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I Aho, P Kivelä, M Kaijomaa, H-M Surcel, M Ristola, O Heikinheimo, J Sutinen
HIV-positive children are still born in Europe despite low mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates. We aimed to clarify the remaining barriers to the prevention of MTCT. By combining the national registers, we identified all women living with HIV delivering at least one child during 1983-2013. Of the 212 women delivering after HIV diagnosis, 46% were diagnosed during the pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, age >30 years (P = 0.001), sexual transmission (P = 0.012), living outside of the metropolitan area (P = 0...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Cozzi-Lepri, R Zangerle, L Machala, K Zilmer, M Ristola, C Pradier, O Kirk, H Sambatakou, G Fätkenheuer, I Yust, P Schmid, M Gottfredsson, I Khromova, D Jilich, R Flisiak, J Smidt, B Rozentale, R Radoi, M H Losso, J D Lundgren, A Mocroft
OBJECTIVES: There are currently few data on the long-term risk of cancer and death in individuals taking raltegravir (RAL). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether there is evidence for an association. METHODS: The EuroSIDA cohort was divided into three groups: those starting RAL-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on or after 21 December 2007 (RAL); a historical cohort (HIST) of individuals adding a new antiretroviral (ARV) drug (not RAL) to their cART between 1 January 2005 and 20 December 2007, and a concurrent cohort (CONC) of individuals adding a new ARV drug (not RAL) to their cART on or after 21 December 2007...
February 2018: HIV Medicine
L Shepherd, Á H Borges, R Harvey, M Bower, A Grulich, M Silverberg, J Weber, M Ristola, J-P Viard, J R Bogner, P Gargalianos-Kakolyris, C Mussini, K Mansinho, I Yust, D Paduta, D Jilich, T Smiatacz, R Radoi, J Tomazic, P Plomgaard, R Frikke-Schmidt, J Lundgren, A Mocroft
OBJECTIVES: B-cell dysfunction and activation are thought to contribute to lymphoma development in HIV-positive people; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated levels of several markers of B-cell dysfunction [free light chain (FLC)-κ, FLC-λ, immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM and IgD] prior to lymphoma diagnosis in HIV-positive people. METHODS: A nested matched case-control study was carried out within the EuroSIDA cohort, including 73 HIV-positive people with lymphoma and 143 HIV-positive lymphoma-free controls...
February 2018: HIV Medicine
François Blanquart, Chris Wymant, Marion Cornelissen, Astrid Gall, Margreet Bakker, Daniela Bezemer, Matthew Hall, Mariska Hillebregt, Swee Hoe Ong, Jan Albert, Norbert Bannert, Jacques Fellay, Katrien Fransen, Annabelle J Gourlay, M Kate Grabowski, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Huldrych F Günthard, Pia Kivelä, Roger Kouyos, Oliver Laeyendecker, Kirsi Liitsola, Laurence Meyer, Kholoud Porter, Matti Ristola, Ard van Sighem, Guido Vanham, Ben Berkhout, Paul Kellam, Peter Reiss, Christophe Fraser
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2001855.].
July 2017: PLoS Biology
Amit C Achhra, Amanda Mocroft, Michael Ross, Lene Ryom-Nielson, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Elzbieta Bakowska, Waldo Belloso, Amanda Clarke, Hansjakob Furrer, Gregory M Lucas, Matti Ristola, Mohammed Rassool, Jonathan Ross, Charurut Somboonwit, Shweta Sharma, Christina Wyatt
The impact of early ART initiation (versus deferring) on kidney function has not been studied. START was a randomised comparison of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among HIV-positive persons with CD4+ (cells/mm3 ) counts >500. Serum creatinine and urine dipstick protein were measured at Months 0, 1, 4, 8 and 12, and annually thereafter. The two arms were compared for changes in eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2 , calculated by CKD-EPI equation), over time using longitudinal mixed models. Of 4685 START participants, 4629 (2294 in immediate and 2335 deferred arm) were included...
September 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
François Blanquart, Chris Wymant, Marion Cornelissen, Astrid Gall, Margreet Bakker, Daniela Bezemer, Matthew Hall, Mariska Hillebregt, Swee Hoe Ong, Jan Albert, Norbert Bannert, Jacques Fellay, Katrien Fransen, Annabelle J Gourlay, M Kate Grabowski, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Huldrych F Günthard, Pia Kivelä, Roger Kouyos, Oliver Laeyendecker, Kirsi Liitsola, Laurence Meyer, Kholoud Porter, Matti Ristola, Ard van Sighem, Guido Vanham, Ben Berkhout, Paul Kellam, Peter Reiss, Christophe Fraser
HIV-1 set-point viral load-the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection-is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%-43%)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
Josep M Llibre, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Court Pedersen, Matti Ristola, Marcelo Losso, Amanda Mocroft, Viktar Mitsura, Karolin Falconer, Fernando Maltez, Marek Beniowski, Vincenzo Vullo, Gamal Hassoun, Elena Kuzovatova, János Szlavik, Anastasiia Kuznetsova, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Claudine Duvivier, Simon Edwards, Kamilla Laut, Roger Paredes
Effectiveness data of an unboosted atazanavir (ATV) with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) switch strategy in clinical routine are scant.We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV + ABC/3TC in pretreated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort when started with undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load (pVL), performing a time to loss of virological response (TLOVR <50 copies/mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96, and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed pVL >50 copies/mL.We included 285 subjects, 67% male, with median baseline CD4 530 cells, and 44 months with pVL ≤50 copies/mL...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alison J Rodger, Valentina Cambiano, Tina Bruun, Pietro Vernazza, Simon Collins, Jan van Lunzen, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Vicente Estrada, Anna Maria Geretti, Apostolos Beloukas, David Asboe, Pompeyo Viciana, Félix Gutiérrez, Bonaventura Clotet, Christian Pradier, Jan Gerstoft, Rainer Weber, Katarina Westling, Gilles Wandeler, Jan M Prins, Armin Rieger, Marcel Stoeckle, Tim Kümmerle, Teresa Bini, Adriana Ammassari, Richard Gilson, Ivanka Krznaric, Matti Ristola, Robert Zangerle, Pia Handberg, Antonio Antela, Sris Allan, Andrew N Phillips, Jens Lundgren
IMPORTANCE: A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of within-couple HIV transmission (heterosexual and men who have sex with men [MSM]) during periods of sex without condoms and when the HIV-positive partner had HIV-1 RNA load less than 200 copies/mL...
July 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
T Heikinheimo, E Poutiainen, O Salonen, I Elovaara, M Ristola
OBJECTIVES: Is it possible to live without neurocognitive or neurological symptoms after being infected with HIV for a very long time? These study patients with decades-long HIV infection in Finland were observed in this follow-up study during three time periods: 1986-1990, in 1997 and in 2013. SETTING: Patients from greater Helsinki area were selected from outpatient's unit of infectious diseases. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 80 HIV patients...
November 5, 2015: BMJ Open
P Saurus, S Kuusela, E Lehtonen, M E Hyvönen, M Ristola, C L Fogarty, J Tienari, M I Lassenius, C Forsblom, M Lehto, M A Saleem, P-H Groop, H Holthöfer, S Lehtonen
High serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) predicts the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. We observed that treatment of cultured human podocytes with sera from normoalbuminuric T1D patients with high LPS activity downregulated 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), an activator of the Akt cell survival pathway, and induced apoptosis. Knockdown of PDK1 in cultured human podocytes inhibited antiapoptotic Akt pathway, stimulated proapoptotic p38 MAPK pathway, and increased apoptosis demonstrating an antiapoptotic role for PDK1 in podocytes...
May 7, 2015: Cell Death & Disease
M G Law, A Achhra, S G Deeks, B Gazzard, S A Migueles, R M Novak, M Ristola
OBJECTIVES: A small subset of HIV-positive adults have low HIV RNA in the absence of therapy, sometimes for years. Clinical factors associated with low HIV RNA in early infection have not been well defined. METHODS: We assessed factors associated with low plasma HIV RNA level at study entry in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial. All START participants had a baseline HIV RNA assessment within 60 days prior to randomization. The key covariables considered for this analysis were race, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) status...
April 2015: HIV Medicine
Josep M Llibre, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Jorge Antonio Valencia La Rosa, Court Pedersen, Matti Ristola, Marcelo Losso, Amanda Mocroft, Victor M Mitsura, Vidar Ormaasen, Fernando Maltez, Marek Beniowski, Roger Paredes
BACKGROUND: Use of unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) is approved in the US but not in Europe (1). Due to pharmacokinetic interactions it should not be used with tenofovir but can be used with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) (1, 2) (3). Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinical routine however are scant. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
A Mocroft, P Reiss, A Rakhmanova, D Banhegyi, A N Phillips, S De Wit, M Ristola, J D Lundgren, J Grarup, O Kirk
ATRIPLA is licensed for use only in HIV-positive persons whose viral loads <50 for ≥ 3 months. We investigated the use of ATRIPLA as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in EuroSIDA using a web-based survey performed in Autumn 2012. 96/112 clinics (85.7 %) completed the survey. Recommendations when initiating first-line ART was TRUVADA plus efavirenz in 36 (37.5 %), ATRIPLA in 35 (36.5 %), a different first-line regimen in 12 clinics (12.5 %), and no recommendation in 7 clinics (7.3 %). ATRIPLA was commonest in Northern (15/21 clinics; 71...
August 2014: Infection
O S Søgaard, J Reekie, M Ristola, D Jevtovic, I Karpov, M Beniowski, S Servitskiy, P Domingo, P Reiss, A Mocroft, O Kirk
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine incidence rates (IR) and identify risk factors for severe bacterial non-AIDS infections (SBnAI) requiring hospital admission. METHODS: Data from the prospective EuroSIDA cohort were utilized to determine IRs of first diagnosis of the following SBnAI requiring hospital admission: bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, pneumonia, osteitis, and pyolonephritis. Incidence rate-ratios (IRRs) and risk factors were assessed by Poisson regression...
May 2013: Journal of Infection
S M E Vrouenraets, F W N M Wit, E Fernandez Garcia, M Huber, K Brinkman, G Moyle, P Domingo, P E Tarr, D Podzamczer, M Ristola, J M Gatell, J M Livrozet, H Furrer, P Reiss
OBJECTIVES: Whether zidovudine (AZT)-associated lipoatrophy occurrence differs by concomitant exposure to protease (PIs) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) remains unclear. Baseline body composition data from a randomized trial in subjects stable on first-line AZT-based therapy were used to explore this issue. METHODS: In this substudy of the PREPARE trial, centrally read baseline whole-body dual energy x-ray aborptiometry (DXA) and single-slice abdominal CT scans were analyzed with respect to duration and type of prior AZT/lamivudine (3TC) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), including by multivariate linear regression adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and nadir CD4...
March 2012: HIV Clinical Trials
Ksenia Sevastianova, Jussi Sutinen, Dario Greco, Meline Sievers, Kaisa Salmenkivi, Julia Perttilä, Vesa M Olkkonen, Dick Wågsäter, Martin E Lidell, Sven Enerbäck, Per Eriksson, Ulrich A Walker, Petri Auvinen, Matti Ristola, Hannele Yki-Järvinen
OBJECTIVE: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with lipodystrophy, i.e., loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdomen, limbs, and face and its accumulation intra-abdominally. No fat is lost dorsocervically and it can even accumulate in this region (buffalo hump). It is unknown how preserved dorsocervical fat differs from abdominal subcutaneous fat in HIV-1-infected cART-treated patients with (cART+LD+) and without (cART+LD-) lipodystrophy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used histology, microarray, PCR, and magnetic resonance imaging to compare dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in cART+LD+ (n=21) and cART+LD- (n=11)...
July 2011: Diabetes
Anne Lahtinen, Pia Kivelä, Lea Hedman, Arun Kumar, Anu Kantele, Maija Lappalainen, Kirsi Liitsola, Matti Ristola, Eric Delwart, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Klaus Hedman
To determine the prevalence of parvovirus 4 infection and its clinical and sociodemographic correlations in Finland, we used virus-like particle-based serodiagnostic procedures (immunoglobulin [Ig] G, IgM, and IgG avidity) and PCR. We found 2 persons with parvovirus 4 primary infection who had mild or asymptomatic clinical features among hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug users.
January 2011: Emerging Infectious Diseases
P S Kivelä, A Krol, M O Salminen, M A Ristola
OBJECTIVES: To study determinants of late HIV diagnosis in a low-HIV-prevalence (<0.1%) country where HIV spread among men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals in the 1980s, and among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the late 1990s. METHODS: Newly diagnosed HIV cases referred to the Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1985 and 2005 were reviewed to identify determinants of late HIV diagnosis, defined as diagnosis when the first CD4 count was <200 cells/microL, or when AIDS occurred within 3 months of HIV diagnosis...
July 1, 2010: HIV Medicine
Marit G A van Vonderen, Michiel A van Agtmael, Elly A M Hassink, Ana Milinkovic, Kees Brinkman, Suzanne E Geerlings, Matti Ristola, Arne van Eeden, Sven A Danner, Peter Reiss
BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is known to be associated with stavudine as part of the treatment for HIV infection, but it is less clear if this serious side effect is also related to other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like zidovudine. We aimed to determine whether zidovudine-sparing first-line antiretroviral therapy would lead to less lipoatrophy and other metabolic changes than zidovudine-containing therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected men with an indication to start antiretroviral therapy were included in a randomized single blinded clinical trial...
May 21, 2009: PloS One
Marit G A van Vonderen, Paul Lips, Michiel A van Agtmael, Elly A M Hassink, Kees Brinkman, Suzanne E Geerlings, Jussi Sutinen, Matti Ristola, Sven A Danner, Peter Reiss
OBJECTIVE: We studied changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the contribution of zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) in particular. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial comparing lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) + ZDV/3TC with LPV/r + nevirapine (NVP) in 50 cART-naive men. METHODS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography scans (QCT) were performed at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 months after cART initiation...
July 17, 2009: AIDS
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