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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549950/spray-stability-of-self-assembled-filaments-for-delivery
#1
Abdullah Mahmud, Takamasa Harada, Karthikan Rajagopal, David A Christian, Praful Nair, Ryan Murphy, Dennis E Discher
Filamentous viruses are common in nature and efficiently deliver - sometimes via aerosol - genetic material, viral proteins, and other factors to animals and plants. Aerosolization can be a severe physicochemical test of the stability of any filamentous assembly whether it is made from natural polymers such as viral proteins or synthetic polymers. Here, worm-like "filomicelles" that self-assemble in water from amphiphilic block copolymers were investigated as aerosolized delivery vehicles. After spraying and drying, fluorophore-loaded filomicelles that were originally ~10-20μm long could be imaged as 2-5μm long fragments that survived rehydration on natural and artificial surfaces (i...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549829/impact-of-chlorpyrifos-on-human-villous-trophoblasts-and-chorionic-villi
#2
M E Ridano, A C Racca, J B Flores-Martin, R Fretes, C L Bandeira, L Reyna, E Bevilacqua, S Genti-Raimondi, G M Panzetta-Dutari
Placental barrier regulates maternal-fetal interchange protecting the baby from damage caused by substances found in the uterine environment or circulating in the vascular system. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are a paramount group of environmental pollutants used in intensive agriculture for protection against diseases and pests. While many studies have reported an increased risk of pregnancy alterations in pregnant women exposed to OPs, few have analyzed the effects caused by these pesticides in the placenta...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549454/genomic-adaptation-to-agricultural-environments-cabbage-white-butterflies-pieris-rapae-as-a-case-study
#3
Kristin L Sikkink, Megan E Kobiela, Emilie C Snell-Rood
BACKGROUND: Agricultural environments have long presented an opportunity to study evolution in action, and genomic approaches are opening doors for testing hypotheses about adaptation to crops, pesticides, and fertilizers. Here, we begin to develop the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a system to test questions about adaptation to novel, agricultural environments. We focus on a population in the north central United States as a unique case study: here, canola, a host plant, has been grown during the entire flight period of the butterfly over the last three decades...
May 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547890/influence-of-various-stressors-on-the-expression-of-core-genes-of-the-small-interfering-rna-pathway-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#4
Yi-Fei Xie, Jin-Zhi Niu, Xuan-Zhao Jiang, Wen-Jia Yang, Guang-Mao Shen, Dong Wei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
RNA interference (RNAi)-based technology has emerged as a potential tool for controlling insect pests, however, previous studies found that the efficiency of RNAi in Bactrocera dorsalis was variable. In nature, insects often meet various challenges, such as pathogen infections, extreme temperatures, lack of nutrition and heavy metals. To better understand the association of the stressors with efficiency of RNAi, in the current study we tested the expression of three core genes, dicer2 (Bddcr2), r2d2 (Bdr2d2) and argonaute2 (Bdago2), of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway of B...
June 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547871/sequence-based-analysis-of-protein-degradation-rates-a-computational-study-of-protein-degradation
#5
Miguel Correa Marrero, Aalt D J van Dijk, Dick de Ridder
Protein turnover is a key aspect of cellular homeostasis and proteome dynamics. However, there is little consensus on which properties of a protein determine its lifetime in the cell. In this work, we exploit two reliable datasets of experimental protein degradation rates to learn models and uncover determinants of protein degradation, with particular focus on properties that can be derived from the sequence. Our work shows that simple sequence features suffice to obtain predictive models of which the output correlates reasonably well with the experimentally measured values...
May 25, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546496/genome-sequence-of-brevibacillus-laterosporus-uniss-18-a-pathogen-of-mosquitoes-and-flies
#6
Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Luca Ruiu
The entomopathogenic properties of Brevibacillus laterosporus UNISS 18 against insects are well documented. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of this strain, which revealed the presence of several insecticide action-related genes. The deriving genetic information will help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying strain specificity and virulence against diverse target pests.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545149/persistence-of-lineage-iv-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-within-israel-since-1993-an-evolutionary-perspective
#7
Brian Clarke, Mana Mahapatra, Orly Friedgut, Velizar Bumbarov, Satya Parida
Peste-des-petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important infectious diseases of domesticated small ruminants. From the initial identification in 1942 in West Africa, PPR virus (PPRV) has spread throughout much of the developing world. PPRV is now considered endemic throughout Africa, with the notable exception of South Africa, the Middle-East and Israel, as well as South-, East-, and Central Asia. Despite this widespread dispersal, the evolution and transmission of PPRV in endemic populations is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544773/feasible-sampling-plan-for-bemisia-tabaci-control-decision-making-in-watermelon-fields
#8
Carlos H O Lima, Renato A Sarmento, Poliana S Pereira, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Fábio A Santos, Joedna Silva, Marcelo C Picanço
BACKGROUND: The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests of watermelon fields worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the starting point for the generation of decision-making systems of integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to determine a conventional sampling plan for B. tabaci in watermelon fields. RESULTS: The optimal leaf for B. tabaci adult sampling was the 6(th) most apical leaf. Direct counting was the best pest sampling technique...
May 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544677/pyrethroid-resistance-associated-with-m918l-mutation-and-detoxifying-metabolism-in-aphis-gossypii-from-bt-cotton-growing-regions-of-china
#9
Xuewei Chen, Minyuan Tie, Anqi Chen, Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Ying Liu, Dunlun Song, Xiwu Gao
BACKGROUND: The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover), is a destructive pest that affects numerous crops throughout the world. Pyrethroid resistance has become endemic in A. gossypii populations in the cotton growing areas of China due to wide- spread application of insecticides. To assess the extent of pyrethroid resistance, bioassays were conducted on field populations collected from several cotton cultivation areas from 2010-2015. The frequency of a known resistance-associated sodium channel mutation (M918L) in A...
May 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544267/genetic-variation-within-species-and-haplotypes-of-the-wiseana-lepidoptera-hepialidae-complex-and-development-of-non-sequenced-based-identification-tools-to-aid-field-studies
#10
Nicola K Richards, Sarah Mansfield, Richard J Townsend, Colin M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Porina is the common name used to describe moths and caterpillars of the seven endemic species and three haplotypes of Wiseana in New Zealand. Several species have adapted to eating introduced pasture plants, however a paucity of defining morphological characteristics has meant that porina are grouped as indistinguishable species within a complex. This study aimed to develop non-sequencing identification methods for porina species. RESULTS: We sequenced 1, 718 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase genes for all Wiseana species and haplotypes using 75 specimens collected from 42 sites throughout New Zealand...
May 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543984/cycle-affects-imidacloprid-efficiency-by-mediating-cytochrome-p450-expression-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#11
K Kang, P Yang, R Pang, L Yue, W Zhang
Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]...
May 23, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543918/gut-microbiota-of-the-pine-weevil-degrades-conifer-diterpenes-and-increases-insect-fitness
#12
Aileen Berasategui, Hassan Salem, Christian Paetz, Maricel Santoro, Jonathan Gershenzon, Martin Kaltenpoth, Axel Schmdit
The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis), a major pest of conifer forests throughout Europe, feeds on the bark and cambium, tissues rich in terpenoid resins that are toxic to many insect herbivores. Here we report the ability of the pine weevil gut microbiota to degrade the diterpene acids of Norway spruce. The diterpene acid levels present in ingested bark were substantially reduced on passage through the pine weevil gut. This reduction was significantly less upon antibiotic treatment, and supplementing the diet with gut suspensions from untreated insects restored the ability to degrade diterpenes...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541568/effect-of-feeding-history-and-time-elapsed-from-field-collection-on-the-movement-behavior-and-response-to-stimulation-in-cimex-lectularius-hemiptera-cimicidae
#13
Desen Wang, Changlu Wang, Narinderpal Singh, Amanda L Eiden, Richard Cooper, Chen Zha
The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that has been resurging in many countries. Researching this pest's behavior will help design more effective control methods. In this study, we evaluated the effect of feeding history and time elapsed from field collection on bed bug movement behavior and response to chemical lure or carbon dioxide stimulation in the laboratory. After CO2 was released, bed bugs unfed for 3 d began to return to harborages; in contrast, the ones unfed for 2 and 4 wk spent significantly more time outside their harborages during the first 1 h after than the 1 h before CO2 release...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541553/occurrence-of-15-haplotypes-of-linepithema-micans-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-southern-brazil
#14
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, C Martins, T Campos, A Nondillo, M Botton, O C Bueno
The ant genus Linepithema is widely known, thanks to the pest species Linepithema humile (Mayr), which is easily mistaken for Linepithema micans (Forel) due to their morphological similarity. Like L. humile, L. micans is associated to the main grapevine pest in Brazil, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille), also known as ground pearl. Therefore, the present study uses mtDNA fragments to expand the knowledge of haplotype diversity and distribution of L. micans in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), to understand the genetic differences of the populations identified in this study...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541548/unidirectional-cross-resistance-in-german-cockroach-blattodea-blattellidae-populations-under-exposure-to-insecticidal-baits
#15
Dangsheng Liang, Jade McGill, Jose E Pietri
Insect pests, including the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), are prone to the development of physiological resistance when exposed to a number of insecticide sprays, and cross-resistance is frequently observed. Toxic baits are often used as a primary method of controlling German cockroaches, also resulting in heavy selection pressure from insecticidal baits. In response to this pressure, cockroach populations have developed aversion to specific inert ingredients in bait. Here, we examined the effect of exposure to baits containing fipronil, indoxacarb, or hydramethylnon on the development of physiological resistance to the same and other insecticides in a number of German cockroach strains...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541540/reproductive-status-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-females-influences-attraction-to-fermentation-based-baits-and-ripe-fruits
#16
Katharine A Swoboda-Bhattarai, Douglas R McPhie, Hannah J Burrack
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive species that is a devastating pest of soft-skinned fruit crops. Although much effort has been directed toward developing traps and attractants to monitor for D. suzukii, current monitoring tools do not reliably predict fruit infestation. The objective of this study was to determine if D. suzukii females at different developmental stages are differentially attracted to monitoring traps with fermentation-based baits and ripe fruits. Females were collected on the surface of traps, within traps, and on ripe fruits during three experiments at field locations in North Carolina, USA, and were dissected to determine their reproductive status...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541530/population-projection-and-development-of-the-mythimna-loreyi-lepidoptera-noctuidae-as-affected-by-temperature-application-of-an-age-stage-two-sex-life-table
#17
Jianyang Qin, Lei Zhang, Yueqiu Liu, Thomas W Sappington, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Xingfu Jiang
The Mythimna (=Leucania) loreyi (Duponchel) has recently emerged as a major pest of grain crops in China. Little is known about its basic biology and ecology, making it difficult to predict its population dynamics. An age-stage, two-sex life table was constructed for this insect when reared on maize in the laboratory at five constant temperatures (18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 °C). Both the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate increase (λ) increased as temperature significantly increased and mean generation time (T) decreased significantly with increasing temperature...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541523/attraction-of-the-euwallacea-sp-near-fornicatus-coleoptera-curculionidae-to-quercivorol-and-to-infestations-in-avocado
#18
John A Byers, Yonatan Maoz, Anat Levi-Zada
The Euwallacea sp. near fornicatus (Euwallacea sp. 1 hereafter) feeds on many woody shrubs and trees and is a pest of avocado, Persea americana Mill., in several countries including Israel and the United States. Quercivorol baits are commercially available for Euwallacea sp. 1 females (males do not fly), but their attractive strength compared to other pheromones and potential for mass trapping are unknown. We used sticky traps baited with quercivorol released at 0.126 mg/d (1×) and at 0.01×, 0.1×, and 10× relative rates to obtain a dose-response curve of Euwallacea sp...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541434/rapid-cold-hardening-capacity-and-its-impact-on-performance-of-russian-wheat-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae
#19
Fatemeh Saeidi, Saeid Moharramipour, Azam Mikani
The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is one of the most important pests of wheat and barley in most wheat-producing countries. Rapid cold hardiness (RCH) is a capacity of insects to develop, within hours, protection against subfreezing temperatures that plays an important role in aphid survival in response to sudden decreases in air temperature. In this research, we investigated the duration and rate of cooling on the induction of RCH of D. noxia and the costs of RCH on aphid development and fecundity...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541121/investigation-of-the-binding-and-simultaneous-quantifications-of-propanil-and-bromoxynil-herbicide-concentrations-in-human-serum-albumin
#20
Eric Appah, Brianda Elzey, Sayo O Fakayode
This study reported the use of UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and partial-least-square (PLS) multivariate regression for accurate and simultaneous quantifications of two widely used herbicides, propanil, 3',4'-dichloropropionanilide (PPL) and bromoxynil, 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (BXL) in human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological conditions. The binding affinity and thermodynamic properties of PPL-HSA and BXL-HSA complexes were also investigated. Partial-least-square (PLS) regression was used to collate the variability in the absorption or emission spectra of PPL-HSA and BXL-HSA complexes with PPL and/or BXL concentrations in HSA samples...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
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