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Romola Jane Davenport, Max Satchell, Leigh Matthew William Shaw-Taylor
Smallpox is regarded as an ancient and lethal disease of humans, however very little is known about the prevalence and impact of smallpox before the advent of vaccination (c.1800). Here we use evidence from English burial records covering the period 1650-1799 to confirm a striking geography to smallpox patterns. Smallpox apparently circulated as a childhood disease in northern England and Sweden, even where population densities were low and settlement patterns dispersed. However, smallpox was a relatively rare epidemic disease in southern England outside the largest cities, despite its commercialised economy and the growing spatial interconnectedness of its settlements...
April 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Muhammad Qasim, Wang Baohua, Huasong Zou, Yongwen Lin, Chandra Kanta Dash, Bamisope Steve Bamisile, Mubasher Hussain, Zhao Zhiwen, Liande Wang
Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a severely devastating pest of Rutaceae plants, mainly citrus, across the globe, and causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. To find out the genetic relationship and diversity among the populations of ACP and associated Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) from two countries (China and Pakistan), sequence data of three different genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), Cu-transporting protein (ATOX1) and 16S rRNA, were used to characterize all populations...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lei Chen, Jian-Rong Huang, Jun Dai, Yan-Fei Guo, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
A new outbreak pest, Athetis lepigone (Möschler) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has caused severe economic loss in maize crops in China. In order to conduct population genetics study with a more polymorphic and scientific mitochondrial marker, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 13 different A. lepigone individuals. Intraspecific comparison of all PCGs showed that the NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome b genes had the highest nucleotide diversity. We also found evidence of episodic positive selection on two amino acids, which are encoded by NADH dehydrogenase genes (ND3 and ND4L), against a background of widespread neutral selection of all other mitochondrial PCGs...
April 20, 2018: Genomics
Paula F Zermoglio, Marcela K Castelo, Claudio R Lazzari
The increase in body temperature over that of the environment has been frequently reported in insects, in particular in relation with flight activity. Scarab beetles of the genus Cyclocephala living in tropical areas are known to exploit the heat produced by thermogenic plants, also producing heat by endothermy. Here, we report the first case of endothermy in a species of this genus living in a temperate region, Cyclocephala signaticollis. We characterised the phenomenon in this beetle using infrared thermography and exposing them to different thermal conditions...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Kailang Yang, Xiaojian Wen, Yuan Ren, Junbao Wen
Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cuculionidae) is a borer that mainly attacks the tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), and is one of the most damaging forestry pests in China. We developed a trap net for entangling and immobilizing soil-emerging weevils in order to reduce their impact. Recapture rates of weevils in the laboratory was significantly higher with nylon netting of 9, 10, or 11 mm mesh sizes than larger sizes, and these sizes were used to make trial nets for preventing weevil emergence from the soil around impacted trees in the field...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anup Bastola, Jeffrey A Davis
The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has emerged as a major stink bug pest of soybean in Louisiana during the last decade. In the spring, this species is usually found in leguminous hosts where populations can build up before migrating to soybean fields in the summer. However, studies looking at the preference of this species to the potential spring leguminous hosts under the natural conditions are lacking. Field studies were conducted in different geographical locations of Louisiana from 2013 to 2015 to evaluate preference of P...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jenny L Bibb, Donald Cook, Angus Catchot, Fred Musser, Scott D Stewart, Billy Rogers Leonard, G David Buntin, David Kerns, Tom W Allen, Jeffrey Gore
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly infests field corn, Zea mays (L.). The combination of corn plant biology, corn earworm behavior in corn ecosystems, and field corn value renders corn earworm management with foliar insecticides noneconomical. Corn technologies containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were introduced that exhibit substantial efficacy against corn earworm and may reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain. The first generation Bt traits in field corn demonstrated limited activity on corn earworm feeding on grain...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jakub Goczal, Robert Rossa, Anna Nawrocka, Jon David Sweeney, Adam Tofilski
Biological invasions provide a unique opportunity to gain insight into basic biological processes occurring under new circumstances. During the process of establishment, exotic species are exposed to various stressors which may affect their development. Presence of the stressors is often detected by measurements of left-right body asymmetry, which consists of two main components: fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetry constitutes random differences between the two body sides, whereas directional asymmetry occurs when a particular trait is bigger on one of the sides...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Fengqi Li, Ningning Fu, Du Li, Hetang Chang, Cheng Qu, Ran Wang, Yihua Xu, Chen Luo
The spread of the exotic insect pest sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Say) is increasing worldwide. The identification of behaviorally active compounds is crucial for reducing the current distribution of this pest. In this study, we identified and documented the expression profiles of genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in the sycamore lace bug to identify CSPs that bind to the alarm pheromone geraniol. One CSP ( CcilCSP2 ) that was highly expressed in nymph antennae was found to bind geraniol with high affinity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ivan Hiltpold, W Gregory Shriver
It has long been thought that most birds do not use volatile cues to perceive their environment. Aside from some scavenging birds, this large group of vertebrates was believed to mostly rely on highly developed vision while foraging and there are relatively few studies exploring bird response to volatile organic compounds. In response to insect herbivory, plants release volatile organic compounds to attract parasitoids and predators of the pests. To test if insectivorous birds use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), dispensers emitting a synthetic blend of HIPV typically emitted after insect herbivory were deployed in a maize field along with imitation clay caterpillars...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Heleen Verlinden
Dopamine is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter in invertebrates and vertebrates. It is biochemically derived from tyrosine via L-DOPA. It is most abundant in the central nervous system, but can also be produced in e.g. epidermal cells. Dopamine has conserved roles in the control of movement, pleasure, motivation, arousal and memory between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. It is crucial for melanisation and sclerotisation, important processes for the formation of the exoskeleton of insects and immune function...
April 19, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Qian Bo, Lu Chen, Yahui Liu, Chunjie Chang, Xiaoli Ying, Fengliang Li, Luogen Cheng
Pesticides have been used extensively for pest control, resulting in serious pesticide resistance. It is extremely valuable to identify the resistance genes related to pest control. In our previous studies, we reported that Ran is the deltamethrin (DM) resistance-associated gene. To clarify whether Ran is also related to the resistance of other pesticides, we selected four kinds of pesticides, including parathion, DDT, carbaryl and pleocidin, for further study. The results showed that Ran could be up-regulated by all pesticides...
April 19, 2018: Gene
Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase
The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii has evolved morphological and behavioural adaptations to lay eggs under the skin of fresh fruits. This results in severe damage to a wide range of small fruits. Drosophila suzukii females typically lay few eggs per fruit, preferring healthy fruits. Hence, larvae are exposed to a reduced amount of nitrogenous waste. Differently, the innocuous Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs on fermented fruits already infested by conspecifics, with larvae developing in a crowded environment with the accumulation of nitrogenous waste such as ammonia and urea...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mosharrof Mondal, Kody Mansfield, Alex Flynt
RNAi has revolutionized genetic research, and is being commercialized as an insect pest control technology. Mechanisms exploited for this purpose are antiviral and therefore rapidly evolving. Ideally, RNAi will also be used for non-insect pests, however, differences in RNAi biology makes this uncertain. Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) is a destructive non-insect pest, which has a proclivity to develop pesticide resistance. Here we provide a comprehensive study of the endogenous RNAi pathways of spider mites to inform design of exogenous RNAi triggers...
April 20, 2018: RNA
Jin Ge, Jia-Ning Wei, Ding-Jie Zhang, Chun Hu, De-Zhi Zheng, Le Kang
The pea leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) is a notorious pest of vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide. Despite a large number of studies on its biology and ecology, the courtship behavior and sexual communication of this species remain unclear. Here, we studied the vibrational communication in the sexual interaction of the pea leafminer. On host plant leaves, females and males behaviorally displayed the bobbing-quivering alternation, which finally led to copulation. Moreover, records of laser vibrometry revealed three-signal duets underlying the behavioral alternation...
April 20, 2018: Insect Science
Roghayeh Shamsi Gushki, Mohammadreza Lashkari, Saeid Mirzaei
Jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) are considered important vectors of plant diseases and also economically important pests in agriculture and forest ecosystems. Three psyllid species Psyllopsis repens Loginova, 1963, Psyllopsis securicola Loginova, 1963, and Psyllopsis machinosus Loginova, 1963 associated with the ash tree Fraxinus are morphologically very similar. So far, their distinction has been possible only by comparing their male and female genitalia. In this research, forewing shape and size characteristics, sexual dimorphism and their allometric effects, using geometric morphometric analysis, were examined for identification purposes...
2018: ZooKeys
Qin Li, Hongying Hu, Serguei V Triapitsyn, Long Yi, Jiaxiong Lu
A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), A. (Anagrus) dmitrievi Triapitsyn & Hu, sp. n. , is described, diagnosed, and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Zyginidia (Zyginidia) eremita Zachvatkin (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) on leaves of maize. A key to the 21 named species of Anagrus known from China is provided. Zyginidia eremita is an important economic pest in Xinjiang, occurring in approximately 90% of maize fields...
2018: ZooKeys
Soundappan S Mohanraj, Sarada D Tetali, Nalini Mallikarjuna, Aparna Dutta-Gupta, Kollipara Padmasree
Crude proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) extracted from the seeds of Rhynchosia sublobata, a wild relative of pigeon pea showed pronounced inhibitory activity on the larval gut trypsin-like proteases of lepidopteran insect pest - Achaea janata. Consequently, a full-length cDNA of Bowman-Birk inhibitor gene (RsBBI1) was cloned from the immature seeds of R. sublobata. It contained an ORF of 360 bp encoding a 119-amino acid polypeptide (13.3 kDa) chain with an N-terminus signal sequence comprising of 22 amino acids...
April 16, 2018: Phytochemistry
Saad M Alzahrani, Paul R Ebert
Phosphine is the only general use fumigant for the protection of stored grain, though its long-term utility is threatened by the emergence of highly phosphine-resistant pests. Given this precarious situation, it is essential to identify factors, such as stress preconditioning, that interfere with the efficacy of phosphine fumigation. We used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to test the effect of pre-exposure to heat and cold shock, UV and gamma irradiation on phosphine potency. Heat shock significantly increased tolerance to phosphine by 3-fold in wild-type nematodes, a process that was dependent on the master regulator of the heat shock response, HSF-1...
2018: PloS One
Paul W Tooley, Marsha Browning
We examined the impact of relative humidity (RH) on Phytophthora ramorum sporangia production on Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White'. When diseased plants were maintained under continuous moisture in a mist tent, sporangia were collected from some plants for 22 weeks. More than 3,000 sporangia/leaf/week were collected over the first 3 weeks but levels declined to <100 sporangia/leaf/week after 7 weeks. We also examined the impact of drying on P. ramorum sporangia production. Diseased, detached leaves were maintained in humidity chambers (100, 96...
April 17, 2018: Phytopathology
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