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Pest control

Vanessa Bezerra De Menezes Oliveira, Miriam De Oliveira Bianchi, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espíndola
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural fields to control plant diseases, weeds and pests, however, the unforeseeable consequences of releasing these compounds into the soil and their effects on terrestrial invertebrates are a matter of grave concern. The aim of this study was to determine the direct impact of two pesticides, KRAFT® 36 EC (an insecticide; a.i abamectin) and SCORE® (a fungicide; a.i. difenoconazole), on non-target terrestrial invertebrates. Ecotoxicological tests were performed to evaluate the chronic and acute toxicity of these compounds to a potworm (Enchytraeus crypticus), a collembolan (Folsomia candida) and a mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer)...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Showkat Ahmad Lone, Abdul Malik, Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria
Vegetative insecticidal proteins represent the second generation of insecticidal trans-genes that will complement the delta endotoxins in future. A new vip3A gene was cloned from the promising native isolate, Bacillus thuringiensis JK37 obtained from the soils of maize field. The entire coding sequence of the gene (2370 bp) was amplified and cloned into pET28a(+) expression vector. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that deduced amino acid sequence had a variation of several amino acid residues compared to those of known Vip3A proteins and this gene was designated as vip3Aa61 by the B...
December 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Alejandro Tena, Eliana Nieves, Julieta Herrero, Alberto Urbaneja
Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that has become a citrus pest in Europe. This mealybug species causes serious damage because it deforms the fruits. Here, we studied the defensive behavior of D. aberiae when it was attacked by three parasitoid species: Acerophagus angustifrons (Gahan), Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci (Girault), and Leptomastix algirica Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci and L. algirica detected and accepted nymphs and adult females of D...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Stefano Pasquini, Marie Odile Haxaire-Lutun, Jean-Luc Rison, Wilbert G Flier, Luis A Teixeira
The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is regarded as the most important insect pest of wine grapes in Europe. If not properly controlled, it can cause significant direct and indirect yield losses due to secondary infections of grape berries by Botrytis cinerea. For these reasons, it is important to preserve the activity of insecticides used against this pest, as the number of insecticidal mode of actions available to control Lepidoptera species on wine grapes in Europe is limited...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
F Shang, J-Z Niu, B-Y Ding, Q Zhang, C Ye, W Zhang, G Smagghe, J-J Wang
Vitellogenin (Vg) and its receptor (VgR) play a key role in the reproductive process and development of insects. Aphids are a group of high-fecundity insect species with pseudoplacental viviparity, but the roles of their Vg and VgR genes have not been investigated yet. The brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus, is a major insect pest of citrus and the main vector of Citrus tristeza closterovirus. In this study, we identified and characterized these two genes, designated as AcVg and AcVgR, from the brown citrus aphid...
December 11, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Govindasamy Senthilraja, Theerthagiri Anand, Subbarayalu Mohankumar, Thiruvengadam Raguchander, Ramasamy Samiyappan
Beauveria bassiana is a broad spectrum microbial bioagent used for the control of agriculturally important insect pests. However, in our experiments, two virulent isolates of B. bassiana (B2 and B10) showed specific preference toward Maruca vitrata and Helicoverpa armigera of pigeonpea. To better understand this feature, we developed a qPCR assay to quantify the chitinase (virulence factor) of B. bassiana during the infection process. Isolates of B. bassiana were grown on insect cuticle amended medium and minimal medium (without insect cuticle) to assess the induction of chitinase...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
G W Low, B Chattopadhyay, K M Garg, M Irestedt, Pgp Ericson, G Yap, Q Tang, S Wu, F E Rheindt
Invasive species exert a serious impact on native fauna and flora and have been the target of many eradication and management efforts worldwide. However, a lack of data on population structure and history, exacerbated by the recency of many species introductions, limits the efficiency with which such species can be kept at bay. In this study we generated a novel genome of high assembly quality and genotyped 4735 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from 78 individuals of an invasive population of the Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus across the island of Singapore...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
Rika Iwai, Chunguang Han, Sudhakar V S Govindam, Makoto Ojika
Vegetable juices, typical culture media for the plant pathogen Phytophthora, effectively induce its asexual reproduction (zoosporangia formation). However, some chromatographic fractions from a vegetable juice were found to inhibit the asexual reproduction. Bioassay-guided chromatographic steps led to the isolation of four novel compounds named lycosides A-D, 1-4, that could be metabolic products from a carotenoid. They showed 50% inhibitory activity against the asexual reproduction of P. capsici at 2.1 - 7...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Stephen W C Chung
Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest-control in crops, especially the fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
V H Beloti, G R Alves, R A Moral, C G B Demétrio, P T Yamamoto
One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system...
December 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
Gus R McFarlane, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Simon G Lillico
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based gene drives (GDs) could be used to spread desirable genetic elements through wild populations. With the imminent development of this technology in vertebrates, we believe that it is timely to highlight two forms of sex-ratio distorting GDs that show potential as pest management tools.
November 9, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
Hoi-Sen Yong, Sze-Looi Song, Phaik-Eem Lim, Praphathip Eamsobhana
The tephritid fruit fly Zeugodacus tau (Walker) is a polyphagous fruit pest of economic importance in Asia. Studies based on genetic markers indicate that it forms a species complex. We report here (1) the complete mitogenome of Z. tau from Malaysia and comparison with that of China as well as the mitogenome of other congeners, and (2) the relationship of Z. tau taxa from different geographical regions based on sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The complete mitogenome of Z. tau had a total length of 15631 bp for the Malaysian specimen (ZT3) and 15835 bp for the China specimen (ZT1), with similar gene order comprising 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes-PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and a non-coding A + T-rich control region (D-loop)...
2017: PloS One
Anhui Chen, Yulong Wang, Ying Shao, Qiumei Zhou, Shanglong Chen, Yonghua Wu, Hongwei Chen, Enqi Liu
The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a natural pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. Many genes involved in fungal insecticide infection have been identified but few have been further explored. In this study, we constructed three transcriptomes of B. bassiana at 24, 48 and 72 h post infection of insect pests (BbI) or control (BbC). There were 3148, 3613 and 4922 genes differentially expressed at 24, 48 and 72 h post BbI/BbC infection, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Xin Liu, Gong Chen, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang
The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most invasive pest species worldwide. Q and B biotypes are the two most devastating species within the B. tabaci complex. Bemisia tabaci can vector hundreds of plant viruses that seriously threaten crop production. Endoparasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, is widely used to control whiteflies, however, little is known about the effects of virus-infected plants on E. formosa parasitism of B. tabaci. Here, we reported that tomato, which was infected with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), altered the host selection of E...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Evelyn Saba, Tahir Shafeeq, Muhammad Irfan, Yuan Yee Lee, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Myung Gi Seo, Sang-Joon Park, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee, Man Hee Rhee
Pest control in the agricultural fields, a major concern globally, is currently achieved through chemical or biological methods. Chemical methods, which leave toxic residue in the produce, are less preferred than biological methods. Venoms injected by stings of various wasps that kill the pest is considered as the examples of the biological method. Although several studies have investigated the biological control of pests through these venoms, very few studies have reported the effects of these venoms on mammalian cells...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Indrakant K Singh, Satnam Singh, Kanakachari Mogilicherla, Jayendra Nath Shukla, Subba Reddy Palli
RNA interference (RNAi) based methods are being developed for pest management. A few products for control of coleopteran pests are expected to be commercialized soon. However, variability in RNAi efficiency among insects is preventing the widespread use of this technology. In this study, we conducted research to identify reasons for variability in RNAi efficiency among thirty-seven (37) insects belonging to five orders. Studies on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) degradation by dsRNases and processing of labeled dsRNA to siRNA showed that both dsRNA degradation and processing are variable among insects belonging to different orders as well as among different insect species within the same order...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Grace A Hoysted, Catherine J Lilley, Katie J Field, Michael Dickinson, Sue E Hartley, Peter E Urwin
Plants suffer multiple, simultaneous assaults from above and below ground. In the laboratory, pests and/or pathogen attack are commonly studied on an individual basis. The molecular response of the plant to attack from multiple organisms and the interaction of different defense pathways is unclear. The inducible systemic responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) host plant were analyzed to characterize the plant-mediated indirect interactions between a sedentary, endoparasitic nematode (Globodera pallida), and a phloem-sucking herbivore (Myzus persicae)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michael S Crossley, Shawn A Steffan, David J Voegtlin, Krista L Hamilton, David B Hogg
Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L...
December 5, 2017: Insects
Cts Silva, V Wanderley-Teixeira, F M Cunha, J V Oliveira, K A Dutra, Dma Ferraz Navarro, Aac Teixeira
The armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the principal pest of corn in Brazil. Control is achieved primarily by synthetic insecticides, which cause problems for the agro-ecosystem. Alternative methods of control are under investigation and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil appears to be a promising agent. We investigated the effects of citronella oil using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The midgut of larvae treated with citronella exhibited altered epithelium including cytoplasmic protrusions, columnar cell extrusion, pyknotic nuclei, and increased periodic acid-Schiff positive granules...
December 5, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Michael Darrington, Tamas Dalmay, Neil I Morrison, Tracey Chapman
We review RNA interference (RNAi) of insect pests and its potential for implementing sterile insect technique (SIT)-related control. The molecular mechanisms that support RNAi in pest species are reviewed in detail, drawing on literature from a range of species including Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and Homo sapiens L. The underlying genes that enable RNAi are generally conserved across taxa, although variance exists in both their form and function. RNAi represents a plausible, non-GM system for targeting populations of insects for control purposes, if RNAi effector molecules can be delivered environmentally (eRNAi)...
September 2017: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
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