Anna K Wallingford, Dong H Cha, Gregory M Loeb
BACKGROUND: Drosophilia suzukii Matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits that lays its eggs in growing fruit. Current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. Alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under investigation, such as attract-and-kill and the use of oviposition deterrents. Here we evaluated two behavioral control approaches in combination as a push-pull strategy using laboratory and field assays...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714108/assessing-the-spatial-distribution-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-eggs-in-open-field-tomato-cultivation-through-geostatistical-analysis
#19
Júlio C Martins, Marcelo C Picanço, Ricardo S Silva, Alfredo H R Gonring, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Raul N C Guedes
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting the pests' damages. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest in tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712711/specificity-and-putative-mode-of-action-of-a-mosquito-larvicidal-toxin-from-the-bacterium-xenorhabdus-innexi
#20
Il-Hwan Kim, Jerald Ensign, Do-Young Kim, Hoe-Yune Jung, Na-Ri Kim, Bo-Hwa Choi, Sun-Min Park, Que Lan, Walter G Goodman
Reduction of mosquito-borne diseases relies, in part, on the use of synthetic pesticides to control pest mosquitoes. This reliance has led to genetic resistance, environmental contamination and the nondiscriminatory elimination of both pest and non-pest species. To expand our options for control, we screened entomopathogenic bacteria for potential larvicidal activity. A lipopeptide from the bacterium, Xenorhabdus innexi, was discovered that displayed potent larvicidal activity. The LC50s of the lipopeptide towards Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae were 1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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