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Gerard Masferrer, Ricard Carreras, Maria Font-I-Furnols, Marina Gispert, Pere Marti-Puig, Moises Serra
The thickness of the subcutaneous fat in hams is one of the most important factors for the dry-curing process and largely determines its final quality. This parameter is usually measured in slaughterhouses by a manual metrical measure to classify hams. The aim of the present study was to propose an automatic classification method based on data obtained from a carcass automatic classification equipment (AutoFom) and intrinsic data of the pigs (sex, breed, and weight) to simulate the manual classification system...
April 13, 2018: Meat Science
J-H Liu, X Sun, J M Young, L A Bachmeier, D J Newman
The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of computer vision system to predict pork intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%). Center-cut loin samples (n = 85) were trimmed of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue. Images were acquired and pixels were segregated to estimate image IMF% and 18 image color features for each image. Subjective IMF% was determined by a trained grader. Ether extract IMF% was calculated using ether extract method. Image color features and image IMF% were used as predictors for stepwise regression and support vector machine models...
March 26, 2018: Meat Science
Joseph P Gallant, Raquel Asunción Lima-Cordón, Silvia Justi, Maria Carlota Monroy, Toni Viola, Lori Stevens
Rational drug design creates innovative therapeutics based on knowledge of the biological target to provide more effective and responsible therapeutics. Chagas disease, endemic throughout Latin America, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite. Current therapeutics are problematic with widespread calls for new approaches. Researchers are using rational drug design for Chagas disease and one target receiving considerable attention is the T. cruzi trans-sialidase protein (TcTS). In T. cruzi, trans-sialidase catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from a mammalian host to coat the parasite surface membrane and avoid immuno-detection...
April 20, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Dogan Dolanmaz, Kayhan Ozturk, Mehmet Bahadir Llik, Murat Celik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case report is to evaluate the clinical outcomes that including minor postoperative complications of the transport distraction osteogenesis (TDO) for reconstruction of the ramus-condyle unit. STUDY DESIGN: We present 3 cases of the ramus condyle unit reconstruction after the resection of bone tumors. All three bone tumors were excised intraoperatively and the histologic assessment confirmed the clinical diagnosis of osteochondroma, condylar hyperplasia and osteoma...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Maëllie Midroit, Marc Thevenet, Arnaud Fournel, Joelle Sacquet, Moustafa Bensafi, Marine Breton, Laura Chalençon, Matthias Cavelius, Anne Didier, Nathalie Mandairon
BACKGROUND: Cellular imagery using histology sections is one of the most common techniques used in Neuroscience. However, this inescapable technique has severe limitations due to the need to delineate regions of interest on each brain, which is time consuming and variable across experimenters. NEW METHOD: We developed algorithms based on a vectors field elastic registration allowing fast, automatic realignment of experimental brain sections and associated labeling in a brain atlas with high accuracy and in a streamlined way...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Juliana Mourão Dos Santos Rodrigues, João Aristeu da Rosa, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira, Cleber Galvão
Triatominae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) includes 151 extant species that are all potential vectors of Chagas disease. The relationships among these species have been recently studied based on molecular and cytogenetical approaches, and although the morphology of these insects is fairly described, wide comparative studies and cladistics analysis based on this feature are lacking. A comparative study of the terminal abdominal segments in females of 26 species of Triatominae was performed in order to evaluate their importance for the distinction of genera and species, and obtain characters to be used in cladistics analyses...
April 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
Antonio A Vázquez, Jorge Sánchez, Annia Alba, Elizabeth Martínez, Luis Alvarez-Lajonchere, Michel Matamoros, James B Coupland
The giant African snail Lissachatina fulica has been reported invading Cuba since 2014 and is now well established in areas of Havana and several nearby regions. This invasive species is of major concern to health authorities given its role as an important vector of parasites such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Here, we update the distribution within Cuba. We also report on our studies of experimental life-history traits to assess the population dynamics and potential for spread of this species in Cuba...
April 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
Daniele Raimondi, Gabriele Orlando, Yves Moreau, Wim F Vranken
Motivation: Evolutionary information is crucial for the annotation of proteins in bioinformatics. The amount of retrieved homologs often correlates with the quality of predicted protein annotations related to structure or function. With a growing amount of sequences available, fast and reliable methods for homology detection are essential, as they have a direct impact on predicted protein annotations. Results: We developed a discriminative, alignment-free algorithm for homology detection with quasi-linear complexity, enabling theoretically much faster homology searches...
April 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Ying-Xue Huang, Hao Song, Yue Tao, Xue-Bao Shao, Xue-Si Zeng, Xiu-Lian Xu, Jin-Liang Qi, Jian-Fang Sun
BACKGROUND: We previously identified ovostatin 2 (OVOS2) as a new candidate gene for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a Chinese population. In this study, we aimed to investigate the exact role of OVOS2 in cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of melanoma A375 cells. METHODS: The downregulation of OVOS2 expression was performed using lentiviral vectors with specific shRNA. The effects of OVOS2 expression on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration, cell invasion, and potential of tumorigenesis were further investigated...
2018: PloS One
Tania Ayllón, Daniel Cardoso Portela Câmara, Fernanda Cristina Morone, Larissa da Silva Gonçalves, Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros, Patrícia Brasil, Marilia Sá Carvalho, Nildimar Alves Honório
Aedes albopictus, originally considered as a secondary vector for arbovirus transmission, especially in areas where this species co-exist with Aedes aegypti, has been described in most regions of the world. Dispersion and domiciliation of Ae. albopictus in a complex of densely urbanized slums in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, was evidenced. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that 1) Ae. albopictus distribution in urban slums is negatively related to distance from vegetation, and 2) these vectors have taken on a domestic life style with a portion of the population feeding, ovipositing, and resting indoors...
2018: PloS One
Marcela Tabares, Mario Ortiz, Mabel Gonzalez, Chiara Carazzone, Martha J Vives Florez, Jorge Molina
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by skin microbiota in the attraction of mosquitoes to humans. Recently, behavioral experiments confirmed the importance of VOCs released by skin microbiota in the attraction of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a vector of Chagas disease. METHODS/FINDINGS: In this study, we screened for VOCs released in vitro by bacteria isolated from human facial skin that were able to elicit behavioral responses in R...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carolyn J Peddle-McIntyre, Vinicius Cavalheri, Terry Boyle, Joanne A McVeigh, Emily Jeffery, Brigid M Lynch, Jeff K Vallance
BACKGROUND: In the cancer survivorship context, physical activity and sedentary behaviour have been measured using different methods and tools. PURPOSE: To conduct a narrative review of published research in cancer survivor populations to summarise the quality and identify gaps in reporting on accelerometer data collection, data processing, and outcome measures in cancer survivors. METHODS: An initial PubMed® search of papers published in English was conducted in January 2017, and a final search was conducted in May 2017...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Paolo Ghisletta, Emilie Joly-Burra, Stephen Aichele, Ulman Lindenberger, Florian Schmiedek
We examined adult age differences in day-to-day adjustments in speed-accuracy tradeoffs (SAT) on a figural comparison task. Data came from the COGITO study, with over 100 younger and 100 older adults, assessed for over 100 days. Participants were given explicit feedback about their completion time and accuracy each day after task completion. We applied a multivariate vector auto-regressive model of order 1 to the daily mean reaction time (RT) and daily accuracy scores together, within each age group. We expected that participants adjusted their SAT if the two cross-regressive parameters from RT (or accuracy) on day t-1 of accuracy (or RT) on day t were sizable and negative...
April 23, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Mikhail A Galkin, Aidan N Russell, Steven B Vik, Richard M Berry, Robert R Ishmukhametov
Detergents are indispensable for delivery of membrane proteins into 30-100 nm small unilamellar vesicles, while more complex, larger model lipid bilayers are less compatible with detergents. Here we describe a strategy for bypassing this fundamental limitation using fusogenic oppositely charged liposomes bearing a membrane protein of interest. Fusion between such vesicles occurs within 5 min in a low ionic strength buffer. Positively charged fusogenic liposomes can be used as simple shuttle vectors for detergent-free delivery of membrane proteins into biomimetic target lipid bilayers, which are negatively charged...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Md Nasimuzzaman, Johannes C M van der Loo, Punam Malik
Baculovirus has traditionally been used for the production of recombinant protein and vaccine. However, more recently, baculovirus is emerging as a promising vector for gene therapy application. Here, baculovirus is produced by transient transfection of the baculovirus plasmid DNA (bacmid) in an adherent culture of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus is subsequently expanded in Sf9 cells in a serum-free suspension culture until the desired volume is obtained. It is then purified from the culture supernatant using heparin affinity chromatography...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Guido Ferrari
The last decade has led to a significant advance in our knowledge of HIV-1 latency and immunity. However, we are still not close to finding a cure for HIV-1. Although combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to increased survival, almost close to that of the general population, it is still not curative. In the current issue of the JCI, Wu et al. studied the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of an engineered tandem bispecific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb), BiIA-SG. This bnAb's breadth and potency were highly effective in protection and treatment settings, as measured by complete viremia control following direct infusion, as well as elimination of infected cells and delay in viral rebound when delivered with a recombinant vector...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Daniela Loconsole, Angela Metallo, Anna Lisa De Robertis, Anna Morea, Michele Quarto, Maria Chironna
International travelers to areas endemic for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be at risk of contracting and spreading these diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that are specific for Dengue Virus (DV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), or Zika Virus (ZV) in a cohort of international travelers. The study enrolled travelers who attended the Travel Medicine and Migration outpatient service of Local Health Unit of Bari, Italy, in March 2015-June 2017 for counseling and vaccine prophylaxis before travel...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Thaís Aparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo Sousa, Anne Emanuelle Câmara da Silva Melo, Monique Paiva Campos, Nilza Dutra Alves, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis and with the dog as its main urban reservoir. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars (DMC) DIC, Scalibor® 65 cm model and MSD manufacturer, on the prevalence and incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and on the rate of infection of sandflies by L. infantum. The research was conducted in two areas of the municipality Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast of Brazil...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Isabelle J Schalk
In the alarming context of rising bacterial antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics or increase and/or enlarge the activity of those currently in use. The need for new antibiotics is even more urgent in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteria, which have become resistant to many antibiotics and have an outer membrane with very low permeability to drugs. Vectorization of antibiotics using siderophores may be a solution to bypass such a bacterial wall: the drugs use the iron transporters of the outer membrane as gates to enter bacteria in a Trojan-horse strategy...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Shagun Krishna, Sushil Kumar, Deependra Kumar Singh, Amar Deep Lakra, Dibyendu Banerjee, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
The histone acetyl transferase (HAT) are involved in acetylation of histones that lead to transcription activation in numerous gene regulatory mechanisms. There are very few GCN5 HAT inhibitors reported despite of their role in cancer progression. In this study, we have utilized in-silico virtual screening approaches based on various machine learning algorithm to identify potent inhibitors of GCN5 HAT from commercially available Maybridge library. We have generated predictive chemoinformatics models based on k-Nearest neighbour, naïve Bayesian, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Informatics
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