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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100213/transcriptomic-response-of-wolf-spider-pardosa-pseudoannulata-to-transgenic-rice-expressing-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-protein
#1
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Kaifu Xiao, Baoyang Wei, Jilin Hu, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song, Xuguo Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides. Non-target organisms can be exposed to Bt toxins through direct feeding or trophic interactions in the field. The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, one of the dominant predators in South China, plays a crucial role in the rice agroecosystem. In this study, we investigated transcriptome responses of the 5th instar spiders fed on preys maintained on Bt- and non-Bt rice...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099087/effects-of-biochar-on-the-emissions-soil-distribution-and-nematode-control-of-1-3-dichloropropene
#2
Daniel J Ashworth, Scott R Yates, Guoqing Shen
Emissions of volatile soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) from soil to air are a significant concern in relation to air quality, and cost-effective strategies to reduce such emissions are urgently required by growers to help them comply with increasingly stringent regulations. In this work, application of a rice husk-derived biochar to the surface of a sandy loam soil chamber reduced soil-air emissions of 1,3-D from 42% in a control (no biochar) to 8% due to adsorption onto the biochar. This adsorbed 1,3-D showed a potential for re-volatilization into air and solubilization into the soil-liquid phase...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098183/seasonal-and-regional-presence-of-hymenopteran-parasitoids-of-drosophila-in-switzerland-and-their-ability-to-parasitize-the-invasive-drosophila-suzukii
#3
Valery Knoll, Thomas Ellenbroek, Jörg Romeis, Jana Collatz
Since its introduction into Europe the invasive Drosophila suzukii has established and spread widely, thereby entering habitats populated by native Drosophila species and their natural enemies. The highly prolific D. suzukii will likely interact with these species as a competitor, host or prey. To investigate potential interactions of D. suzukii with parasitoids, a field survey was conducted across several fruit-growing regions in Switzerland in two consecutive years. Eight species of hymenopteran parasitoids were collected using D...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098179/a-salivary-ef-hand-calcium-binding-protein-of-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-functions-as-an-effector-for-defense-responses-in-rice
#4
Wenfeng Ye, Haixin Yu, Yukun Jian, Jiamei Zeng, Rui Ji, Hongdan Chen, Yonggen Lou
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice by BPH nymphs whose NlSEF1 was knocked down elicited higher levels of Ca(2+) and H2O2 but not jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and SA in rice than did infestation by control nymphs; Consistently, wounding plus the recombination protein NlSEF1 suppressed the production of H2O2 in rice...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097417/bistability-induced-by-generalist-natural-enemies-can-reverse-pest-invasions
#5
Sten Madec, Jérôme Casas, Guy Barles, Christelle Suppo
Analytical modeling of predator-prey systems has shown that specialist natural enemies can slow, stop and even reverse pest invasions, assuming that the prey population displays a strong Allee effect in its growth. We aimed to formalize the conditions in which spatial biological control can be achieved by generalists, through an analytical approach based on reaction-diffusion equations. Using comparison principles, we obtain sufficient conditions for control and for invasion, based on scalar bistable partial differential equations...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094903/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-insecticidal-coatings-based-on-teflutrin-and-chlorpyrifos-against-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus
#6
Massimo Pugliese, Alberto Rettori Andrea, Roberto Martinis, Khalid Al-Rohily, Velate Suresh, Moideen Mohamed Ashraf, Ali Al-Maashi
BACKGROUND: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important economic resource for many nations worldwide, recently threatened by the presence of different insect pests, like the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. RESULTS: Two products, a glue (polyvinyl acetate) and an oil (raw linseed oil), have been used as coatings and applied together with a repellent and two insecticides (teflutrin and chlorpyrifos) at different dosages on 2 species of palm (Phoenix dactylifera and Phoenix canariensis)...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#7
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094453/down-regulation-of-a-chitin-synthase-a-gene-by-rna-interference-enhances-pathogenicity-of-beauveria-bassiana-anu1-against-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner
#8
Jung-Bok Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Youngjin Park
Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A)...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093313/knockdown-of-nuclease-activity-in-the-gut-enhances-rnai-efficiency-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-but-not-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#9
Jornt Spit, Annelies Philips, Niels Wynant, Dulce Santos, Geert Plaetinck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The responsiveness towards orally delivered dsRNA and the potency of a subsequent environmental RNA interference (RNAi) response strongly differs between different insect species. While some species are very sensitive to dsRNA delivery through the diet, others are not. The underlying reasons for this may vary, but degradation of dsRNA by nucleases in the gut lumen is believed to play a crucial role. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, is a voracious defoliator of potato crops worldwide, and is currently under investigation for novel control methods based on dsRNA treatments...
January 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092422/international-consensus-principles-for-ethical-wildlife-control
#10
Sara Dubois, Nicole Fenwick, Erin A Ryan, Liv Baker, Sandra E Baker, Ngaio J Beausoleil, Scott Carter, Barbara Cartwright, Federico Costa, Chris Draper, John Griffin, Adam Grogan, Gregg Howald, Bidda Jones, Kate E Littin, Amanda T Lombard, David J Mellor, Daniel Ramp, Catherine A Schuppli, David Fraser
Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control...
January 16, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088420/exploring-expert-opinion-on-the-practicality-and-effectiveness-of-biosecurity-measures-on-dairy-farms-in-the-united-kingdom-using-choice-modeling
#11
Orla Shortall, Martin Green, Marnie Brennan, Wendela Wapenaar, Jasmeet Kaler
Biosecurity, defined as a series of measures aiming to stop disease-causing agents entering or leaving an area where farm animals are present, is very important for the continuing economic viability of the United Kingdom dairy sector, and for animal welfare. This study gathered expert opinion from farmers, veterinarians, consultants, academics, and government and industry representatives on the practicality and effectiveness of different biosecurity measures on dairy farms. The study used best-worst scaling, a technique that allows for greater discrimination between choices and avoids the variability in interpretation associated with other methods, such as Likert scales and ranking methods...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088361/purification-and-characterisation-of-dsrna-using-ion-pair-reverse-phase-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#12
Alison O Nwokeoji, An-Wen Kung, Peter M Kilby, David E Portwood, Mark J Dickman
RNA interference has provided valuable insight into a wide range of biological systems and is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. The exploitation of this pathway to block the expression of specific gene targets holds considerable promise for the development of novel RNAi-based insect management strategies. In addition, there are a wide number of future potential applications of RNAi to control agricultural insect pests as well as its use for prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The potential to synthesise large quantities of dsRNA by in-vitro transcription or in bacterial systems for RNA interference applications has generated significant demand for the development and application of high throughput analytical tools for the rapid extraction, purification and analysis of dsRNA...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081289/transgenic-cotton-expressing-cry10aa-toxin-confers-high-resistance-to-the-cotton-boll-weevil
#13
Thuanne Pires Ribeiro, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes, Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessutti, Marilia Santos Silva, Maria Eugênia Lisei-de-Sá, Wagner Alexandre Lucena, Leonardo Lima Pepino Macedo, Janaina Nascimento Lima, Regina Maria Santos Amorim, Sinara Artico, Márcio Alves-Ferreira, Maria Cristina Mattar Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
Genetically modified (GM) cotton events that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation...
January 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081282/cloning-of-three-genes-involved-in-the-flavonoid-metabolic-pathway-and-their-expression-during-insect-resistance-in-pinus-massoniana-lamb
#14
Z Q Yang, H Chen, J H Tan, H L Xu, J Jia, Y H Feng
Pinus massoniana Lamb. is an important timber and turpentine-producing tree species in China. Dendrolimus punctatus and Dasychira axutha are leaf-eating pests that have harmful effects on P. massoniana production. Few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying pest resistance in P. massoniana. Based on sequencing analysis of the transcriptomes of insect-resistant P. massoniana, three key genes involved in the flavonoid metabolic pathway were identified in the present study (PmF3H, PmF3'5'H, and PmC4H)...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078425/odorant-receptors-and-antennal-lobe-morphology-offer-a-new-approach-to-understanding-olfaction-in-the-asian-longhorned-beetle
#15
Robert F Mitchell, Loyal P Hall, Peter F Reagel, Duane D McKenna, Thomas C Baker, John G Hildebrand
The Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky) is an exotic forest pest that has repeatedly invaded North America and Europe from Asia, and has the potential to kill millions of trees and cause billions of dollars in damage. Traps baited with an attractive mixture of volatile organic compounds from hosts have been of limited success in monitoring invasion sites. We propose that lures might be improved through studying the olfactory system of adult beetles, especially the gene family of odorant receptors (ORs) and the structure of the antennal lobes of the brain...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078413/establishment-of-a-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-specific-detection-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-cry1ab-toxin-utilizing-a-monoclonal-antibody-produced-with-a-novel-hapten-designed-with-molecular-model
#16
Sa Dong, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Yajing Xie, Jianfeng Zhong, Chongxin Xu, Xianjin Liu
Cry1Ab toxin is commonly expressed in genetically modified crops in order to control chewing pests. At present, the detection method with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on monoclonal antibody cannot specifically detect Cry1Ab toxin for Cry1Ab's amino acid sequence and spatial structure are highly similar to Cry1Ac toxin. In this study, based on molecular design, a novel hapten polypeptide was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Then, through animal immunization with this antigen, a monoclonal antibody named 2C12, showing high affinity to Cry1Ab and having no cross reaction with Cry1Ac, was produced...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078387/landowners-perspectives-on-coordinated-landscape-level-invasive-species-control-the-role-of-social-and-ecological-context
#17
Rebecca M Niemiec, Roger P Pech, Grant L Norbury, Andrea E Byrom
To achieve biodiversity gains, landowner engagement in coordinated invasive species control programs across private lands is needed. Understanding landowners' perspectives toward such coordinated control efforts is crucial to facilitating engagement. We conducted in person and mail surveys of 68 landowners in and adjacent to the area of a proposed invasive predator control program in New Zealand. We find that, similar to previous studies, landowners consider the potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits of invasive species control and express a strong desire to enhance native biodiversity...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076392/arthropod-pest-control-for-uk-oilseed-rape-comparing-insecticide-efficacies-side-effects-and-alternatives
#18
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey, David Garthwaite, Richard Harrington, Simon G Potts
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074053/identification-of-pyripyropene-a-as-a-promising-insecticidal-compound-in-a-microbial-metabolite-screening
#19
Ryo Horikoshi, Kimihiko Goto, Masaaki Mitomi, Kazuhiko Oyama, Toshiaki Sunazuka, Satoshi Omacr Mura
Approximately 300 microbial natural products in our library were screened for insecticidal activities against three species of agricultural pests, including aphids. Among the several compounds that showed insecticidal activities, pyripyropene A had high aphicidal activity in vivo. Furthermore, in advanced tests, pyripyropene A applications with foliar sprays and soil drenching controlled aphids on cabbage. On the basis of its unique and promising activities, we selected pyripyropene A as the active component of potential insecticides...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073977/the-effects-of-a-modified-hot-water-treatment-on-anastrepha-ludens-diptera-tephritidae-infested-mango
#20
Emilio Hernández, Marysol Aceituno-Medina, Jorge Toledo, Bigail Bravo, José Caro-Corrales, Pablo Montoya, Robert Mangan
The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest in mango (Mangifera indica L.) that can be controlled by using a hot water treatment (HWT). This treatment is normally followed by a 30-min hydrocooling (HYC) process that reduces the negative effects that the treatment has on fruit quality. However, if hot water-treated fruits are immediately immersed in water at 21 °C, the survival rate of third-instar A. ludens may be increased. The current approved treatment protocol states that if HYC is used, then treated fruit should undergo an additional 10-min HWT or on platform for 30 min before HYC...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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