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Bed bugs

Ali Gharouni, Lin Wang
A patch-structured multigroup-like $SIS$ epidemiological model is proposed to study the spread of the common bed bug infestation. It is shown that the model exhibits global threshold dynamics with the basic reproduction number as the threshold parameter. Costs associated with the disinfestation process are incorporated into setting up the optimization problems. Procedures are proposed and simulated for finding optimal resource allocation strategies to achieve the infestation free state. Our analysis and simulations provide useful insights on how to efficiently distribute the available exterminators among the infested patches for optimal disinfestation management...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. RESULTS: LC50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an in vitro feeder...
October 21, 2016: Pest Management Science
Hemant Gujar, Subba Reddy Palli
To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Toby Fountain, Mark Ravinet, Richard Naylor, Klaus Reinhardt, Roger K Butlin
The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide resistance is increasingly widespread...
October 12, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Zachary C DeVries, Russell Mick, Coby Schal
Host location in bed bugs is poorly understood. Of the primary host-associated cues known to attract bed bugs - CO2, odors, heat - heat has received little attention as an independent stimulus. We evaluated the effects of target temperatures ranging from 23-48°C on bed bug activation, orientation, and feeding. Activation and orientation responses were assessed using a heated target in a circular arena. All targets heated above ambient temperature activated bed bugs (initiated movement) and elicited oriented movement toward the target, with higher temperatures generally resulting in faster activation and orientation...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
C A McNeill, S A Allan, P G Koehler, R M Pereira, E N I Weeks
Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behaviour to improve management. While few studies have investigated the visual capabilities of bed bugs, the present study focused specifically on eye morphology and spectral sensitivity. A 3-D imaging technique was used to document bed bug eye morphology from the first instar through adult and revealed morphological characteristics that differentiate the common bed bug from the tropical bed bug as well as sex-specific differences...
September 27, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Jonathan Foox, Jeffrey A Rosenfeld, Mercer R Brugler, Darryl Reeves, Joshua B Benoit, Warren Booth, Grant Robison, Michael Steffen, Zoe Sakas, Subba R Palli, Coby Schal, Stephen Richards, Apurva Narechania, Richard H Baker, Louis N Sorkin, George Amato, Christopher E Mason, Mark E Siddall, Rob DeSalle
We report the extraction of a bed bug mitogenome from high-throughput sequencing projects originally focused on the nuclear genome of Cimex lectularius. The assembled mitogenome has a similar AT nucleotide composition bias found in other insects. Phylogenetic analysis of all protein-coding genes indicates that C. lectularius is clearly a member of a paraphyletic Cimicomorpha clade within the Order Hemiptera.
2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part B. Resources
Frédéric Jourdain, Pascal Delaunay, Jean-Michel Bérenger, Yvon Perrin, Vincent Robert
The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs)...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Eduardo P Dolhun, Andrew W Antes
Chagas disease is a vector-borne and potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted by the triatomine bug, a nocturnal feeding, flying arthropod, often referred to by its colloquial name, the "kissing bug." Vector-borne transmission is considered the most important means of spreading Chagas disease in endemic and nonendemic areas. Corrugated cardboard boxes may accelerate the spread of these insect vectors to nonendemic areas through their ability to harbor and transport small terrestrial arthropods such as silverfish, termites, and cockroaches...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jonathan Kantor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Frances S Sivakoff, Susan C Jones, Scott A Machtley, James R Hagler
The ability to mark individuals is a critical feature of many entomological investigations, including dispersal studies. Insect dispersal is generally investigated using mark-release-recapture techniques, whereby marked individuals are released at a known location and then captured at a measured distance. Ectoparasite dispersal has historically been challenging to study, in part because of the ethical concerns associated with releasing marked individuals. Here, we introduce the protein self-marking technique, whereby ectoparasites mark themselves in the field by feeding on the blood of an introduced host...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mohammad Akhoundi, Arnaud Cannet, Céline Loubatier, Jean-Michel Berenger, Arezki Izri, Pierre Marty, Pascal Delaunay
Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp), and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Catherine Loudon
BACKGROUND: The resistance of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) to chemical insecticides has motivated development of non-chemical control methods such as heat treatment. However, because bed bugs tend to hide in cracks or crevices, their behavior incidentally generates a thermally-insulated microenvironment for themselves. Bed bugs located on the outer surface of luggage are less insulated and potentially more vulnerable to brief heat treatment. RESULTS: Soft-sided suitcases with adult male bed bugs on the outside were exposed to an air temperature of 70-75 °C...
August 1, 2016: Pest Management Science
Dong-Hwan Choe, Hoeun Park, Claudia Vo, Alexander Knyshov
Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation...
2016: PloS One
Narinderpal Singh, Changlu Wang, Desen Wang, Richard Cooper, Chen Zha
Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are one of the most difficult urban pests to control. Pest management professionals rely heavily on insecticide sprays and dusts to control bed bugs. Dust formulations are considered to provide longer residual control than sprays. However, there are no scientific data available on the comparative efficacy of the commonly used insecticide dusts. We evaluated the efficacy of eight insecticide dust products using three exposure methods: 1) brief exposure-bed bugs crossed a 2.54-cm-wide dust-treated band, 2) forced exposure-bed bugs were continuously exposed to a dust-treated substrate, and 3) choice exposure-bed bugs were given a choice to stay on either dust-treated or untreated substrate...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hemindermeet Singh, Faraz Khan Luni, Bharat Marwaha, Syed Sohail Ali, Mohammed Alo
Pyrethroids are the major components of various commercially used insect repellants. These are less toxic to humans due to their slow absorption and rapid metabolism. However, cases of suicidal and accidental poisoning with household insecticides are not uncommon. We report a case of a 59-year-old female who presented with syncope after an accidental exposure to bed bug repellant spray at home. She was found to be in complete heart block and was treated conservatively. There was complete resolution of symptoms and atrioventricular conduction abnormality on day 2 of hospitalization...
June 25, 2016: Cardiology
Sydney E Crawley, Katelyn A Kowles, Jennifer R Gordon, Michael F Potter, Kenneth F Haynes
BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are blood-feeding insect pests with public health relevance. Their rapid evolution of resistance to pyrethroids has prompted a shift to combination products that include both a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticide. Insecticides have both a direct impact on mortality, and an indirect effect on behavior. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of a widely used combination product containing β-cyfluthrin (a pyrethroid) and imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid), since unexpected behavioral changes after exposure have been known to affect efficacy of insecticides...
June 20, 2016: Pest Management Science
Olivia Lai, Derek Ho, Sharon Glick, Jared Jagdeo
The global population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, family Cimicidae) has undergone a significant resurgence since the late 1990s. This is likely due to an increase in global travel, trade, and the number of insecticide-resistant bed bugs. The global bed bug population is estimated to be increasing by 100-500 % annually. The worldwide spread of bed bugs is concerning, because they are a significant socioeconomic burden and a major concern to public health. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, bed bugs are "a pest of significant health importance...
October 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
Rita V M Rio, Geoffrey M Attardo, Brian L Weiss
Several arthropod taxa live exclusively on vertebrate blood. This food source lacks essential metabolites required for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis, and as such, these arthropods have formed symbioses with nutrient-supplementing microbes that facilitate their host's 'hematophagous' feeding ecology. Herein we highlight metabolic contributions of bacterial symbionts that reside within tsetse flies, bed bugs, lice, reduviid bugs, and ticks, with specific emphasis on B vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis...
September 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Sylvie Maitre, Amelie Kaeser, Julie Di Lucca, François Spertini, Camillo Ribi
Itchy skin rashes are a frequent reason to seek medical advice. The symptoms may be caused by hypersensitivity reactions to arthropod bites, waterborne parasites or setae from moth caterpillars and are sometimes mistaken for spontaneous urticaria or eczema. Some of these pests are resurging in Switzerland and elsewhere and increasingly responsible for emergency consultation. In this article we review itchy skin rashes caused by bed bugs, scabies, lice, cercariae, Pyemotes spp, caterpillars and harvest mites, which may be confounded with urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis...
April 6, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
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