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House fly

Jennifer Schaler, John Stoffolano, Anna Maria Fausto, Gabriella Gambellini, John Burand
Research to date on the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) in three species of flies has focused on adult flies having access to and taking a proteinaceous diet. Since many studies have shown that diet affects viral infection in numerous organisms, this study examined the effect of a protein-free diet on the effect of the SGHV virus in adult house flies, Musca domestica. L. Adults infected with the virus, and maintained on a sugar diet only, showed salivary glands with a blue rather than a grayish color and mild hypertrophy compared with protein-fed flies...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
R M Shah, N Abbas, S A Shad, M Binyameen
Due to an unfortunate turn of events, the surname of the last author appeared incorrectly in the original publication as the name should have read Binyameen.
May 3, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Akira Fukuda, Masaru Usui, Masashi Okamura, Hu Dong-Liang, Yutaka Tamura
Flies play an important role as vectors in the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and are hypothesized to transfer ARB between internal and external livestock housing areas. The aim of this study was to understand the role that flies may play in the maintenance of ARB in the farm environment. We first evaluated the fate of ingested antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid containing antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) throughout the housefly (Musca domestica) life cycle, from adult to the subsequent F1 generation...
April 30, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Güler Demirbas-Uzel, Henry M Kariithi, Andrew G Parker, Marc J B Vreysen, Robert L Mach, Adly M M Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs, family Hytrosaviridae ) are non-occluded dsDNA viruses that are pathogenic to some dipterans. SGHVs primarily replicate in salivary glands (SG), thereby inducing overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in their adult hosts. SGHV infection of non-SG tissues results in distinct pathobiologies, including reproductive dysfunctions in tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and house fly. Infection with the G. pallidipes virus (GpSGHV) resulted in the collapse of several laboratory colonies, which hindered the implementation of area wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs that had a sterile insect technique (SIT) component...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dana Nayduch, Klara Zurek, Jessica L Thomson, Kathleen M Yeater
Salmonella Typhimurium (Le Minor and Popoff 1987; Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) is a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and can be harbored by house flies. Factors influencing excretion of S. Typhimurium from infected flies have not been elucidated but are essential for assessing transmission potential. We determined the persistence and excretion of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing strain of S. Typhimurium from house flies. Individual male and female flies were fed either sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) broth (controls) or cultures of "high" (~105 colony forming units [CFU]) or "low" (~104 CFU) doses of bacteria (treatments)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Angela Cruise, David W Watson, Coby Schal
The necrophilous insect fauna on carcasses varies seasonally and geographically. The ecological succession of insects arriving to decaying neonate pig carcasses in central North Carolina during late summer was sampled using a novel vented-chamber collection method. We collected six blow fly species, flesh flies, house flies and 10 beetle taxa, including four species of scarab beetles. Necrophilous fly activity dominated the early decomposition stages, whereas beetle numbers remained low until day 4. By day 7, more than 50% of the pig carcasses were skeletonized and they attracted few insects...
2018: PloS One
E Kamau, C Mutungi, J Kinyuru, S Imathiu, C Tanga, H Affognon, S Ekesi, D Nakimbugwe, K K M Fiaboe
Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products...
April 2018: Food Research International
Maarten Schrama, Erin E Gorsich, Ellard R Hunting, S Henrik Barmentlo, Brianna Beechler, Peter M van Bodegom
Adequate predictions of mosquito-borne disease risk require an understanding of the relevant drivers governing mosquito populations. Since previous studies have focused mainly on the role of temperature, here we assessed the effects of other important ecological variables (predation, nutrient availability, presence of conspecifics) in conjunction with the role of temperature on mosquito life history parameters. We carried out two mesocosm experiments with the common brown house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a confirmed vector for West Nile Virus, Usutu and Sindbis, and a controphic species; the harlequin fly, Chironomus riparius...
March 26, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
M J Kienitz, B J Heins, R D Moon
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial vacuum fly trap (CowVac, Spalding Laboratories, Reno, NV) in on-farm organic dairy production systems to control horn flies, stable flies, and face flies. As cows walk through the trap, flies are brushed off the face, flank, and back with hanging flaps and blown off the belly, udder, and legs from one side, and then vacuumed from the air into a chamber from vacuum inlets opposite the blower and above the cow. The study included 8 organic dairy farms during the summer of 2015 in Minnesota, and herds ranged from 30 to 350 cows in size...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shulei Tian, Yingcai Zhu, Bangbang Meng, Jian Guan, Zhiqiang Nie, Qingqi Die, Wei Xu, Meijuan Yu, Qifei Huang
In this study, fly ash samples were collected from bag houses in a Chinese municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and secondary fly ash (SFA) samples were collected from a high-temperature tubular electric furnace by thermal treatment of MSWI fly ash at 1050, 1100, 1150, 1200, and 1250 °C.We determined the speciation and atomic coordinates of lead in SFA using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques. The results obtained by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra revealed that the mass fraction of PbO in MSWI fly ash was 57...
April 2018: Chemosphere
Amy C Murillo, David Cox, Bradley A Mullens
Insecticidal fly baits are important tools for adult house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), control, especially on animal operations. Two house fly baits, containing either cyantraniliprole or dinotefuran, were tested on a dairy farm for attractiveness over time compared to a sugar control. Sticky trap and bucket trap house fly catches were recorded for each bait type at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h. After 1 wk of exposure to flies and field conditions, these 'aged' baits were tested against fresh baits for fly visitation in the field over 1 h...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
C Ruland, J Berlandi, K Eikmeier, T Weinert, F J Lin, O Ambree, J Seggewiss, W Paulus, A Jeibmann
Environmental factors, such as housing conditions and cognitively stimulating activities, have been shown to affect behavioral phenotypes and to modulate neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting cognitive functions. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies using rodent models have indicated that social interaction reduces development and progression of disease. Drosophila models of Aβ42-associated AD lead to AD-like phenotypes, such as long-term memory impairment, locomotor and survival deficits, while effects of environmental conditions on AD-associated phenotypes have not been assessed in the fly...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Xinping Chen, Walter D Leon-Salas, Taylor Zigon, Donald F Ready, Vikki M Weake
A programmable optical stimulator for Drosophila eyes is presented. The target application of the stimulator is to induce retinal degeneration in fly photoreceptor cells by exposing them to light in a controlled manner. The goal of this work is to obtain a reproducible system for studying age-related changes in susceptibility to environmental ocular stress. The stimulator uses light emitting diodes and an embedded computer to control illuminance, color (blue or red) and duration in two independent chambers...
October 2017: HardwareX
Zhuo Ma, Jing Li, Yi Zhang, Chao Shan, Xiwu Gao
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS) with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly...
2017: PloS One
Haina Sun, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest because it transmits a large diversity of human and veterinary diseases. Insecticides, particularly pyrethroids, are commonly used to control house flies. However, the evolution of pyrethroid resistance has reduced the effectiveness of these insecticides. A major mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids is target site insensitivity caused by the mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene (e.g. kdr [L1014F] and super-kdr [M918T+L1014F]). Recently, two novel Vssc alleles, super-kdr+D600N and kdr+T929I were detected in a field collected resistant house fly population in Kansas, USA in 2013...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dalton K Baker, Steven J Rice, Diana M Leemon, Peter J James
BACKGROUND: Effective control of house fly, Musca domestica (L.), populations currently relies on the use of chemical insecticides in most situations. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin may provide an alternative to chemicals and their efficacy may be enhanced by autodissemination amongst flies. This study assessed the capacity of M. anisopliae for transmission between adult M. domestica flies and the effects of infection on the fecundity of females...
April 2018: Pest Management Science
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