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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634332/predicting-the-potential-risk-area-of-illegal-vaccine-trade-in-china
#1
Yilan Liao, Yanhui Lei, Zhoupeng Ren, Huiyan Chen, Dongyue Li
Since the disclosure of the "Illegal vaccine operation series case in Jinan, Shandong" in March, 2016, this issue has attracted a great deal of attention and has led to public concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines involved in this case. The main purpose of this paper is to scientifically and scrupulously predict the possible geographic distribution of illegal vaccines in China, and provide a foundation to guide future governmental policies and actions. A species distribution model was used because of the advantages of using presence/pseudo-absence or presence-only data, and it performs well with incomplete species distribution data...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619958/monocytes-inhibit-nk-activity-via-tgf-%C3%AE-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#2
Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, Victor Toledano, Rebeca Pérez de Diego, Isabel Fernández-Navarro, Raquel Casitas, Carlos Carpio, Jose Casas-Martín, Jaime Valentín, Anibal Varela-Serrano, Jose Avendaño-Ortiz, Enrique Alvarez, Luis A Aguirre, Antonio Pérez-Martínez, Maria P De Miguel, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Francisco García-Río, Eduardo López-Collazo
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cancer incidence and mortality. The contribution of the immune system appears to be crucial; however, the potential role of monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells remains unclear.Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, flow cytometry and in vitro assays were used to analyse the phenotype and immune response activity in 92 patients with OSA (60 recently diagnosed untreated patients and 32 patients after 6 months of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) and 29 healthy volunteers (HV)...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607112/cutting-edge-active-tgf-%C3%AE-1-released-from-garp-tgf-%C3%AE-1-complexes-on-the-surface-of-stimulated-human-b-lymphocytes-increases-class-switch-recombination-and-production-of-iga
#3
Olivier Dedobbeleer, Julie Stockis, Bas van der Woning, Pierre G Coulie, Sophie Lucas
Production of active TGF-β is regulated at a posttranslational level and implies release of the mature cytokine dimer from the inactive, latent TGF-β precursor. There are several cell-type specific mechanisms of TGF-β activation. We identified a new mechanism operating on the surface of human regulatory T cells and involving membrane protein GARP, which binds latent TGF-β1. The paracrine activity of regulatory T cell-derived TGF-β1 contributes to immunosuppression and can be inhibited with anti-GARP Abs...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542518/rnf41-interacts-with-the-vps52-subunit-of-the-garp-and-earp-complexes
#4
Delphine Masschaele, Leentje De Ceuninck, Joris Wauman, Dieter Defever, Frank Stenner, Sam Lievens, Frank Peelman, Jan Tavernier
RNF41 (Ring Finger Protein 41) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the intracellular sorting and function of a diverse set of substrates. Next to BRUCE and Parkin, RNF41 can directly ubiquitinate ErbB3, IL-3, EPO and RARα receptors or downstream signaling molecules such as Myd88, TBK1 and USP8. In this way it can regulate receptor signaling and routing. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the role of RNF41 in intracellular transport we performed an Array MAPPIT (Mammalian Protein-Protein Interaction Trap) screen using an extensive set of proteins derived from the human ORFeome collection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521960/yeast-dynamin-associates-with-the-garp-tethering-complex-for-endosome-to-golgi-traffic
#5
Uma Saimani, Jared Smothers, Hyoeun McDermott, Pelin Makaraci, Kyoungtae Kim
Yeast dynamin, Vacuolar Protein Sorting 1 (Vps1), has been implicated in recycling traffic from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous research showed a genetic interaction of Vps1 with all components of the GARP tethering complex, which anchors vesicles at the late Golgi membrane. We used the yeast two-hybrid system and have identified a 33 amino acid segment of Vps51, a GARP subunit, that interacts with Vps1. Based on sequence homology between Vps51 and its mammalian homolog Ang2 in the 33 amino acids stretch, we identified two key residues of Vps51, E127 and Y129, that bind Vps1...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495729/cancer-immunotherapy-according-to-garp
#6
EDITORIAL
Angela Colmone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340594/species-specific-ecological-niche-modelling-predicts-different-range-contractions-for-lutzomyia-intermedia-and-a-related-vector-of-leishmania-braziliensis-following-climate-change-in-south-america
#7
Shannon McIntyre, Elizabeth F Rangel, Paul D Ready, Bruno M Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Before 1996 the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was usually treated as a synonym of the morphologically similar Lutzomyia intermedia, which has long been considered a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of much cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. This report investigates the likely range changes of both sand fly species in response to a stabilisation climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and a high greenhouse gas emissions one (RCP8.5). METHODS: Ecological niche modelling was used to identify areas of South America with climates currently suitable for each species, and then the future distributions of these climates were predicted based on climate change scenarios...
March 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331092/monkeypox-virus-host-factor-screen-using-haploid-cells-identifies-essential-role-of-garp-complex-in-extracellular-virus-formation
#8
Susan Realegeno, Andreas S Puschnik, Amrita Kumar, Cynthia Goldsmith, Jillybeth Burgado, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Victoria A Olson, Darin Carroll, Inger Damon, Tetsuya Hirata, Taroh Kinoshita, Jan E Carette, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325841/an-inducible-amphipathic-helix-within-the-intrinsically-disordered-c-terminus-can-participate-in-membrane-curvature-generation-by-peripherin-2-rds
#9
Michelle L Milstein, Victoria A Kimler, Chiranjib Ghatak, Alexey S Ladokhin, Andrew F X Goldberg
Peripherin-2/rds is required for biogenesis of vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment organelles. Its localization at the high-curvature rim domains of outer segment disk membranes suggests that it may act to shape these structures; however, the molecular function of this protein is not yet resolved. Here, we apply biochemical, biophysical, and imaging techniques to elucidate the role(s) played by the protein's intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain and an incipient amphipathic α-helix contained within it...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323903/global-potential-distribution-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#10
Luana A Dos Santos, Mayara F Mendes, Alexandra P Krüger, Monica L Blauth, Marco S Gottschalk, Flávio R M Garcia
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a species native to Western Asia that is able to pierce intact fruit during egg laying, causing it to be considered a fruit crop pest in many countries. Drosophila suzukii have a rapid expansion worldwide; occurrences were recorded in North America and Europe in 2008, and South America in 2013. Due to this rapid expansion, we modeled the potential distribution of this species using the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production (GARP) using 407 sites with known occurrences worldwide and 11 predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290453/suppressive-il-17a-foxp3-and-ex-th17-il-17a-neg-foxp3-treg-cells-are-a-source-of-tumour-associated-treg-cells
#11
Stephanie Downs-Canner, Sara Berkey, Greg M Delgoffe, Robert P Edwards, Tyler Curiel, Kunle Odunsi, David L Bartlett, Nataša Obermajer
Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells are integral in maintaining immune homeostasis and Th17-Treg imbalance is associated with inflammatory immunosuppression in cancer. Here we show that Th17 cells are a source of tumour-induced Foxp3(+) cells. In addition to natural (n)Treg and induced (i)Treg cells that develop from naive precursors, suppressive IL-17A(+)Foxp3(+) and ex-Th17 Foxp3(+) cells are converted from IL-17A(+)Foxp3(neg) cells in tumour-bearing mice. Metabolic phenotyping of Foxp3-expressing IL-17A(+), ex-Th17 and iTreg cells demonstrates the dissociation between the metabolic fitness and the suppressive function of Foxp3-expressing Treg cell subsets...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278197/the-role-of-platelet-and-endothelial-garp-in-thrombosis-and-hemostasis
#12
Elien Vermeersch, Frederik Denorme, Wim Maes, Simon F De Meyer, Karen Vanhoorelbeke, Justin Edwards, Ethan M Shevach, Derya Unutmaz, Hodaka Fujii, Hans Deckmyn, Claudia Tersteeg
BACKGROUND: Glycoprotein-A Repetitions Predominant protein (GARP or LRRC32) is present on among others human platelets and endothelial cells. Evidence for its involvement in thrombus formation was suggested by full knockout of GARP in zebrafish. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of GARP in platelet physiology and in thrombus formation using platelet and endothelial conditional GARP knock out mice. METHODS: Platelet and endothelial specific GARP knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP recombination system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261204/expression-of-garp-is-increased-in-tumor-infiltrating-regulatory-t-cells-and-is-correlated-to-clinicopathology-of-lung-cancer-patients
#13
Hao Jin, Liping Sun, Lu Tang, Wenwen Yu, Hui Li
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are immunosuppressive T cells that play an important role in immune homeostasis. Multiple markers have been associated with the characterization, as well as function of Tregs. Recently, glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats, has been found to be highly expressed on the surface of activated Tregs. GARP maintains Tregs' regulatory function and homeostasis through the activation and secretion of transforming growth factor β...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207945/cd4-%C3%A2-cd25-%C3%A2-garp-regulatory-t-cells-display-a-compromised-suppressive-function-in-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#14
Yuzhen Wei, Kunwu Yu, Hui Wei, Xin Su, Ruirui Zhu, Huairui Shi, Haitao Sun, Quan Luo, Wenbin Xu, Junhui Xiao, Yucheng Zhong, Qiutang Zeng
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a lethal inflammatory heart disease and closely connected with dysfunction of the immune system. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells with suppressive activity has been established. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and function of circulating CD4(+)  CD25(+)  GARP(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in DCM. Forty-five DCM patients and 46 controls were enrolled in this study. There was a significant increase in peripheral T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 number and their related cytokines [interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL-17)], and an obvious decrease in Treg number, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) levels and the expression of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and GARP in patients with DCM compared with controls...
July 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198469/garp2-accelerates-retinal-degeneration-in-rod-cgmp-gated-cation-channel-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#15
Marci L DeRamus, Delores A Stacks, Youwen Zhang, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Steven J Pittler
The Cngb1 locus-encoded β-subunit of rod cGMP-gated cation channel and associated glutamic acid rich proteins (GARPs) are required for phototransduction, disk morphogenesis, and rod structural integrity. To probe individual protein structure/function of the GARPs, we have characterized several transgenic mouse lines selectively restoring GARPs on a Cngb1 knockout (X1(-/-)) mouse background. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electroretinography (ERG) were used to analyze 6 genotypes including WT at three and ten weeks postnatal...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150865/shifts-in-the-ecological-niche-of-lutzomyia-peruensis-under-climate-change-scenarios-in-peru
#16
D A Moo-Llanes, W Arque-Chunga, O Carmona-Castro, C Yañez-Arenas, H H Yañez-Trujillano, L Cheverría-Pacheco, C M Baak-Baak, A G Cáceres
The Peruvian Andes presents a climate suitable for many species of sandfly that are known vectors of leishmaniasis or bartonellosis, including Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae), among others. In the present study, occurrences data for Lu. peruensis were compiled from several items in the scientific literature from Peru published between 1927 and 2015. Based on these data, ecological niche models were constructed to predict spatial distributions using three algorithms [Support vector machine (SVM), the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt)]...
February 2, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040549/increased-peripheral-cd4-regulatory-t-cells-persist-after-successful-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c
#17
Bettina Langhans, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Benjamin Krämer, Annekristin Hausen, Leona Dold, Peer van Heteren, Robert Hüneburg, Jacob Nattermann, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) expand during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, inhibit antiviral immunity and promote fibrosis. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) have revolutionized HCV therapy. However, it is unclear if Tregs are normalized after DAA-induced HCV elimination. METHODS: We analyzed Tregs before (baseline), at end of therapy (EOT), 12 and 24weeks (SVR12, SVR24) and long-term (51±14weeks) after EOT in 26 genotype-1-infected patients who were successfully treated with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus interferon (IFN)/ribavirin (n=12) and IFN-free DAA regimens (SOF plus daclatasvir or simeprevir; n=14)...
May 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039301/il-6-inhibits-upregulation-of-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1-on-cd4-t-cells-and-blocking-il-6-enhances-oral-tolerance
#18
Chantal Kuhn, Rafael Machado Rezende, Hanane M'Hamdi, Andre Pires da Cunha, Howard L Weiner
Oral administration of Ag induces regulatory T cells that express latent membrane-bound TGF-β (latency-associated peptide [LAP]) and have been shown to play an important role in the induction of oral tolerance. We developed an in vitro model to study modulation of LAP(+) on CD4(+) T cells. The combination of anti-CD3 mAb, anti-CD28 mAb, and recombinant IL-2 induced expression of LAP on naive CD4(+) T cells, independent of Foxp3 or exogenous TGF-β. In vitro generated CD4(+)LAP(+)Foxp3(-) T cells were suppressive in vitro, inhibiting proliferation of naive CD4(+) T cells and IL-17A secretion by Th17 cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025245/predicting-the-distribution-of-phlebotomus-papatasi-diptera-psychodidae-the-primary-vector-of-zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-golestan-province-of-iran-using-ecological-niche-modeling-comparison-of-maxent-and-garp-models
#19
Aioub Sofizadeh, Yavar Rassi, Hassan Vatandoost, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Abolfazl Mollalo, Sayena Rafizadeh, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a prevalent vector-borne disease in the Golestan province of Iran, with Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) serving as the main vector. The aim of this study was to model the probability of presence of this species in the study area, and to determine the underlying factors affecting its distribution. Three villages were selected from each county of the province and visited monthly for investigating ZCL. Sticky paper traps were used for collecting the sand flies to determine the species present...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001437/garp-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-modulation-of-t-regulatory-cell-function
#20
REVIEW
Ethan M Shevach
Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) play critical roles in immune homeostasis primarily by suppressing many aspects of the immune response. Tregs uniquely express GARP on their cell surface and GARP functions as a delivery system for latent TGF-β. As Treg-derived TGF-β may mediate the suppressive functions of Tregs, GARP may represent a target to inhibit Treg suppression in cancer or augment suppression in autoimmunity. Areas covered: This article will focus on 1) the role of Treg-derived TGF-β in the suppressive activity of Treg, 2) the cellular and molecular regulation of expression of GARP on mouse and human Tregs, 3) the role of integrins in the activation of latent-TGF-β/GARP complex, 4) an overview of our present understanding of the function of the latent-TGF-β/GARP complex...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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