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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109070/peste-des-petits-ruminants-risk-factors-and-space-time-clusters-in-mymensingh-bangladesh
#1
M S Rony, A K M A Rahman, M M Alam, N Dhand, M P Ward
Using a hospital-based case-control study design, our aim was to identify risk factors for-and space-time clusters of-Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Three hundred and eighty PPR cases diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2014 at the Bangladesh Agricultural University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (BAUVTH) were selected; three controls per case from BAUVTH were then selected (n = 1,048). From records, data extracted included information on date of report, location, age, breed, sex and body weight of goats...
January 21, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108117/a-single-intervention-for-cockroach-control-reduces-cockroach-exposure-and-asthma-morbidity-in-children
#2
Felicia A Rabito, John C Carlson, Hua He, Derek Werthmann, Coby Schal
BACKGROUND: Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106771/independent-effects-of-a-herbivore-s-bacterial-symbionts-on-its-performance-and-induced-plant-defences
#3
Heike Staudacher, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Mart M Lamers, Nicky Wybouw, Astrid T Groot, Merijn R Kant
It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106093/insecticidal-toxicities-of-carvacrol-and-thymol-derived-from-thymus-vulgaris-lin-against-pochazia-shantungensis-chou-lu-newly-recorded-pest
#4
Jun-Hwan Park, Ye-Jin Jeon, Chi-Hoon Lee, Namhyun Chung, Hoi-Seon Lee
The insecticidal toxicities of five essential oils against Pochazia shantungensis adults and nymphs, newly recorded pests, were evaluated. The LC50 values of Thymus vulgaris, Ruta graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Leptospermum petersonii and Achillea millefolium oils were recorded as 57.48, 84.44, 92.58, 113.26 and 125.78 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis nymphs using the leaf dipping bioassay, and 75.80, 109.86, 113.26, 145.06 and 153.74 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis adults using the spray bioassay method...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105930/genetic-diversity-among-eight-dendrolimus-species-in-eurasia-lepidoptera-lasiocampidae-inferred-from-mitochondrial-coi-and-coii-and-nuclear-its2-markers
#5
Alexander Kononov, Kirill Ustyantsev, Baode Wang, Victor C Mastro, Victor Fet, Alexander Blinov, Yuri Baranchikov
BACKGROUND: Moths of genus Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) are among the major pests of coniferous forests worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature of this genus are not entirely established, and there are many species with a controversial taxonomic position. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the most economically important Dendrolimus species in Eurasia. RESULTS: Our analysis was based on the nucleotide sequences of COI and COII mitochondrial genes and ITS2 spacer of nuclear ribosomal genes...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105564/occurrence-and-fate-of-pesticides-in-the-argentine-stretch-of-the-paraguay-paran%C3%A3-basin
#6
M A Etchegoyen, A E Ronco, P Almada, M Abelando, D J Marino
The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010-2012)...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103237/adult-tea-green-leafhoppers-empoasca-onukii-matsuda-change-behaviors-under-varying-light-conditions
#7
Longqing Shi, Liette Vasseur, Huoshui Huang, Zhaohua Zeng, Guiping Hu, Xin Liu, Minsheng You
Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101989/diagnosis-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-wild-and-domestic-animals-in-xinjiang-china-2013-2016
#8
J Li, L Li, X Wu, F Liu, Y Zou, Q Wang, C Liu, J Bao, W Wang, W Ma, H Lin, J Huang, X Zheng, Z Wang
Peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) re-emerged in China at the end of 2013 and then spread rapidly into 22 provinces through movement of live goats and sheep. In this study, 96 samples of domestic animals and 13 samples of wildlife were analysed for the presence of PPRV infection by ELISA or RT-PCR. Of 96 samples from sheep and goats, 91 were PPRV positive, whereas all of the 13 samples from three wild species, Capra ibex (Capra ibex sibirica), argali (Ovis ammon) and Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), were found to be positive...
January 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100451/an-aphid-effector-targets-trafficking-protein-vps52-in-a-host-specific-manner-to-promote-virulence
#9
Patricia Rodriguez, Carmen Escudero-Martinez, Jorunn Bos
Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100450/a-2-oxoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenase-mediates-the-biosynthesis-of-glucoraphasatin-in-radish
#10
Tomohiro Kakizaki, Hiroyasu Kitashiba, Zhongwei Zou, Feng Li, Nobuko Fukino, Takayoshi Ohara, Takeshi Nishio, Masahiko Ishida
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis thaliana. GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL compositions even within individual species...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100280/erratum-to-the-whole-genome-sequence-of-the-mediterranean-fruit-fly-ceratitis-capitata-wiedemann-reveals-insights-into-the-biology-and-adaptive-evolution-of-a-highly-invasive-pest-species
#11
Alexie Papanicolaou, Marc F Schetelig, Peter Arensburger, Peter W Atkinson, Joshua B Benoit, Kostas Bourtzis, Pedro Castañera, John P Cavanaugh, Hsu Chao, Christopher Childers, Ingrid Curril, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Amanda Dolan, Shannon Dugan, Markus Friedrich, Giuliano Gasperi, Scott Geib, Georgios Georgakilas, Richard A Gibbs, Sarah D Giers, Ludvik M Gomulski, Miguel González-Guzmán, Ana Guillem-Amat, Yi Han, Artemis G Hatzigeorgiou, Pedro Hernández-Crespo, Daniel S T Hughes, Jeffery W Jones, Dimitra Karagkouni, Panagiota Koskinioti, Sandra L Lee, Anna R Malacrida, Mosè Manni, Kostas Mathiopoulos, Angela Meccariello, Monica Munoz-Torres, Shwetha C Murali, Terence D Murphy, Donna M Muzny, Georg Oberhofer, Félix Ortego, Maria D Paraskevopoulou, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Martin Reczko, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Andrew E Rosselot, Giuseppe Saccone, Marco Salvemini, Grazia Savini, Patrick Schreiner, Francesca Scolari, Paolo Siciliano, Sheina B Sim, George Tsiamis, Enric Ureña, Ioannis S Vlachos, John H Werren, Ernst A Wimmer, Kim C Worley, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Stephen Richards, Alfred M Handler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100213/transcriptomic-response-of-wolf-spider-pardosa-pseudoannulata-to-transgenic-rice-expressing-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-protein
#12
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Kaifu Xiao, Baoyang Wei, Jilin Hu, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song, Xuguo Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides. Non-target organisms can be exposed to Bt toxins through direct feeding or trophic interactions in the field. The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, one of the dominant predators in South China, plays a crucial role in the rice agroecosystem. In this study, we investigated transcriptome responses of the 5th instar spiders fed on preys maintained on Bt- and non-Bt rice...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099506/spatial-and-host-related-variation-in-prevalence-and-population-density-of-wheat-curl-mite-aceria-tosichella-cryptic-genotypes-in-agricultural-landscapes
#13
Anna Skoracka, Mariusz Lewandowski, Brian G Rector, Wiktoria Szydło, Lechosław Kuczyński
The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host associations and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant species and landscape spatial variation influence WCM presence and population density across the entire area of Poland (>311,000 km2). Three important findings arose from the results of the study. (1) The majority of WCM lineages analyzed exhibited variation in patterns of prevalence and/or population density on both spatial and host-associated scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099087/effects-of-biochar-on-the-emissions-soil-distribution-and-nematode-control-of-1-3-dichloropropene
#14
Daniel J Ashworth, Scott R Yates, Guoqing Shen
Emissions of volatile soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) from soil to air are a significant concern in relation to air quality, and cost-effective strategies to reduce such emissions are urgently required by growers to help them comply with increasingly stringent regulations. In this work, application of a rice husk-derived biochar to the surface of a sandy loam soil chamber reduced soil-air emissions of 1,3-D from 42% in a control (no biochar) to 8% due to adsorption onto the biochar. This adsorbed 1,3-D showed a potential for re-volatilization into air and solubilization into the soil-liquid phase...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098189/global-identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-chlorantraniliprole-resistance-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#15
Bin Zhu, Xiuxia Li, Ying Liu, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most serious cruciferous pests and has developed high resistance to most insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Previous studies have reported several protein-coding genes that involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance, but research on resistance mechanisms at the post-transcription level is still limited. In this study, a global screen of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella was performed...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098183/seasonal-and-regional-presence-of-hymenopteran-parasitoids-of-drosophila-in-switzerland-and-their-ability-to-parasitize-the-invasive-drosophila-suzukii
#16
Valery Knoll, Thomas Ellenbroek, Jörg Romeis, Jana Collatz
Since its introduction into Europe the invasive Drosophila suzukii has established and spread widely, thereby entering habitats populated by native Drosophila species and their natural enemies. The highly prolific D. suzukii will likely interact with these species as a competitor, host or prey. To investigate potential interactions of D. suzukii with parasitoids, a field survey was conducted across several fruit-growing regions in Switzerland in two consecutive years. Eight species of hymenopteran parasitoids were collected using D...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098179/a-salivary-ef-hand-calcium-binding-protein-of-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-functions-as-an-effector-for-defense-responses-in-rice
#17
Wenfeng Ye, Haixin Yu, Yukun Jian, Jiamei Zeng, Rui Ji, Hongdan Chen, Yonggen Lou
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice by BPH nymphs whose NlSEF1 was knocked down elicited higher levels of Ca(2+) and H2O2 but not jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and SA in rice than did infestation by control nymphs; Consistently, wounding plus the recombination protein NlSEF1 suppressed the production of H2O2 in rice...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097417/bistability-induced-by-generalist-natural-enemies-can-reverse-pest-invasions
#18
Sten Madec, Jérôme Casas, Guy Barles, Christelle Suppo
Analytical modeling of predator-prey systems has shown that specialist natural enemies can slow, stop and even reverse pest invasions, assuming that the prey population displays a strong Allee effect in its growth. We aimed to formalize the conditions in which spatial biological control can be achieved by generalists, through an analytical approach based on reaction-diffusion equations. Using comparison principles, we obtain sufficient conditions for control and for invasion, based on scalar bistable partial differential equations...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095490/costs-and-tradeoffs-of-resistance-and-tolerance-to-belowground-herbivory-in-potato
#19
Etzel Garrido, Maria Fernanda Díaz, Hugo Bernal, Carlos Eduardo Ñustez, Jennifer Thaler, Georg Jander, Katja Poveda
The success of sustainable crop production depends on our ability to select or create varieties that can allocate resources to both growth and defence. However, breeding efforts have emphasized increases in yields but have partially neglected defence traits against pests. Estimating the costs of multiple defences against tuber herbivores and the tradeoffs among them, as well as understanding the relationship between yield and multiple defences is still unknown but relevant to both basic and applied ecology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095328/an-integrated-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-perivitelline-fluid-proteins-in-a-freshwater-gastropod-laying-aerial-eggs
#20
Huawei Mu, Jin Sun, Horacio Heras, Ka Hou Chu, Jian-Wen Qiu
: Proteins of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds the embryo are critical for embryonic development in many animals, but little is known about their identities. Using an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we identified 64 proteins from the PVF of Pomacea maculata - a freshwater snail adopting aerial oviposition. Proteins were classified into eight functional groups: major multifunctional perivitellin subunits, immune response, energy metabolism, protein degradation, oxidation-reduction, signaling and binding, transcription and translation, and others...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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