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A Fuentes, W E Braswell, R Ruiz-Arce, A Racelis
Citrus greening disease, or huanglongbing (HLB), is currently one of the most devastating diseases of citrus. The bacteria thought to be responsible for the disease, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus impact the majority of commercial citrus species worldwide. These bacteria are transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which is now found in most citrus growing regions. With no known cure, ACP-vectored HLB is responsible for significant economic losses to the global citrus industry...
2018: PloS One
Bruce P Bryant, Fred Kraus
To elucidate the nociceptive system of the brown treesnake, Boiga irregularis, we exposed isolated brown treesnake trigeminal neurons to thermal and chemical stimulation. We measured responses as changes in intracellular calcium using ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging. Responses to aversive thermal and chemical identified several classes of putative nociceptors. Compounds that were aversive excited many trigeminal neurons, putative chemonociceptors. Identification as nociceptors was further supported by lack of activation by compounds that were not aversive...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Alexandra Nava Brezolin, Janine Martinazzo, Daniela Kunkel Muenchen, Alana Marie de Cezaro, Aline Andressa Rigo, Clarice Steffens, Juliana Steffens, Maria Carolina Blassioli-Moraes, Miguel Borges
Semiochemicals are chemical compounds that are released by many species as a means of intra- and interspecific communication. Insects have extremely advanced olfactory systems; indeed, they rely on smell when performing many of their main behaviors, such as oviposition, breeding, prey location, and defense. This characteristic of insects implies that semiochemicals could be used for various applications, including in agriculture, where they could be employed along with other tools to control pest insects. The aim of this review is to present the main techniques used and the state of the art in the detection of semiochemicals, focusing on pheromones...
July 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sophie Labaude, Christine T Griffin
Entomopathogenic nematodes from the two genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are widely used as biological agents against various insect pests and represent a promising alternative to replace pesticides. Efficacy and biocontrol success can be enhanced through improved understanding of their biology and ecology. Many endogenous and environmental factors influence the survival of nematodes following application, as well as their transmission success to the target species. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the major topics currently considered to affect transmission success of these biological control agents, including interactions with insects, plants and other members of the soil biota including conspecifics...
June 20, 2018: Insects
Z-Z Chen, L-X Xu, L-L Li, H-B Wu, Y-Y Xu
The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an important pest in many commercial orchards including apple, pear and peach orchards, and responsible for substantial economic losses every year. To help in attaining a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the ecological tolerances of G. molesta, we collected life history data of individuals reared on apples under different constant temperature regimes and compared the data with moths reared under a variable outdoor temperature environment. Because G...
June 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Christopher J Lehiy, Lindsey M Reister-Hendricks, Mark G Ruder, D Scott McVey, Barbara S Drolet
BACKGROUND: Hematophagous Culicoides spp. biting midges are of great agricultural importance as livestock, equine, and wildlife pests and as vectors of the orbiviruses bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and African horse sickness. To obtain a blood meal, midges deposit saliva containing allergens, proteases, and anti-hemostatic factors, into the dermis to facilitate feeding. Infected midges deposit virus along with the myriad of salivary proteins during feeding. The extreme efficiency with which midges are able to transmit orbiviruses is not clearly understood, as much is still unknown about the physiological trauma of the bite and immune responses to saliva deposited during feeding...
June 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Siva Kumar Golla, P Rajasekhar, S M D Akbar, H C Sharma
Wild relatives of crops are an important source of resistance genes against insect pests. However, it is important to identify the accessions of wild relatives with different mechanisms of resistance to broaden the basis and increase the levels of resistance to insect pests. Therefore, we evaluated 15 accessions of wild relatives of chickpea belonging to seven species and five genotypes of cultivated chickpea for their resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, which is the most damaging pest of chickpea...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Chase A Stratton, Elisabeth A Hodgdon, Samuel G Zuckerman, Anthony M Shelton, Yolanda H Chen
Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an invasive pest causing significant damage on Brassica crops in the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Heading brassicas, like cauliflower, appear to be particularly susceptible. Swede midge is difficult to control because larvae feed concealed inside meristematic tissues of the plant. In order to develop damage and marketability thresholds necessary for integrated pest management, it is important to determine how many larvae render plants unmarketable and whether the timing of infestation affects the severity of damage...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Mihwa Yi, Will Q Hendricks, Joshua Kaste, Nikki D Charlton, Padmaja Nagabhyru, Daniel G Panaccione, Carolyn A Young
Epichloë species (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) are endophytic symbionts of many cool-season grasses. Many interactions between Epichloë and their host grasses contribute to plant growth promotion, protection from many pathogens and insect pests, and tolerance to drought stress. Resistance to insect herbivores by endophytes associated with Hordeum species has been previously shown to vary depending on the endophyte-grass-insect combination. We explored the genetic and chemotypic diversity of endophytes present in wild Hordeum species...
April 18, 2018: Mycologia
Chunxin Wang, Bo Cui, Xiang Zhao, Yan Wang, Zhanghua Zeng, Changjiao Sun, Dongsheng Yang, Guoqiang Liu, Haixin Cui
BACKGROUND: Pesticide is an important agriculture necessity to control plant diseases and pests, ensuring safe production of food. However, the low efficacy, large dosage and high-frequency use of conventional pesticide formulation seriously induced food safety and ecological environment issues. In this research, lambda- cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion (LCSND) was developed by self-dispersing method. RESULT: The mean particle size of the lambda-cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion was 32...
June 20, 2018: Pest Management Science
Daniel Alberto Pérez-Aguilar, Marianne Araújo Soares, Luis Clepf Passos, Ana Mabel Martínez, Samuel Pineda, Geraldo Andrade Carvalho
The mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) is a promising biological control agent of the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), one of the most destructive pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The effects of five insecticides commonly used on tomato crops in Brazil were evaluated on E. varians in laboratory and semifield conditions. Glass Petri dish with residues of chlorfenapyr, thiamethoxam, and abamectin caused ˃90% mortality in both stages of the predator 72 h post-treatment, except imidacloprid that caused 78% of nymphs mortality...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Lina Bernaola, Marco Cosme, Raymond W Schneider, Michael Stout
Plants face numerous challenges from both aboveground and belowground stressors, and defend themselves against harmful insects and microorganisms in many ways. Because plant responses to biotic stresses are not only local but also systemic, belowground interactions can influence aboveground interactions in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soilborne organisms that form symbiotic associations with many plant roots and are thought to play a central role in plant nutrition, growth, and fitness...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nunzio Fiorentino, Valeria Ventorino, Sheridan L Woo, Olimpia Pepe, Armando De Rosa, Laura Gioia, Ida Romano, Nadia Lombardi, Mauro Napolitano, Giuseppe Colla, Youssef Rouphael
Microbial inoculants such as Trichoderma -based products are receiving great interest among researchers and agricultural producers for their potential to improve crop productivity, nutritional quality as well as resistance to plant pathogens/pests and numerous environmental stresses. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of Trichoderma -based biostimulants under suboptimal, optimal and supraoptimal levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization in two leafy vegetables: Iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
James J Odanga, Samira Mohamed, Sizah Mwalusepo, Florence Olubayo, Richard Nyankanga, Fathiya Khamis, Ivan Rwomushana, Tino Johansson, Sunday Ekesi
Avocado ( Persea americana ) fruits are an important source of income and a nutritious food for small-scale growers and other stakeholders involved in farming along the Afrotropical highlands of Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. Avocado fruits are infested by several insect pests, namely the Asian invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, there is inadequate information on the distribution patterns of these pests in small-scale avocado cropping systems in the East African highlands...
June 19, 2018: Insects
Thiago Castro, Rafael de Andrade Moral, Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio, Italo Delalibera, Ingeborg Klingen
Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment...
June 19, 2018: Insects
Xiangbing Yang, Yong-Biao Liu
BACKGROUND: The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and western flower thips, Frankliniella occidentalis, are quarantine pests of lettuce in Asian markets and, therefore, require treatments on lettuce exported from USA to Japan and Taiwan respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant for postharvest pest control and has been demonstrated safe to fresh fruit and vegetables. In this study, small-scale NO fumigations were conducted to determine effective treatments and large-scale confirmatory tests were conducted to determine the efficacy against N...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
Maor Matzrafi
Pesticide efficacy is strongly associated with environmental conditions. Conditional resistance defined as a reduction in pesticide sensitivity under changed environmental conditions has been widely detected under climatic changes such as elevated temperatures and CO2 enrichment. Given the effects of environmental conditions on pesticide sensitivity, many of the putative resistance reports made by farmers may be due to pesticide application followed by non-optimal environmental conditions rather than the evolution of resistance...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
Kazuki Shibuya, Shun Onodera, Masatoshi Hori
Short-wavelength visible light (blue light: 400-500 nm) has lethal effects on various insects, such as fruit flies, mosquitoes, and flour beetles. However, the most toxic wavelengths of blue light might differ across developmental stages. Here, we investigate how the toxicity of blue light changes with the developmental stages of an insect by irradiating Drosophila melanogaster with different wavelengths of blue light. Specifically, the lethal effect on eggs increased at shorter light wavelengths (i.e., toward 405 nm)...
2018: PloS One
Steven L Levine, Christopher J Borgert
Mixing pesticides with different modes of action can provide a wider spectrum of control with fewer applications compared to using single active ingredients and is essential for comprehensive management of pest resistance. Mixture studies with pesticides are performed to assess compatibility, combined efficacy, and potential for toxicological interactions that damage crops. The purpose of this paper is to review and recommend previously published scientific criteria for evaluating the quality, relevance and interpretability of data on toxicological interactions and to demonstrate a methodology for applying them objectively to mixtures studies used in ecological risk assessment...
June 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Shaodong Guo, Volker Herzig, Glenn F King
The growing world population is placing an increasing demand on food production. In addition, abuse and misuse of chemical insecticides has led to the evolution of resistance in insect pests as well as environmental damage. Together, these developments have created a demand for new insecticidal compounds to facilitate global food production. Arachnid venom peptides provide an environmentally-friendly alternative as potential bioinsecticides given their advantages of being fully biodegradable, highly potent, and phyletically selective...
June 16, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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