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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324358/regulatory-cd4-t-cells-inhibit-hiv-1-expression-of-other-cd4-t-cell-subsets-via-interactions-with-cell-surface-regulatory-proteins
#1
Mingce Zhang, Tanya O Robinson, Alexandra Duverger, Olaf Kutsch, Sonya L Heath, Randy Q Cron
During chronic HIV-1 infection, regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) frequently represent the largest subpopulation of CD4 T cell subsets, implying relative resistant to HIV-1. When HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells was explored in vitro and ex vivo from patient samples, Tregs possessed lower levels of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in comparison with conventional effector and memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, Tregs suppressed HIV-1 expression in other CD4 T cells in an in vitro co-culture system. This suppression was mediated in part via multiple inhibitory surface proteins expressed on Tregs...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245940/mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-cell-activation-by-releasing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-from-tgf-%C3%AE-1-garp-complex
#2
Jian Niu, Wang Yue, Zhu Le-Le, Liu Bin, Xin Hu
Intervention with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reveals a promising therapeutic tool to treat transplantation and autoimmune disease due to their immunoregulation capability. But the mechanisms of action are not fully investigated yet. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibit multiple effects in migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) is an important marker of activated Treg (regulatory T cells). GARP binds latent TGF-β1 to regulate its activation, which is the indispensable step in Treg suppressing effector T cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245469/diversity-and-distribution-of-phanaeini-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-in-mexico
#3
Viridiana Lizardo, Federico Escobar, Octavio Rojas-Soto
In this study, we systematized available distribution data, obtained from biological databases and relevant literature, for Mexican species belonging to the tribe Phanaeini. The main objectives were to provide an overall description of the distribution records in biological collections, to detect potential sampling biases, to describe the seasonality of collections and to obtain species distribution models using the Desktop GARP algorithm. A total of 5,562 records, corresponding to 32 species in Mexico, were compiled, including the recently described Phanaeus zoque Moctezuma & Halffter, 2017...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163543/interleukin-6-present-in-inflammatory-ascites-from-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-patients-promotes-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-expressing-regulatory-t-cells
#4
Nirmala Chandralega Kampan, Mutsa Tatenda Madondo, Orla M McNally, Andrew N Stephens, Michael A Quinn, Magdalena Plebanski
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109269/blocking-immunosuppression-by-human-tregs-in-vivo-with-antibodies-targeting-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-8
#5
Julie Stockis, Stéphanie Liénart, Didier Colau, Amandine Collignon, Stephen L Nishimura, Dean Sheppard, Pierre G Coulie, Sophie Lucas
Human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other T cells by converting the latent, inactive form of TGF-β1 into active TGF-β1. In Tregs, TGF-β1 activation requires GARP, a transmembrane protein that binds and presents latent TGF-β1 on the surface of Tregs stimulated through their T cell receptor. However, GARP is not sufficient because transduction of GARP in non-Treg T cells does not induce active TGF-β1 production. RGD-binding integrins were shown to activate TGF-β1 in several non-T cell types. Here we show that αVβ8 dimers are present on stimulated human Tregs but not in other T cells, and that antibodies against αV or β8 subunits block TGF-β1 activation in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057512/induction-of-porcine-specific-regulatory-t-cells-with-high-specificity-and-expression-of-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-using-baboon-derived-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#6
Mingqian Li, Judith Eckl, Jan-Michael Abicht, Tanja Mayr, Bruno Reichart, Dolores J Schendel, Heike Pohla
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in maintenance of homeostasis in vivo. Treg application to alleviate allo-organ rejection is being studied extensively. However, natural Treg (nTreg) expansion in vitro is laborious and expensive. Antigen-specific Treg are more effective and require lower cell numbers than use of nTreg for immune control. The baboon, as a non-human primate experimental animal model, is widely used in xenotransplantation research. An effective method to generate baboon xeno-specific Treg would benefit research on immune tolerance in xenotransplantation using this model system...
October 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043024/validating-distribution-models-for-twelve-endemic-bird-species-of-tropical-dry-forest-in-western-mexico
#7
Miguel A Ortega-Huerta, Jorge H Vega-Rivera
Considering the high biodiversity and conservation concerns of the tropical dry forest, this study aim is to predict and evaluate the potential and current distributions of twelve species of endemic birds which distribute along the western slope of Mexico. The main goal is to evaluate altogether different methods for predicting actual species distribution models (ADMs) of the twelve species including the identification of key environmental potential limiting factors. ADMs for twelve endemic Mexican birds were generated and validated by means of applying: (1) three widely used species niche modeling approaches (ENFA, Garp, and Maxent); (2) two thresholding methods, based on ROC curves and Kappa Index, for transforming continuous models to presence/absence (binary) models; (3) documented habitat-species associations for reducing species potential distribution models (PDMs); and (4) field occurrence data for validating final ADMs...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982708/the-reduction-of-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-grey-matter-volume-correlates-with-loss-of-economic-rationality-in-aging
#8
Hui-Kuan Chung, Agnieszka Tymula, Paul Glimcher
The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow and there is mounting evidence that as humans age, they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole brain voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981671/climate-shapes-the-geographic-distribution-of-the-blowfly-sarconesia-chlorogaster-diptera-calliphoridae-an-environmental-niche-modeling-approach
#9
Melise Cristine Lecheta, Rodrigo César Corrêa, Mauricio Osvaldo Moura
For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912269/glycoprotein-a-repetitions-predominant-garp-positively-regulates-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-3-and-is-essential-for-mouse-palatogenesis
#10
Bill X Wu, Anqi Li, Liming Lei, Satoshi Kaneko, Caroline Wallace, Xue Li, Zihai Li
Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) (encoded by the Lrrc32 gene) plays important roles in cell-surface docking and activation of TGFβ. However, GARP's role in organ development in mammalian systems is unclear. To determine the function of GARP in vivo, we generated a GARP KO mouse model. Unexpectedly, the GARP KO mice died within 24 h after birth and exhibited defective palatogenesis without apparent abnormalities in other major organs. Furthermore, we observed decreased apoptosis and SMAD2 phosphorylation in the medial edge epithelial cells of the palatal shelf of GARP KO embryos at embryonic day 14...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887895/impact-of-climate-change-on-vector-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-chagas-1909-in-north-america
#11
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
September 9, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818378/nsr1-myr2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-asn1-expression-and-its-possible-involvement-in-regulation-of-nitrogen-reutilization-in-arabidopsis
#12
Yoshimi Nakano, Yuki Naito, Toshitsugu Nakano, Namie Ohtsuki, Kaoru Suzuki
Nitrogen (N) is a major macronutrient that is essential for plant growth. It is important for us to understand the key genes that are involved in the regulation of N utilization. In this study, we focused on a GARP-type transcription factor known as NSR1/MYR2, which has been reported to be induced under N-deficient conditions. Our results demonstrated that NSR1/MYR2 has a transcriptional repression activity and is specifically expressed in vascular tissues, especially in phloem throughout the plant under daily light-dark cycle regulation...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802165/the-world-according-to-garp-transcription-factors
#13
REVIEW
Alaeddine Safi, Anna Medici, Wojciech Szponarski, Sandrine Ruffel, Benoît Lacombe, Gabriel Krouk
Plant specific GARP transcription factor family (made of ARR-B and G2-like) contains genes with very diverse in planta functions: nutrient sensing, root and shoot development, floral transition, chloroplast development, circadian clock oscillation maintenance, hormonal transport and signaling. In this work we review: first, their structural but distant relationships with MYB transcription factors, second, their role in planta, third, the diversity of their Cis-regulatory elements, fourth, their potential protein partners...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795730/role-of-garp-in-the-activation-of-latent-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#14
REVIEW
Julie Stockis, Olivier Dedobbeleer, Sophie Lucas
TGF-β1, 2 and 3 cytokines are involved in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Whereas TGF-β2 and 3 play important roles in embryonic development, TGF-β1 is mostly implicated in controlling immune responses after birth. The production of TGF-β1 is a tightly regulated process, occurring mostly at a post-translational level. Virtually all cells produce the latent, inactive form of TGF-β1. In latent TGF-β1, the mature TGF-β1 dimer is non-covalently associated to the Latency Associated Peptide, or LAP, which prevents binding to the TGF-β1 receptor...
September 26, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763790/platelets-subvert-t-cell-immunity-against-cancer-via-garp-tgf%C3%AE-axis
#15
Saleh Rachidi, Alessandra Metelli, Brian Riesenberg, Bill X Wu, Michelle H Nelson, Caroline Wallace, Chrystal M Paulos, Mark P Rubinstein, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Mirko Hennig, Daniel W Bearden, Yi Yang, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
Cancer-associated thrombocytosis has long been linked to poor clinical outcome, but the underlying mechanism is enigmatic. We hypothesized that platelets promote malignancy and resistance to therapy by dampening host immunity. We show that genetic targeting of platelets enhances adoptive T cell therapy of cancer. An unbiased biochemical and structural biology approach established transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and lactate as major platelet-derived soluble factors to obliterate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell functions...
May 5, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758108/blood-transcriptional-signatures-for-disease-progression-in-a-rat-model-of-osteoarthritis
#16
Michał Korostyński, Natalia Małek, Marcin Piechota, Katarzyna Starowicz
Biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) that can accurately diagnose the disease at the earliest stage would significantly support efforts to develop treatments for prevention and early intervention. We have sought to determine the time course of alterations in peripheral blood gene expression profile associated with the development of OA. Blood samples were collected from a tail vein of individual rats with monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced OA (2, 14, 21, and 28 days after the treatment). We used whole-genome microarrays to reveal OA-related transcriptional alterations of 72 transcripts...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658628/the-garp-complex-is-involved-in-intracellular-cholesterol-transport-via-targeting-npc2-to-lysosomes
#17
Jian Wei, Ying-Yu Zhang, Jie Luo, Ju-Qiong Wang, Yu-Xia Zhou, Hong-Hua Miao, Xiong-Jie Shi, Yu-Xiu Qu, Jie Xu, Bo-Liang Li, Bao-Liang Song
Proper intracellular cholesterol trafficking is critical for cellular function. Two lysosome-resident proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, mediate the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. However, other proteins involved in this process remain largely unknown. Through amphotericin B-based selection, we isolated two cholesterol transport-defective cell lines. Subsequent whole-transcriptome-sequencing analysis revealed two cell lines bearing the same mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 53 (Vps53) gene...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634332/predicting-the-potential-risk-area-of-illegal-vaccine-trade-in-china
#18
Yilan Liao, Yanhui Lei, Zhoupeng Ren, Huiyan Chen, Dongyue Li
Since the disclosure of the "Illegal vaccine operation series case in Jinan, Shandong" in March, 2016, this issue has attracted a great deal of attention and has led to public concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines involved in this case. The main purpose of this paper is to scientifically and scrupulously predict the possible geographic distribution of illegal vaccines in China, and provide a foundation to guide future governmental policies and actions. A species distribution model was used because of the advantages of using presence/pseudo-absence or presence-only data, and it performs well with incomplete species distribution data...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619958/monocytes-inhibit-nk-activity-via-tgf-%C3%AE-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#19
Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, Victor Toledano, Rebeca Pérez de Diego, Isabel Fernández-Navarro, Raquel Casitas, Carlos Carpio, Jose Casas-Martín, Jaime Valentín, Anibal Varela-Serrano, Jose Avendaño-Ortiz, Enrique Alvarez, Luis A Aguirre, Antonio Pérez-Martínez, Maria P De Miguel, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Francisco García-Río, Eduardo López-Collazo
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cancer incidence and mortality. The contribution of the immune system appears to be crucial; however, the potential role of monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells remains unclear.Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, flow cytometry and in vitro assays were used to analyse the phenotype and immune response activity in 92 patients with OSA (60 recently diagnosed untreated patients and 32 patients after 6 months of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) and 29 healthy volunteers (HV)...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607112/cutting-edge-active-tgf-%C3%AE-1-released-from-garp-tgf-%C3%AE-1-complexes-on-the-surface-of-stimulated-human-b-lymphocytes-increases-class-switch-recombination-and-production-of-iga
#20
Olivier Dedobbeleer, Julie Stockis, Bas van der Woning, Pierre G Coulie, Sophie Lucas
Production of active TGF-β is regulated at a posttranslational level and implies release of the mature cytokine dimer from the inactive, latent TGF-β precursor. There are several cell-type specific mechanisms of TGF-β activation. We identified a new mechanism operating on the surface of human regulatory T cells and involving membrane protein GARP, which binds latent TGF-β1. The paracrine activity of regulatory T cell-derived TGF-β1 contributes to immunosuppression and can be inhibited with anti-GARP Abs...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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