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House fly

Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
M J Kienitz, B J Heins, R D Moon
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial vacuum fly trap (CowVac, Spalding Laboratories, Reno, NV) in on-farm organic dairy production systems to control horn flies, stable flies, and face flies. As cows walk through the trap, flies are brushed off the face, flank, and back with hanging flaps and blown off the belly, udder, and legs from one side, and then vacuumed from the air into a chamber from vacuum inlets opposite the blower and above the cow. The study included 8 organic dairy farms during the summer of 2015 in Minnesota, and herds ranged from 30 to 350 cows in size...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shulei Tian, Yingcai Zhu, Bangbang Meng, Jian Guan, Zhiqiang Nie, Qingqi Die, Wei Xu, Meijuan Yu, Qifei Huang
In this study, fly ash samples were collected from bag houses in a Chinese municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and secondary fly ash (SFA) samples were collected from a high-temperature tubular electric furnace by thermal treatment of MSWI fly ash at 1050, 1100, 1150, 1200, and 1250 °C.We determined the speciation and atomic coordinates of lead in SFA using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques. The results obtained by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra revealed that the mass fraction of PbO in MSWI fly ash was 57...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Amy C Murillo, David Cox, Bradley A Mullens
Insecticidal fly baits are important tools for adult house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), control, especially on animal operations. Two house fly baits, containing either cyantraniliprole or dinotefuran, were tested on a dairy farm for attractiveness over time compared to a sugar control. Sticky trap and bucket trap house fly catches were recorded for each bait type at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h. After 1 wk of exposure to flies and field conditions, these 'aged' baits were tested against fresh baits for fly visitation in the field over 1 h...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
Christina Ruland, Johannes Berlandi, Kristin Eikmeier, Till Weinert, Fang Ju Lin, Oliver Ambree, Jochen Seggewiss, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann
Environmental factors, such as housing conditions and cognitively stimulating activities, have been shown to affect behavioral phenotypes and to modulate neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting cognitive functions. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies using rodent models have indicated that social interaction reduces development and progression of disease. Drosophila models of Aβ42-associated AD lead to AD-like phenotypes, such as long-term memory impairment, locomotor and survival deficits, while effects of environmental conditions on AD associated phenotypes have not been assessed in the fly...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Xinping Chen, Walter D Leon-Salas, Taylor Zigon, Donald F Ready, Vikki M Weake
A programmable optical stimulator for Drosophila eyes is presented. The target application of the stimulator is to induce retinal degeneration in fly photoreceptor cells by exposing them to light in a controlled manner. The goal of this work is to obtain a reproducible system for studying age-related changes in susceptibility to environmental ocular stress. The stimulator uses light emitting diodes and an embedded computer to control illuminance, color (blue or red) and duration in two independent chambers...
October 2017: HardwareX
Zhuo Ma, Jing Li, Yi Zhang, Chao Shan, Xiwu Gao
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS) with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly...
2017: PloS One
Haina Sun, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest because it transmits a large diversity of human and veterinary diseases. Insecticides, particularly pyrethroids, are commonly used to control house flies. However, the evolution of pyrethroid resistance has reduced the effectiveness of these insecticides. A major mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids is target site insensitivity caused by the mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene (e.g. kdr [L1014F] and super-kdr [M918T+L1014F]). Recently, two novel Vssc alleles, super-kdr+D600N and kdr+T929I were detected in a field collected resistant house fly population in Kansas, USA in 2013...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dalton K Baker, Steven J Rice, Diana M Leemon, Peter J James
BACKGROUND: Effective control of house fly, Musca domestica (L.), populations currently relies on the use of chemical insecticides in most situations. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin may provide an alternative to chemicals and their efficacy may be enhanced by autodissemination amongst flies. This study assessed the capacity of M. anisopliae for transmission between adult M. domestica and the effects of infection on the fecundity of females. RESULTS: Metarhizium anisopliae was transmitted between adult M...
November 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
Roger B J Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A Close, Stig A Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Jing Pan, Chan Yang, Yan Liu, Qi Gao, Mei Li, Xinghui Qiu
BACKGROUND: The house fly Musca domestica is an important disease vector. Point mutation mediated target-site insensitivity of the voltage gated sodium channel (VSSC) and increased detoxification mediated by CYP6D1 overexpression have been characterized to be two major mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance. In this study, genetic mutations in Vssc and CYP6D1 genes and their contribution to pyrethroid resistance were investigated. RESULTS: Twelve lines of house flies homozygous for four genotypes were established...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
Xuechun Feng, Ming Li, Nannan Liu
Carboxylesterases are one of the major enzyme families involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids. Up-regulation of carboxylesterase genes is thought to be a major component of insecticide resistant mechanisms in insects. Based on the house fly transcriptome and genome database, a total of 39 carboxylesterase genes of different functional clades have been identified in house flies. In this study, eleven of these genes were found to be significantly overexpressed in the resistant ALHF house fly strain compared with susceptible aabys and wild-type CS strains...
January 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois Du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a nondestructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Annalisa Durdle, Timothy J Verdon, Robert John Mitchell, Roland A H van Oorschot
Human DNA profiles can be obtained from fly artifacts (feces and regurgitant) when a fly has been feeding on biological material, sometimes 2 years after deposition. Morphological similarity between artifacts and spots of unaltered biological material make it difficult to distinguish between them, and presumptive and confirmatory forensic tests are unreliable in making the distinction. Knowing possible artifact locations will assist investigators in recognizing where DNA contamination might occur. Flies were released into a house with human blood available under a variety of different climatic and lighting conditions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Shaun M Davis, Amanda L Thomas, Lingzhi Liu, Ian M Campbell, Herman A Dierick
Aggression is a complex social behavior that is widespread in nature. To date only a limited number of genes that affect aggression have been identified, in large part because the complexity of the phenotype makes screening difficult and time consuming regardless of the species that is studied. We discovered that aggressive group-housed Drosophila melanogaster males inflict damage on each other's wings, and show that wing damage negatively affects their ability to fly and mate. Using this wing-damage phenotype, we screened males from ~1,400 chemically mutagenized strains and found ~40 mutant strains with substantial wing damage...
November 6, 2017: Genetics
Rabecca Chifanzwa, Dana Nayduch
Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) ingest variable numbers of bacteria when they encounter microbe-rich substrates. Bacterial abundance may affect replication within the fly gut, which subsequently impacts vector potential. This study investigated the dose-dependent replication of GFP-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ex Kauffmann and Edwards1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) (GFP S. Typhimurium) within the fly alimentary canal. Adult house flies were fed two doses (colony forming units, CFU) of GFP S...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Hassan Yasoob, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Yalin Zhang
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of medical and veterinary importance all over the world. Management efforts for house flies are usually compromised owing to their resistance to many groups of conventional insecticides. Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by meloid beetles, is a biopesticide with a reported toxicity to some insect pests including house flies. However, the effects of cantharidin on biological and fitness parameters of house flies have not yet been investigated...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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