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House fly

Matthew D W Piper, Linda Partridge
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster offers a host of advantages for studying the biology of aging: a well-understood biology, a wide range of genetic reagents, well-defined dietary requirements, and a relatively short life span, with a median of ~80 days and maximum ~100 days. Several phenotypes can be used to assess the aging process, but the simplest and most widely used metric is length of life. Here we describe a standard life span assay for Drosophila housed on a simple sugar/yeast diet.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Edwin R Burgess, B H King
Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Rui Tang, Feng Zhang, N'Golopé Kone, Jing-Hua Chen, Fen Zhu, Ri-Chou Han, Chao-Liang Lei, Marc Kenis, Ling-Qiao Huang, Chen-Zhu Wang
Oviposition attractants for the house fly Musca domestica have been investigated using electrophysiological tests, behavioural assays and field tests. Volatiles were collected via head space absorption method from fermented wheat bran, fresh wheat bran, rearing substrate residue and house fly maggots. A Y-tube olfactometer assay showed that the odor of fermented wheat bran was a significant attractant for female house flies. Bioactive compounds from fermented wheat bran for house fly females were identified by electrophysiology and mass spectrophotometry and confirmed with standard chemicals...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yisong Zhen
BACKGROUND: Information on cardiovascular gene transcription is fragmented and far behind the present requirements of the systems biology field. To create a comprehensive source of data for cardiovascular gene regulation and to facilitate a deeper understanding of genomic data, the CardioTF database was constructed. The purpose of this database is to collate information on cardiovascular transcription factors (TFs), position weight matrices (PWMs), and enhancer sequences discovered using the ChIP-seq method...
2016: PeerJ
David B Douglas, Emanuel F Petricoin, Lance Liotta, Eugene Wilson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called "depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality". MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Song-Quan Ong, Hamdan Ahmad, Zairi Jaal, Adanan Rus, Fadhlina Hazwani Mohd Fadzlah
Determining the control threshold for a pest is common prior to initiating a pest control program; however, previous studies related to the house fly control threshold for a poultry farm are insufficient for determining such a threshold. This study aimed to predict the population changes of house fly population by comparing the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) for different house fly densities in a simulated system. This study first defined the knee points of a known population growth curve as a control threshold by comparing the rm of five densities of house flies in a simulated condition...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Margo I Adler, Marco Telford, Russell Bonduriansky
High condition enables individuals to express a phenotype with greater reproductive potential. However, life-history theory predicts that reproduction will trade off with somatic maintenance and viability, and several studies have reported faster age-related decline in performance in high-condition individuals, suggesting that high condition in early life is associated with accelerated somatic deterioration. This trade-off may be especially pronounced in males, which often express condition-dependent secondary sexual traits that can impose viability costs during development and through damage-inflicting adult sexual behaviours...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Richard P Meisel, Taira Davey, Jae Hak Son, Alec C Gerry, Toshio Shono, Jeffrey G Scott
Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra (D) ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M...
2016: Journal of Heredity
Yunusa A Wada, Sonnie J Oniye, Peter I Rekwot, Oluyinka O Okubanjo
AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams...
July 2016: Veterinary World
A Royden, A Wedley, J Y Merga, S Rushton, B Hald, T Humphrey, N J Williams
Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms...
November 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Naeem Abbas, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Faheem Azher
House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
G M El-Bassiony, V Luizzi, D Nguyen, J G Stoffolano, A E Purdy
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that house flies may be capable of specifically harbouring ingested Vibrio cholerae in their digestive tracts. Flies were continuously fed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled, non-O1/non-O139 environmental strains of V. cholerae. Bacterial burdens were quantitatively measured using plate counts and localization was directly observed using confocal microscopy. Vibrio cholerae were present in the fly alimentary canal after just 4 h, and reached a plateau of ∼10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/fly after 5 days in those flies most tolerant of the pathogen...
July 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Matthew V Holl, Gerhard Gries
The "fly factor" was first discovered >60 years ago and describes the phenomenon that food currently or previously fed on by flies attracts more foraging flies than the same type and amount of food kept inaccessible to flies. Since then, there has been little progress made to understanding this phenomenon. Our objectives were (i) to demonstrate the existence of the fly factor in house flies, Musca domestica, and (ii) to study underlying mechanisms that may cause or contribute to the fly factor. In two-choice laboratory bioassays, we obtained unambiguous evidence for a fly factor phenomenon in house flies, in that we demonstrated that feeding flies are more attractive to foraging flies than are non-feeding flies, and that fed-on food is more attractive to foraging flies than is "clean" food...
July 19, 2016: Insect Science
L Aigle, R Castello, A-L Breton
Following an original case report of massive regurgitation of maggots and the difficulty of medical management, we return to the fecal contamination problem for troops in the field. The survey of maggots has allowed for the diagnosis of contamination by ingestion of house fly eggs as a major infection vector. The successive ingestion of anti-acid and gastric dressing can induce an important diminution of gastric acidity that can allow for the proliferation of germs. In an operational context or natural catastrophe andin addition to field hygiene rules that are very important, it can also be useful to propose exclusive field rationsfor few daysin order to limit the interhuman contamination...
May 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
E T Machtinger, E N I Weeks, C J Geden
Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Henrik Skovgård, Gösta Nachman
The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged...
August 2016: Environmental Entomology
Asmaa N Mohammed, Gihan K Abdel-Latef, Naglaa M Abdel-Azeem, Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly
Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics...
October 2016: Parasitology Research
Jeffrey G Scott
BACKGROUND: House flies, Musca domestica L., are a significant pest because of the numerous diseases they transmit. Control of house fly populations, particularly at animal production facilities, is frequently done using pyrethroid insecticides which kill insects by prolonging the open time of the voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). RESULTS: House flies have evolved resistance to pyrethroids due to mutations in Vssc and by cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification...
May 31, 2016: Pest Management Science
Ioannis S Vlachos, Thanasis Vergoulis, Maria D Paraskevopoulou, Filopoimin Lykokanellos, Georgios Georgakilas, Penny Georgiou, Serafeim Chatzopoulos, Dimitra Karagkouni, Foteini Christodoulou, Theodore Dalamagas, Artemis G Hatzigeorgiou
Differential expression analysis (DEA) is one of the main instruments utilized for revealing molecular mechanisms in pathological and physiological conditions. DIANA-mirExTra v2.0 ( performs a combined DEA of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) to uncover miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) playing important regulatory roles between two investigated states. The web server uses as input miRNA/RNA-Seq read count data sets that can be uploaded for analysis. Users can combine their data with 350 small-RNA-Seq and 65 RNA-Seq in-house analyzed libraries which are provided by DIANA-mirExTra v2...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Faheem Azhar, Sarfraz Ali Shad, William B Walker, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Binyameen
Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet...
September 2016: Parasitology Research
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