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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#1
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320544/diversity-patterns-leishmania-dna-detection-and-bloodmeal-identification-of-phlebotominae-sand-flies-in-villages-in-northern-colombia
#2
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251829/decreased-cerebral-irp-1b-limits-impact-of-social-isolation-in-wildtype-and-alzheimer-s-disease-modelled-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Christina Ruland, Johannes Berlandi, Kristin Eikmeier, Till Weinert, Fang Ju Lin, Oliver Ambree, Jochen Seggewiss, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann
Environmental factors, such as housing conditions and cognitively stimulating activities, have been shown to affect behavioral phenotypes and to modulate neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting cognitive functions. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies using rodent models have indicated that social interaction reduces development and progression of disease. Drosophila models of Aβ42-associated AD lead to AD-like phenotypes, such as long-term memory impairment, locomotor and survival deficits, while effects of environmental conditions on AD associated phenotypes have not been assessed in the fly...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230438/a-programmable-optical-stimulator-for-the-drosophila-eye
#4
Xinping Chen, Walter D Leon-Salas, Taylor Zigon, Donald F Ready, Vikki M Weake
A programmable optical stimulator for Drosophila eyes is presented. The target application of the stimulator is to induce retinal degeneration in fly photoreceptor cells by exposing them to light in a controlled manner. The goal of this work is to obtain a reproducible system for studying age-related changes in susceptibility to environmental ocular stress. The stimulator uses light emitting diodes and an embedded computer to control illuminance, color (blue or red) and duration in two independent chambers...
October 2017: HardwareX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228021/inheritance-mode-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-imidacloprid-in-the-house-fly-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae-from-china
#5
Zhuo Ma, Jing Li, Yi Zhang, Chao Shan, Xiwu Gao
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS) with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183579/two-novel-house-fly-vssc-mutations-d600n-and-t929i-give-rise-to-new-insecticide-resistance-alleles
#6
Haina Sun, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest because it transmits a large diversity of human and veterinary diseases. Insecticides, particularly pyrethroids, are commonly used to control house flies. However, the evolution of pyrethroid resistance has reduced the effectiveness of these insecticides. A major mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids is target site insensitivity caused by the mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene (e.g. kdr [L1014F] and super-kdr [M918T+L1014F]). Recently, two novel Vssc alleles, super-kdr+D600N and kdr+T929I were detected in a field collected resistant house fly population in Kansas, USA in 2013...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159942/horizontal-transmission-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-hypocreales-clavicipitacea-and-the-effects-of-infection-on-oviposition-rate-in-laboratory-populations-of-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#7
Dalton K Baker, Steven J Rice, Diana M Leemon, Peter J James
BACKGROUND: Effective control of house fly, Musca domestica (L.), populations currently relies on the use of chemical insecticides in most situations. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin may provide an alternative to chemicals and their efficacy may be enhanced by autodissemination amongst flies. This study assessed the capacity of M. anisopliae for transmission between adult M. domestica and the effects of infection on the fecundity of females. RESULTS: Metarhizium anisopliae was transmitted between adult M...
November 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156494/comparative-analysis-of-vestibular-ecomorphology-in-birds
#8
Roger B J Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A Close, Stig A Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155487/novel-cyp6d1-and-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-alleles-of-the-house-fly-musca-domestica-and-their-roles-in-pyrethroid-resistance
#9
Jing Pan, Chan Yang, Yan Liu, Qi Gao, Mei Li, Xinghui Qiu
BACKGROUND: The house fly Musca domestica is an important disease vector. Point mutation mediated target-site insensitivity of the voltage gated sodium channel (VSSC) and increased detoxification mediated by CYP6D1 overexpression have been characterized to be two major mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance. In this study, genetic mutations in Vssc and CYP6D1 genes and their contribution to pyrethroid resistance were investigated. RESULTS: Twelve lines of house flies homozygous for four genotypes were established...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154832/carboxylesterase-genes-in-pyrethroid-resistant-house-flies-musca-domestica
#10
Xuechun Feng, Ming Li, Nannan Liu
Carboxylesterases are one of the major enzyme families involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids. Up-regulation of carboxylesterase genes is thought to be a major component of insecticide resistant mechanisms in insects. Based on the house fly transcriptome and genome database, a total of 39 carboxylesterase genes of different functional clades have been identified in house flies. In this study, eleven of these genes were found to be significantly overexpressed in the resistant ALHF house fly strain compared with susceptible aabys and wild-type CS strains...
November 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150982/visualization-within-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-a-micro-focus-x-ray-study
#11
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a non-destructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143327/location-of-artifacts-deposited-by-the-blow-fly-lucilia-cuprina-after-feeding-on-human-blood-at-simulated-indoor-crime-scenes
#12
Annalisa Durdle, Timothy J Verdon, Robert John Mitchell, Roland A H van Oorschot
Human DNA profiles can be obtained from fly artifacts (feces and regurgitant) when a fly has been feeding on biological material, sometimes 2 years after deposition. Morphological similarity between artifacts and spots of unaltered biological material make it difficult to distinguish between them, and presumptive and confirmatory forensic tests are unreliable in making the distinction. Knowing possible artifact locations will assist investigators in recognizing where DNA contamination might occur. Flies were released into a house with human blood available under a variety of different climatic and lighting conditions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109180/isolation-of-aggressive-behavior-mutants-in-drosophila%C3%A2-using-a-screen-for-wing-damage
#13
Shaun M Davis, Amanda L Thomas, Lingzhi Liu, Ian M Campbell, Herman A Dierick
Aggression is a complex social behavior that is widespread in nature. To date only a limited number of genes that affect aggression have been identified, in large part because the complexity of the phenotype makes screening difficult and time consuming regardless of the species that is studied. We discovered that aggressive group-housed Drosophila melanogaster males inflict damage on each other's wings, and show that wing damage negatively affects their ability to fly and mate. Using this wing-damage phenotype, we screened males from ~1,400 chemically mutagenized strains and found ~40 mutant strains with substantial wing damage...
November 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029218/dose-dependent-effects-on-replication-and-persistence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-house-flies-diptera-muscidae
#14
Rabecca Chifanzwa, Dana Nayduch
Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) ingest variable numbers of bacteria when they encounter microbe-rich substrates. Bacterial abundance may affect replication within the fly gut, which subsequently impacts vector potential. This study investigated the dose-dependent replication of GFP-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ex Kauffmann and Edwards1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) (GFP S. Typhimurium) within the fly alimentary canal. Adult house flies were fed two doses (colony forming units, CFU) of GFP S...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029163/toxicity-and-sublethal-effects-of-cantharidin-on-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#15
Hassan Yasoob, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Yalin Zhang
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of medical and veterinary importance all over the world. Management efforts for house flies are usually compromised owing to their resistance to many groups of conventional insecticides. Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by meloid beetles, is a biopesticide with a reported toxicity to some insect pests including house flies. However, the effects of cantharidin on biological and fitness parameters of house flies have not yet been investigated...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981905/interaction-between-metarhizium-anisopliae-met-and-the-insecticides-used-for-controlling-house-fly-diptera-muscidae-in-poultry-farm-of-malaysia
#16
Song-Quan Ong, Hamdan Ahmad, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid, Zairi Jaal
The potential of integrating the mycoinsecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.), into house fly control programs is tremendous. However, the interaction between the fungus and insecticide, when applied at poultry farms, remains poorly understood. This study investigated the interaction between M. anisopliae and two selected insecticides, cyromazine and ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypemethrin), with three objectives: to assess the compatibility of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by measuring fungal vegetative growth and conidia production in the presence of insecticides; to evaluate the effect of M...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981690/insecticidal-potential-of-two-sugar-alcohols-to-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#17
Edwin R Burgess, B H King
Pest management plans for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), often include insecticides. Because of resistance and environmental concerns with traditional insecticides, safe new pesticides and pesticide formulations are needed. The insecticidal potential of two sugar alcohols, xylitol and erythritol, against adult house flies was assessed. Flies consumed both xylitol and erythritol. The proportion of flies that exhibited the proboscis extension reflex, which is associated with feeding, did not differ significantly between the sugar alcohols and sucrose in an experiment with 20% solutions and older flies, but was less for the sugar alcohols in an experiment with 2M solutions and younger flies...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926617/hidden-biodiversity-in-entomological-collections-the-overlooked-co-occurrence-of-dipteran-and-hymenopteran-ant-parasitoids-in-stored-biological-material
#18
Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud, Jean-Paul Lachaud
Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico), we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico) in 1999...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918158/recombinant-expression-and-characterization-of-lucilia-cuprina-cyp6g3-activity-and-binding-properties-toward-multiple-pesticides
#19
Matthew J Traylor, Jong-Min Baek, Katelyn E Richards, Roberto Fusetto, W Huang, Peter Josh, Zhenzhong Chen, Padma Bollapragada, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham, Elizabeth M J Gillam
The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a primary cause of sheep flystrike and a major agricultural pest. Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been implicated in the resistance of L. cuprina to several classes of insecticides. In particular, CYP6G3 is a L. cuprina homologue of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1, a P450 known to confer multi-pesticide resistance. To investigate the basis of resistance, a bicistronic Escherichia coli expression system was developed to co-express active L. cuprina CYP6G3 and house fly (Musca domestica) P450 reductase...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893860/coordination-between-differentially-regulated-circadian-clocks-generates-rhythmic-behavior
#20
Deniz Top, Michael W Young
Specialized groups of neurons in the brain are key mediators of circadian rhythms, receiving daily environmental cues and communicating those signals to other tissues in the organism for entrainment and to organize circadian physiology. In Drosophila, the "circadian clock" is housed in seven neuronal clusters, which are defined by their expression of the main circadian proteins, Period, Timeless, Clock, and Cycle. These clusters are distributed across the fly brain and are thereby subject to the respective environments associated with their anatomical locations...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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