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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458131/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-via-hbv-dna-cleavage-by-cas9-from-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Yu Liu, Miaoxian Zhao, Mingxing Gong, Ying Xu, Cantao Xie, Haohui Deng, Xueying Li, Hongkai Wu, Zhanhui Wang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Accumulating evidence indicates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system effectively disrupts HBV genome, including cccDNA, in vitro and in vivo. However, efficient delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system to the liver or hepatocytes using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector remains challenging due to the large size of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp). The recently identified Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is smaller than SpCas9 and thus is able to be packaged into the AAV vector...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458072/influence-of-xenorhabdus-gamma-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-symbionts-on-gonad-postembryonic-development-in-steinernema-nematoda-steinernematidae-nematodes
#2
Alexandra C Roder, S Patricia Stock
Steinernema nematodes and their Xenorhabdus partners form an obligate mutualistic association. This partnership is insecticidal to a wide range of insects. Steinernema rely on their Xenorhabdus partner to produce toxins inside the insect cadaver to liberate nutrients from the insect, as well as antimicrobials to sterilize the cadaver, thus creating a suitable environment for reproduction. In return, Steinernema vector their Xenorhabdus between insect hosts. Disruption of this partnership may affect the success of both partners...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457992/ground-ultra-low-volume-ulv-space-spray-applications-for-the-control-of-wild-sand-fly-populations-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-europe
#3
Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Miaoulis, Javid Kashefi
The Phlebotomus sand flies are considered an important vector of both canine and human leishmaniasis. Current measures for sand fly control include mostly indoor interventions, such as residual spraying of dwellings (IRS) to target endophilic sand fly species with very limited number of vector control tools for outdoor interventions against exophilic sand flies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications of a deltamethrin based product against field populations of P...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457957/synergistic-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-extract-in-combination-with-temephos-against-three-major-mosquito-vectors
#4
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthugounder S Shivakumar, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. Improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of Fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. F. oxysporum extract was characterized using TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457956/gene-drives-to-fight-malaria-current-state-and-future-directions
#5
Andrew M Hammond, Roberto Galizi
Self-propagating gene drive technologies have a number of desirable characteristics that warrant their development for the control of insect pest and vector populations, such as the malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Theoretically easy to deploy and self-sustaining, these tools may be used to generate cost-effective interventions that benefit society without obvious bias related to wealth, age or education. Their species-specific design offers the potential to reduce environmental risks and aim to be compatible and complementary with other control strategies, potentially expediting the elimination and eradication of malaria...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457792/on-the-design-of-crispr-based-single-cell-molecular-screens
#6
Andrew J Hill, José L McFaline-Figueroa, Lea M Starita, Molly J Gasperini, Kenneth A Matreyek, Jonathan Packer, Dana Jackson, Jay Shendure, Cole Trapnell
Several groups recently coupled CRISPR perturbations and single-cell RNA-seq for pooled genetic screens. We demonstrate that vector designs of these studies are susceptible to ∼50% swapping of guide RNA-barcode associations because of lentiviral template switching. We optimized a published alternative, CROP-seq, in which the guide RNA also serves as the barcode, and here confirm that this strategy performs robustly and doubled the rate at which guides are assigned to cells to 94%.
February 19, 2018: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457745/evaluation-of-mosquito-larvicidal-activity-of-fruit-extracts-of-acacia-auriculiformis-against-the-japanese-encephalitis-vector-culex-vishnui
#7
Mousumi Barik, Anjali Rawani, Subrata Laskar, Goutam Chandra
The larvicidal potentiality of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis was investigated against all the larval instars of JE vector Culex vishnui. The crude extracts showed good results against all the larval instars with highest mortality at 0.09%. Highest mortality was found at 300 ppm of ethyl acetate extract. Lowest LC50 value was obtained at 72 h for third instar larvae. Non target organisms tested, showed no to very less mortality to ethyl acetate solvent extract. Presence of N-H stretching, a C=O stretching, C=C and C-N stretching vibrations of secondary amide or amine group were confirmed from IR analysis...
February 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457337/a-novel-rotational-matrix-and-translation-vector-algorithm-geometric-accuracy-for-augmented-reality-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeries
#8
Yahini Prabha Murugesan, Abeer Alsadoon, Paul Manoranjan, P W C Prasad
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality-based surgeries have not been successfully implemented in oral and maxillofacial areas due to limitations in geometric accuracy and image registration. This paper aims to improve the accuracy and depth perception of the augmented video. METHODOLOGY: The proposed system consists of a rotational matrix and translation vector algorithm to reduce the geometric error and improve the depth perception by including 2 stereo cameras and a translucent mirror in the operating room...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457229/radiomics-analysis-of-pulmonary-nodules-in-low-dose-ct-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#9
Wookjin Choi, Jung Hun Oh, Sadegh Riyahi, Chia-Ju Liu, Feng Jiang, Wengen Chen, Charles White, Andreas Rimner, James G Mechalakos, Joseph O Deasy, Wei Lu
PURPOSE: To develop a radiomics prediction model to improve pulmonary nodule (PN) classification in low-dose CT. To compare the model with the American College of Radiology (ACR) Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) for early detection of lung cancer. METHODS: We examined a set of 72 PNs (31 benign and 41 malignant) from the Lung Image Database Consortium image collection (LIDC-IDRI). 103 CT radiomic features were extracted from each PN. Before the model building process, distinctive features were identified using a hierarchical clustering method...
February 19, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456898/passive-radar-for-opportunistic-monitoring-in-e-health-applications
#10
Wenda Li, Bo Tan, Robert Piechocki
This paper proposes a passive Doppler radar as a non-contact sensing method to capture human body movements, recognize respiration, and physical activities in e-Health applications. The system uses existing in-home wireless signal as the source to interpret human activity. This paper shows that passive radar is a novel solution for multiple healthcare applications which complements traditional smart home sensor systems. An innovative two-stage signal processing framework is outlined to enable the multi-purpose monitoring function...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456897/detection-of-essential-tremor-at-the-formula-see-text-band
#11
Xiaodong Yang, Syed Aziz Shah, Aifeng Ren, Dou Fan, Nan Zhao, Dongjian Cao, Fangming Hu, Masood Ur Rehman, Weigang Wang, Karen M Von Deneen, Jie Tian
Essential tremor (ET) is a neurological disorder characterized by rhythmic, involuntary shaking of a part or parts of the body. The most common tremor is seen in the hands/arms and fingers. This paper presents an evaluation of ETs monitoring based on finger-to-nose test measurement as captured by small wireless devices working in shortwave or [Formula: see text]-band frequency range. The acquired signals in terms of amplitude and phase information are used to detect a tremor in the hands. Linearly transforming raw phase data acquired in the [Formula: see text]-band were carried out for calibrating the phase information and to improve accuracy...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456667/-in-vitro-study-on-reversal-of-ovarian-cancer-cell-resistance-to-cisplatin-by-naringin-via-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#12
Hong Zhu, Jun Gao, Lei Wang, Ke-Jian Qian, Li-Ping Cai
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action by which naringin reverses the resistance of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting assays were used to detect the effects of different concentrations of naringin on the expressions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the SKOV3/CDDP cell line. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NF-κB was designed and synthesized to silence NF-κB, and recombinant plasmid vectors overexpressing NF-κB were constructed to transfect cells...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456553/silencing-of-iron-and-heme-related-genes-revealed-a-paramount-role-of-iron-in-the-physiology-of-the-hematophagous-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#13
Ana B Walter-Nuno, Mabel L Taracena, Rafael D Mesquita, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus , the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456027/enhanced-chondrogenesis-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-microrna-140-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta-3-tgf%C3%AE-3
#14
Hossein Mahboudi, Masoud Soleimani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mousa Kehtari, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Mohamad Eftekhary, Bahram Kazemi
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) make an attractive source for regenerative medicine. The objective of our study was to establish a new method for differentiation of human iPSCs toward chondrocyte by overexpression of MicroRNA-140 (miR-140) and use of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) in high-cell density culture systems. We prepared vectors and then was used for recombinant Lenti virus production in HEK-293 cell. Transducted cells were selected and cultured in pellet culture system and were harvested after days 7, 14 and 21...
February 15, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456021/brain-nat8l-knockdown-suppresses-spongiform-leukodystrophy-in-an-aspartoacylase-deficient-canavan-disease-mouse-model
#15
Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Olga Chechneva, Travis Burns, Xiaoqing Zhu, Yan Wang, Bokyung Kim, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy caused by loss-of-function ASPA mutations, is characterized by brain dysmyelination, vacuolation, and astrogliosis ("spongiform leukodystrophy"). ASPA encodes aspartoacylase, an oligodendroglial enzyme that cleaves the abundant brain amino acid N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to L-aspartate and acetate. Aspartoacylase deficiency results in a 50% or greater elevation in brain NAA concentration ([NAAB ]). Prior studies showed that homozygous constitutive knockout of Nat8l, the gene encoding the neuronal NAA synthesizing enzyme N-acetyltransferase 8-like, prevents aspartoacylase-deficient mice from developing spongiform leukodystrophy...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455656/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-mediates-cell-migration-signaling-of-egfr-in-lung-cancer-cells
#16
Genbao Shao, Ranran Wang, Aiqin Sun, Jing Wei, Ke Peng, Qian Dai, Wannian Yang, Qiong Lin
BACKGROUND: EGFR-dependent cell migration plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Our previous study observed that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and required for migration and invasion signaling of EGFR in gastric cancer cells. However, how NEDD4 promotes the EGFR-dependent lung cancer cell migration is unknown. This study is to elucidate the mechanism by which NEDD4 mediates the EGFR lung cancer migration signaling. METHODS: Lentiviral vector-loaded NEDD4 shRNA was used to deplete endogenous NEDD4 in lung cancer cell lines...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455649/molecular-subtyping-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-and-a-microrna-based-prognostic-model-for-distant-metastasis
#17
Lan Zhao, Alvin H W Fong, Na Liu, William C S Cho
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic cancer, with diverse molecular characteristics and clinical outcomes. This study aims to dissect the molecular heterogeneity of NPC, followed by the construction of a microRNA (miRNA)-based prognostic model for prediction of distant metastasis. METHODS: We retrieved two NPC datasets: GSE32960 and GSE70970 as training and validation cohorts, respectively. Consensus clustering was employed for cluster discovery, and support vector machine was used to build a classifier...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455526/structure-based-optimization-strategies-for-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpcr-allosteric-modulators-a-case-study-from-analyses-of-new-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-mglu-5-x-ray-structures
#18
John Christopher, Zoltán Orgován, Miles Congreve, Andrew S Dore, James C Errey, Fiona H Marshall, Jonathan S Mason, Krzysztof Okrasa, Prakash Rucktooa, Maria J Serrano-Vega, György G Ferenczy, Gyorgy M Keseru
Two interesting new X-ray structures of negative allosteric modulator (NAM) ligands for the mGlu5 receptor, M-MPEP (3) and fenobam (4), are reported. The new structures show how the binding of the ligands induces different receptor water channel conformations to previously published structures. The structure of fenobam, where a urea replaces the acetylenic linker in M-MPEP and mavoglurant, reveals a binding mode where the ligand is rotated by 180º compared to a previously proposed docking model. The need for multiple ligand structures for accurate GPCR structure-based drug design is demonstrated by the different growing vectors identified for the head groups of M-MPEP and mavoglurant and by the unexpected water mediated receptor interactions of a new chemotype represented by fenobam...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455449/role-of-exosomes-derived-from-mir-133b-modified-mscs-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#19
Haitao Shen, Xiyang Yao, Haiying Li, Xiang Li, Tiejun Zhang, Qing Sun, Chengyuan Ji, Gang Chen
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has poor outcomes due to high mortality and morbidity, but until now, the effective treatments remain limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression and demonstrated to be linked to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Exosomes are considered as cell-to-cell communication vectors and secreted largely by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study investigated the role of miR-133b delivered by exosomes secreted from MSCs to brain tissues in rats after ICH...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455440/computer-aided-solution-for-automatic-segmenting-and-measurements-of-blood-leucocytes-using-static-microscope-images
#20
Enas Abdulhay, Mazin Abed Mohammed, Dheyaa Ahmed Ibrahim, N Arunkumar, V Venkatraman
Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
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