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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#1
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637174/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-waterpipe-tobacco-smoke-on-learning-and-memory-of-adult-offspring-rats
#2
Nour Al-Sawalha, Karem Alzoubi, Omar Khabour, Weam Alyacoub, Yehya Almahmmod, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence worldwide, including among pregnant women. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal maternal waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) exposure during different stages of pregnancy on learning and memory of adult offspring rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received either fresh air or mainstream WTS (two hours daily) during early, mid, late, or whole gestational period. Male offspring rats were followed through 20 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637138/psychometric-properties-of-persian-version-of-the-caregiver-burden-scale-in-iranian-caregivers-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Ata Farajzadeh, Malahat Akbarfahimi, Saman Maroufizadeh, Hamid Reza Rostami, Amir Hassan Kohan
PURPOSE: To investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS) in caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. After a forward-backward translation, the CBS was administered to 110 caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury (men = 60, women = 50). Factor structure was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis. The Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the CBS were examined using Cronbach's α and the intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637031/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-serum-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-women-with-overactive-bladder
#4
Hediye Dagdeviren, Huseyin Cengiz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between overactive bladder (OAB), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and serum nerve growth factors (NGF). STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples from a group of 90 women that included patients with OAB (group 1), patients with both OAB and MetS (group 2) and healthy women without OAB and MetS (group 3). Each group included 30 patients. Serum levels of NGF were compared among the groups. RESULTS: When the groups were compared with respect to NGF levels, group 2 was found to have significantly higher NGF levels (p = 0...
June 22, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636887/temporal-dynamics-of-the-hpa-axis-linked-to-exploratory-behavior-in-a-wild-european-songbird-parus-major
#5
Alexander T Baugh, Sarah C Davidson, Michaela Hau, Kees van Oers
Variation in the reactivity of the endocrine stress axis is thought to underlie aspects of persistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality). Previous studies, however, have focused largely on estimating baseline or peak levels of glucocorticoids (CORT), often in captive animals. In contrast, the temporal dynamics of the HPA axis-how quickly it turns on and off, for example-may better indicate how an individual copes with stressors. Moreover, these HPA components might be correlated, thereby representing endocrine suites...
June 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636628/effects-of-spirulina-on-the-functions-and-redox-status-of-auditory-system-in-senescence-accelerated-prone-8-mice
#6
Yin-Ching Chan, Juen-Haur Hwang
To our knowledge, the effects of Spirulina platensis water extract (SP) on hearing function have not yet been reported. This study investigated the effects of SP on the function and redox status of the auditory system. Auditory brainstem responses and redox status were compared between two groups of 3-month-old senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: the control group was fed a normal diet, and the experimental group was fed a normal diet with oral supplementation of SP for 6 weeks. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly lower hearing thresholds according to auditory brainstem responses measured using click sounds and 8-kHz tone burst sound stimulation at the end of this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636534/novel-tropolones-induce-the-unfolded-protein-response-pathway-and-apoptosis-in-multiple-myeloma-cells
#7
Staci L Haney, Cheryl Allen, Michelle L Varney, Kaitlyn M Dykstra, Eric R Falcone, Sean H Colligan, Qiang Hu, Alyssa M Aldridge, Dennis L Wright, Andrew J Wiemer, Sarah A Holstein
Tropolones are small organic compounds with metal-directing moieties. Tropolones inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell lines, possibly through their effects on metalloenzymes such as select histone deacetylases (HDACs). Pan-HDAC inhibitors are therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of multiple myeloma, however there is interest in the use of more selective HDAC inhibitor therapy to minimize adverse side effects. We hypothesized that tropolones might have anti-myeloma activities. To this end, a series of novel α-substituted tropolones were evaluated for effects on multiple myeloma cells...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636383/gene-expression-profiling-in-human-lung-cells-exposed-to-isoprene-derived-secondary-organic-aerosol
#8
Ying-Hsuan Lin, Maiko Arashiro, Phillip W Clapp, Tianqu Cui, Kenneth G Sexton, William Vizuete, Avram Gold, Ilona Jaspers, Rebecca C Fry, Jason Douglas Surratt
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene contributes a substantial mass fraction to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The formation of isoprene SOA is influenced largely by anthropogenic emissions through multiphase chemistry of its multi-generational oxidation products. Considering the abundance of isoprene SOA in the troposphere, understanding mechanisms of adverse health effects through inhalation exposure is critical to mitigating its potential impact on public health...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636204/aerobic-exercise-training-for-adults-with-fibromyalgia
#9
REVIEW
Julia Bidonde, Angela J Busch, Candice L Schachter, Tom J Overend, Soo Y Kim, Suelen M Góes, Catherine Boden, Heather Ja Foulds
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. OBJECTIVES: • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise)...
June 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636114/set-i2pp2a-overexpression-induces-phenotypic-molecular-and-metabolic-alterations-in-an-oral-keratinocyte-cell-line
#10
Lays M Sobral, Ricardo D Coletta, Luciane C Alberici, Carlos Curti, Andréia Machado Leopoldino
The multifunctional SET/I2PP2A protein is known to be overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, SET has been reported to have apparently conflicting roles in promoting cancer cell survival under oxidative stress conditions and preventing invasion and metastasis, complicating efforts to understand the contribution of SET to carcinogenesis. In the present study, we overexpressed SET in a spontaneously immortalized oral keratinocyte cell line (NOK-SI SET) and demonstrated that SET up-regulation alone was sufficient to transform cells...
June 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635628/identification-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-seashore-paspalum-response-to-abiotic-stresses
#11
Yu Liu, Jun Liu, Lei Xu, Hui Lai, Yu Chen, Zhimin Yang, Bingru Huang
Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is among the most salt- and cadmium-tolerant warm-season perennial grass species widely used as turf or forage. The objective of this study was to select stable reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of seashore paspalum in response to four abiotic stresses. The stability of 12 potential reference genes was evaluated by four programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). U2AF combined with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) showed stable expression in Cd-treated leaves and cold-treated roots...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635608/the-protective-role-of-folic-acid-against-testicular-dysfunction-in-lead-intoxicated-rat-model
#12
Asmaa Ms Gomaa, Nasser S Abou Khalil, Mohammed A Abdel-Ghani
There is an increasing concern over male reproductive toxicity caused by lead exposure. Folic acid (FA) is supposed to be a promising therapeutic strategy against lead toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to shed light on the potential protective role of FA on lead-induced testicular dysfunction in rats and its possible underlying mechanistic pathways. Rats (n = 24) were divided into four groups: Control, FA, Lead, and FA+Lead group. After 4 weeks, lead intoxication resulted in a marked reduction in the relative testicular weight and the serum level of testosterone, an impairment in the characters of semen analysis, and an increased content of lead, malondialdehyde and both interleukin-6 and -10 and a decreased antioxidant enzyme levels in the testicular tissue homogenate...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635583/cigarette-smoke-is-associated-with-altered-expression-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-granulosa-cells-from-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#13
Maria Cristina Budani, Erminia Carletti, Gian Mario Tiboni
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether cigarette smoke is associated with changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes in granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF treatments. For this aim, the expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2 and catalase) in non-smokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 20) was analyzed. There was a statistically significant overexpression of SOD2 and catalase mRNA levels in smokers in comparison with non-smokers. Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate in comparison with non-smokers...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635531/drug-exposure-in-early-pregnancy-might-be-related-to-the-effects-of-increased-maternal-progesterone-in-implantation-period
#14
Necip Girit, Ibrahim Tugrul, Buket Demirci, Ozlem Bozkurt, Turhan Dost, Mustafa Birincioglu, H Alper Tanriverdi
AIM: This short communication aims to evaluate the relation in between drug exposure time and early pregnancy regarding gestational weeks. METHODS: The study covers the referrals made to the Department of Pharmacology for a teratogenic consultation in a 3-year period. From the recordings of pregnant women, the last menstrual period and the starting date of medication were used to determine the time of prescription with regard to gestational weeks. RESULTS: In all of the three years, potentially teratogenic medication was prescribed more frequently in the 3rd, 4th and 5th gestational weeks (in between 15-35 days of pregnancy)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635525/the-role-of-prenatal-obstetric-and-post-partum-factors-in-the-parenting-stress-of-mothers-and-fathers-of-9-month-old-infants
#15
Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Gillian Murphy, Mike Murphy
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper was to examine the role of perinatal, obstetric and post partum factors on maternal and paternal stress. It will present the first examination of the role of prenatal, obstetric, post-partum, and demographic variables in parenting stress for mothers and fathers at 9 months. METHODS: Data from 6821 parental dyads of 9-month-old infants were extracted from the Growing Up in Ireland National Longitudinal Study of Children. Participants completed the Parental Stress Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Quality of Attachment Sub-scale from the Maternal and Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scales, and a single item health status question from the Short Form 12 Health Survey...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635436/changes-in-the-nature-and-intensity-of-stress-following-employment-among-people-with-severe-mental-illness-receiving-individual-placement-and-support-services-an-exploratory-qualitative-study
#16
Christine Besse, Daniel Poremski, Vincent Laliberté, Eric Latimer
BACKGROUND: Most people with severe mental illness (SMI) want to work. Individual placement and support (IPS) programs have proven effective in helping them obtain and keep competitive jobs. Yet, practitioners often fear that competitive jobs might be too stressful. AIMS: To explore how the nature and intensity of stress experienced by IPS clients changed after the transition from looking for work to being employed. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews explored the experiences of 16 clients of an IPS program who had recently been competitively employed...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635324/gliptins-suppress-inflammatory-macrophage-activation-to-mitigate-inflammation-fibrosis-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-models-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#17
Xiaoyu Wang, Michael Hausding, Shih-Yen Weng, Yong Ook Kim, Sebastian Steven, Thomas Klein, Andreas Daiber, Detlef Schuppan
AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, panlobular inflammation, liver fibrosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are indirect glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity, used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their potential and underlying mechanisms to treat metabolic liver inflammation and fibrosis as well as the associated vascular dysfunction remain to be explored...
June 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635103/uncovering-the-dispersion-history-adaptive-evolution-and-selection-of-wheat-in-china
#18
Yong Zhou, Zhongxu Chen, Mengping Cheng, Jian Chen, Tingting Zhu, Rui Wang, Yaxi Liu, Pengfei Qi, Guoyue Chen, Qiantao Jiang, Yuming Wei, Ming-Cheng Luo, Eviatar Nevo, Robin G Allaby, Dengcai Liu, Jirui Wang, Jan Dvorák, Youliang Zheng
Wheat was introduced to China approximately 4500 years ago, where it adapted over a span of time to various environments in agro-ecological growing zones. We investigated 717 Chinese and 14 Iranian/Turkish geographically diverse, locally adapted wheat landraces with 27,933 DArTseq (for 717 landraces) and 312,831 Wheat660K (for a subset of 285 landraces) markers. This study highlights the adaptive evolutionary history of wheat cultivation in China. Environmental stresses and independent selection efforts have resulted in considerable genome-wide divergence at the population level in Chinese wheat landraces...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#19
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634818/sg2na-is-a-regulator-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-homeostasis-as-its-depletion-leads-to-er-stress
#20
Buddhi Prakash Jain, Shweta Pandey, Nikhat Saleem, Goutam K Tanti, Shalini Mishra, Shyamal K Goswami
SG2NA belongs to a three-member striatin subfamily of WD40 repeat superfamily of proteins. It has multiple protein-protein interaction domains involved in assembling supramolecular signaling complexes. Earlier, we had demonstrated that there are at least five variants of SG2NA generated by alternative splicing, intron retention, and RNA editing. Such versatile and dynamic mode of regulation implicates it in tissue development. In order to shed light on its role in cell physiology, total proteome analysis was performed in NIH3T3 cells depleted of 78 kDa SG2NA, the only isoform expressing therein...
June 21, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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