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House fly

Caitlin E Taylor, Erika T Machtinger, Christopher J Geden, Matthew Kramer
The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae...
2016: PloS One
Raúl Hernando Pardo, Erika Santamaría, Olga Lucia Cabrera
The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings...
December 1, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Dongsheng Chen, Sanjie Jiang, Xiaoyan Ma, Fang Li
Genome-wide transcription factors (TFs) binding data has been extensively generated in the past few years, which poses a great challenge to data interpretation. Therefore, comprehensive and dedicated functional annotation databases for TF-DNA interaction are in great demands to manage, explore and utilize those invaluable data resources. Here, we constructed a platform 'TFBSbank' which houses the annotation of 1870 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) datasets of 585 TFs in five species (human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast)...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Naghi Mohammad Bagherzadeh, Hamed Behniafar, Sadegh Rahbari, Soghra Valizadeh
Hypodermosis is one of the important veterinary problems because of its worldwide prevalence and significant economic losses. Economic losses is due to decreasing of productivity potential and leather quality. The disease is caused by two parasitic fly species in cattle, Hypoderma bovis and lineatus. Diagnosis of the parasites has crucial importance because of treatment and eradication plannings. Basically diagnosis is based on parasitological methods but recently serological methods were used in some countries...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Jason Cassaday, Michael Finley, Brian Squadroni, Sylvie Jezequel-Sur, Albert Rauch, Bharti Gajera, Victor Uebele, Jeffrey Hermes, Paul Zuck
In the triage of hits from a high-throughput screening campaign or during the optimization of a lead compound, it is relatively routine to test compounds at multiple concentrations to determine potency and maximal effect. Additional follow-up experiments, such as agonist shift, can be quite valuable in ascertaining compound mechanism of action (MOA). However, these experiments require cross-titration of a test compound with the activating ligand of the receptor requiring 100-200 data points, severely limiting the number tested in MOA assays in a screening triage...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
Etienne Waleckx, Rafael Pasos-Alquicira, María Jesús Ramírez-Sierra, Eric Dumonteil
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted by blood-sucking bugs called triatomines. In the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, the main vector of T. cruzi is Triatoma dimidiata. While this species may colonize houses in other regions, it is mostly intrusive in Yucatán: it generally lives in sylvan and peridomestic areas, and frequently enters inside homes, likely attracted by potential vertebrate hosts, without establishing colonies. Bugs collected inside homes have a low nutritional status, suggesting that they cannot efficiently feed inside these houses...
November 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
S Kasai, H Sun, J G Scott
Insecticide use exerts a tremendous selection force on house fly populations, but the frequencies of the initial resistance mutations may not reach high levels if they have a significant fitness cost in the absence of insecticides. However, with the continued use of the same (or similar) insecticides, it is expected that new mutations (conferring equal or greater resistance, but less of a fitness cost) will evolve. Pyrethroid insecticides target the insect voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and have been widely used for control of house flies at animal production facilities for more than three decades...
October 28, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
E N I Weeks, E T Machtinger, S A Gezan, P E Kaufman, C J Geden
The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, several strains of which are commercially available. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and one strain of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were tested in commercial formulations for pathogenicity against house flies and stable flies...
October 26, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Matthew D W Piper, Linda Partridge
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster offers a host of advantages for studying the biology of aging: a well-understood biology, a wide range of genetic reagents, well-defined dietary requirements, and a relatively short life span, with a median of ~80 days and maximum ~100 days. Several phenotypes can be used to assess the aging process, but the simplest and most widely used metric is length of life. Here we describe a standard life span assay for Drosophila housed on a simple sugar/yeast diet.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Edwin R Burgess, B H King
Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Rui Tang, Feng Zhang, N'Golopé Kone, Jing-Hua Chen, Fen Zhu, Ri-Chou Han, Chao-Liang Lei, Marc Kenis, Ling-Qiao Huang, Chen-Zhu Wang
Oviposition attractants for the house fly Musca domestica have been investigated using electrophysiological tests, behavioural assays and field tests. Volatiles were collected via head space absorption method from fermented wheat bran, fresh wheat bran, rearing substrate residue and house fly maggots. A Y-tube olfactometer assay showed that the odor of fermented wheat bran was a significant attractant for female house flies. Bioactive compounds from fermented wheat bran for house fly females were identified by electrophysiology and mass spectrophotometry and confirmed with standard chemicals...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yisong Zhen
BACKGROUND: Information on cardiovascular gene transcription is fragmented and far behind the present requirements of the systems biology field. To create a comprehensive source of data for cardiovascular gene regulation and to facilitate a deeper understanding of genomic data, the CardioTF database was constructed. The purpose of this database is to collate information on cardiovascular transcription factors (TFs), position weight matrices (PWMs), and enhancer sequences discovered using the ChIP-seq method...
2016: PeerJ
David B Douglas, Emanuel F Petricoin, Lance Liotta, Eugene Wilson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called "depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality". MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Song-Quan Ong, Hamdan Ahmad, Zairi Jaal, Adanan Rus, Fadhlina Hazwani Mohd Fadzlah
Determining the control threshold for a pest is common prior to initiating a pest control program; however, previous studies related to the house fly control threshold for a poultry farm are insufficient for determining such a threshold. This study aimed to predict the population changes of house fly population by comparing the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) for different house fly densities in a simulated system. This study first defined the knee points of a known population growth curve as a control threshold by comparing the rm of five densities of house flies in a simulated condition...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
M I Adler, M Telford, R Bonduriansky
High condition enables individuals to express a phenotype with greater reproductive potential. However, life-history theory predicts that reproduction will trade off with somatic maintenance and viability, and several studies have reported faster age-related decline in performance in high-condition individuals, suggesting that high condition in early life is associated with accelerated somatic deterioration. This trade-off may be especially pronounced in males, which often express condition-dependent secondary sexual traits that can impose viability costs during development and through damage-inflicting adult sexual behaviours...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Richard P Meisel, Taira Davey, Jae Hak Son, Alec C Gerry, Toshio Shono, Jeffrey G Scott
Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra (D) ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M...
2016: Journal of Heredity
Yunusa A Wada, Sonnie J Oniye, Peter I Rekwot, Oluyinka O Okubanjo
AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams...
July 2016: Veterinary World
A Royden, A Wedley, J Y Merga, S Rushton, B Hald, T Humphrey, N J Williams
Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms...
November 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Naeem Abbas, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Faheem Azher
House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
G M El-Bassiony, V Luizzi, D Nguyen, J G Stoffolano, A E Purdy
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that house flies may be capable of specifically harbouring ingested Vibrio cholerae in their digestive tracts. Flies were continuously fed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled, non-O1/non-O139 environmental strains of V. cholerae. Bacterial burdens were quantitatively measured using plate counts and localization was directly observed using confocal microscopy. Vibrio cholerae were present in the fly alimentary canal after just 4 h, and reached a plateau of ∼10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/fly after 5 days in those flies most tolerant of the pathogen...
July 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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