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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457956/gene-drives-to-fight-malaria-current-state-and-future-directions
#1
Andrew M Hammond, Roberto Galizi
Self-propagating gene drive technologies have a number of desirable characteristics that warrant their development for the control of insect pest and vector populations, such as the malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Theoretically easy to deploy and self-sustaining, these tools may be used to generate cost-effective interventions that benefit society without obvious bias related to wealth, age or education. Their species-specific design offers the potential to reduce environmental risks and aim to be compatible and complementary with other control strategies, potentially expediting the elimination and eradication of malaria...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454991/toxicological-effect-of-underutilized-plant-cleistanthus-collinus-leaf-extracts-against-two-major-stored-grain-pests-the-rice-weevil-sitophilus-oryzae-and-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#2
Govindharaj Guru-Pirasanna-Pandi, Totan Adak, Basana Gowda, Naveenkumar Patil, Mahendiran Annamalai, Mayabini Jena
Toxicity and repellency activity of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (CC) leaf extracts were evaluated against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) under laboratory condition. Five concentration(s) (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 4%) with two controls (acetone and water) treatments along with deltamethrin were used for direct and contact residual toxicity. The insect that survived after CC exposure were transferred to an untreated feeding substrate and the population buildup of subsequent two generation were recorded after 30 (F1 ) and 60 days (F2 )...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453965/effects-of-beauveria-bassiana-on-predation-and-behavior-of-the-predatory-mite-phytoseiulus-persimilis
#3
Shengyong Wu, Zhenlong Xing, Weinan Sun, Xuenong Xu, Ruixia Meng, Zhongren Lei
Determination of intraguild interactions between entomopathogens and predators is important when attempting to use a combination of these two natural enemy groups for biological control of their shared arthropod pest species. This study assessed the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation and associated behavior of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, against Tetranychus urticae. The functional response tests showed that P. persimilis exhibited a Holling type II response on the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, when treated with either a B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453424/genetic-control-and-evolutionary-potential-of-a-constitutive-resistance-mechanism-against-the-spruce-budworm-choristoneura-fumiferana-in-white-spruce-picea-glauca
#4
Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Geneviève J Parent, Patrick Lenz, André Rainville, Laurence Tremblay, Greg Adams, Andrew McCartney, Éric Bauce, John MacKay
Insect herbivory may drive evolution by selecting for trees with heritable resistance against defoliation. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana, SBW) is a highly damaging forest insect pest that can affect population structure of white spruce (Picea glauca) in North America. Resistance against SBW was recently described in white spruce and was linked to three constitutive resistance biomarkers: the phenolic compounds piceol and pungenol, and expression of a beta-glucosidase encoding gene (Pgβglu-1)...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452202/effectiveness-of-indoor-allergen-reduction-in-the-management-of-asthma-a-systematic-review
#5
Brian F Leas, Kristen E D'Anci, Andrea J Apter, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Marcus P Lynch, Janice L Kaczmarek, Craig A Umscheid
BACKGROUND: This review will inform updated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program clinical practice guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of allergen reduction interventions on asthma outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched the gray literature and five bibliographic databases. Eligible studies included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized interventional studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias instrument and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451903/stability-lies-in-flowers-plant-diversification-mediating-shifts-in-arthropod-food-webs
#6
Marcelo Mendes Haro, Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira, Andrew Wilby
Arthropod community composition in agricultural landscapes is dependent on habitat characteristics, such as plant composition, landscape homogeneity and the presence of key resources, which are usually absent in monocultures. Manipulating agroecosystems through the insertion of in-field floral resources is a useful technique to reduce the deleterious effects of habitat simplification. Food web analysis can clarify how the community reacts to the presence of floral resources which favour ecosystem services such as biological control of pest species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451084/unusual-case-of-choking-due-to-assassin-bug-cydnocoris-gilvus
#7
Vaibhav Sonar, Sachin Patil
Choking is a form of asphyxia which is caused by an obstruction within the air passages. Here, we report a case of obstruction of the upper respiratory tract due to assassin bug ( Cydnocoris gilvus) where allegations of medical negligence were made by relatives of the deceased. Autopsy findings demonstrated that an insect was present inside the larynx, lodged at the epiglottis. Multiple haemorrhagic patches were present at the base of the tongue, larynx, epiglottis, vocal cords and tracheal bifurcation. As Reduviidae can be successfully used as a biological pest-control agents, they should be used with due precaution...
January 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450902/identification-and-expression-profiles-of-novel-odorant-binding-proteins-and-functional-analysis-of-obp99a-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#8
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449815/combinatorial-codes-and-labeled-lines-how-insects-use-olfactory-cues-to-find-and-judge-food-mates-and-oviposition-sites-in-complex-environments
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Haverkamp, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Insects, including those which provide vital ecosystems services as well as those which are devastating pests or disease vectors, locate their resources mainly based on olfaction. Understanding insect olfaction not only from a neurobiological but also from an ecological perspective is therefore crucial to balance insect control and conservation. However, among all sensory stimuli olfaction is particularly hard to grasp. Our chemical environment is made up of thousands of different compounds, which might again be detected by our nose in multiple ways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446934/guanidinium-functionalized-interpolyelectrolyte-complexes-enable-rnai-in-resistant-insect-pests
#10
Keith H Parsons, Mosharrof H Mondal, Charles L McCormick, Alex S Flynt
RNAi-based technologies are ideal for pest control as they can provide species specificity and spare non-target organisms. However, in some pests biological barriers prevent use of RNAi, and therefore broad application. In this study we tested the ability of a synthetic cationic polymer, poly-[N-(3-guanidinopropyl)methacrylamide] (pGPMA), that mimics arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides to trigger RNAi in an insensitive animal-Spodoptera frugiperda. Polymer-dsRNA interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) were found to be efficiently taken up by cells, and to drive highly efficient gene knockdown...
February 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446871/effect-of-management-of-organic-wastes-on-inactivation-of-brassica-nigra-and-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lactucae-using-soil-biosolarization
#11
J D Fernández-Bayo, T E Randall, D R Harrold, Y Achmon, K V Hestmark, J Su, R M Dahlquist-Willard, T R Gordon, J J Stapleton, J S VanderGheynst, C W Simmons
BACKGROUND: Soil biosolarization is a promising alternative to conventional fumigation. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced in the soil through fermentation of amended organic matter can affect pest inactivation during biosolarization. The objective was to determine how soil amended with organic wastes that were partially stabilized through either composting or anaerobic digestion affected the inactivation of Brassica nigra (BN, a weed) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (FOL, a phytopathogenic fungus)...
February 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445344/invertebrate-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase-gene-genetic-architecture-biochemistry-physiological-function-and-potential-applications
#12
REVIEW
Bin Tang, Su Wang, Shi-Gui Wang, Hui-Juan Wang, Jia-Yong Zhang, Shuai-Ying Cui
The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is widely distributed among various organisms. It plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy, being the major blood sugar in insects. In addition, it helps countering abiotic stresses. Trehalose synthesis in insects and other invertebrates is thought to occur via the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) pathways. In many insects, the TPP gene has not been identified, whereas multiple TPS genes that encode proteins harboring TPS/OtsA and TPP/OtsB conserved domains have been found and cloned in the same species...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444637/estimated-assessment-of-cumulative-dietary-exposure-to-organophosphorus-residues-from-tea-infusion-in-china
#13
Pei Cao, Dajin Yang, Jianghui Zhu, Zhaoping Liu, Dingguo Jiang, Haibin Xu
BACKGROUND: China has the world's largest tea plantation area in the world. To sustain high yields of the tea, multiple pesticides are used on tea crops to control pests. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used types of agricultural pesticides in China. As tea is a significant potential source of exposure to pesticide residues, the public concern has increased in relation to pesticide residues found in tea in China. The aim of the study was to estimate cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion for Chinese tea consumers to determine whether exposure to OP residues from tea infusion is a cause of health concern for tea consumers in China...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438553/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-vatpase-subunits-affects-survival-and-reproduction-of-bed-bugs-hemiptera-cimicidae
#14
Sanjay Basnet, Shripat T Kamble
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has resurged as one of the most troublesome household pests affecting people across the globe. Bed bug infestations have increased in recent years primarily due to the evolution of insecticide resistance and the insect's ability to hitchhike with travelers. vATPases are one of the most evolutionarily conserved holoenzymes in eukaryotes, which are mainly involved in proton transport across the plasma membranes and intracellular organelles. RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a promising tool for insect control...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438476/influence-of-winter-cover-crop-mulch-on-arthropods-in-a-reduced-tillage-cucurbit-system
#15
Amanda L Buchanan, Cerruti R R Hooks
Winter cover crop mulches can diversify agricultural habitats and provide a range of benefits for crop production and pest management. Here we report the influence of strip tilled winter cover crop mulches on arthropod abundance in organic vegetable plots. Crookneck squash (Cucurbita pepo L.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae) was direct seeded into mowed and strip tilled barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poales: Poaceae), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.; Fabales: Fabaceae), a barley + crimson clover mixture, or a no-cover crop control...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438408/thermal-resilience-may-shape-population-abundance-of-two-sympatric-congeneric-cotesia-species-hymenoptera-braconidae
#16
Reyard Mutamiswa, Honest Machekano, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Basal and plasticity of thermal tolerance determine abundance, biogeographical patterns and activity of insects over spatial and temporal scales. For coexisting stemborer parasitoids, offering synergistic impact for biological control, mismatches in thermal tolerance may influence their ultimate impact in biocontrol programs under climate variability. Using laboratory-reared congeneric parasitoid species Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), we examined basal thermal tolerance to understand potential impact of climate variability on their survival and limits to activity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435771/identification-of-spider-mite-species-and-their-endosymbionts-using-multiplex-pcr
#17
Flore Zélé, Mylène Weill, Sara Magalhães
Spider mites of the genus Tetranychidae are severe crop pests. In the Mediterranean a few species coexist, but they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. Additionally, spider mites often harbour several species of endosymbiotic bacteria, which may affect the biology of their hosts. Here, we propose novel, cost-effective, multiplex diagnostic methods allowing a quick identification of spider-mite species as well as of the endosymbionts they carry. First, we developed, and successfully multiplexed in a single PCR, primers to identify Tetranychus urticae, T...
February 12, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428603/field-efficacy-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-galleriae-strain-sds-502-for-the-management-of-alfalfa-weevil-and-its-impact-on-bathyplectes-spp-parasitization-rate
#18
Govinda Shrestha, Gadi V P Reddy, Stefan T Jaronski
Alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica Gyllenhal, is an important pest in forage alfalfa worldwide, and especially so on the Northern Plains of North America. Neither the weevil-specific fungus, Erynia phytonomi, nor the weevil's parasitoids are able to routinely suppress outbreaks as they do in the eastern U.S. A new Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae, having a Cry8Da coleopteran-active toxin, has been recently commercialized. We examined the efficacy of this B. thuringiensis product against the H. postica in replicated field trials in north central Montana...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428514/target-and-non-target-response-of-swietenia-mahagoni-jacq-chemical-constituents-against-tobacco-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fab-and-earthworm-eudrilus-eugeniae-kinb
#19
Anandan Dinesh-Kumar, Elangovan Srimaan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengodan Karthi, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Kanagaraj Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Narayanan Shyam-Sundar, Mahendiran Annamalai, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Toxicological screening of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (Meliaceae, West Indies Mahogany) against the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura was examined. Phytochemical screening through GC-MS analysis revealed nine peaks with prominent peak area % in Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (31.5%) was observed. The larvae exposed to discriminating dosage of 100 ppm deliver significant mortality rate compare to other treatment concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) was observed at the dosage of 31.04 and 86...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427636/microbial-control-of-phytophagous-invertebrate-pests-in-south-africa-current-status-and-future-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Justin L Hatting, Sean D Moore, Antoinette P Malan
Invertebrate pests pose a significant threat to food security on the African continent. In response, South Africa has become one of the largest importers of chemical pesticides in sub-Saharan Africa, with several hundred active ingredients registered. To address the over-reliance on such chemicals, the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) has eliminated or restricted several pesticides since the late 1970s. The recent launch of the South African National Bio-Economy Strategy and establishment of the South African Bioproducts Organisation (SABO), together with new guidelines for registration of biopesticides in 2015, also support this endeavour...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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