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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769249/spatial-distribution-and-function-of-t-follicular-regulatory-cells-in-human-lymph-nodes
#1
Ismail Sayin, Andrea J Radtke, Laura A Vella, Wenjie Jin, E John Wherry, Marcus Buggert, Michael R Betts, Ramin S Herati, Ronald N Germain, David H Canaday
T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a population of CD4+ T cells that express regulatory T cell markers and have been shown to suppress humoral immunity. However, the precise mechanisms and location of Tfr-mediated suppression in the lymph node (LN) microenvironment are unknown. Using highly multiplexed quantitative imaging and functional assays, we examined the spatial distribution, suppressive function, and preferred interacting partners of Tfr cells in human mesenteric LNs. We find that the majority of Tfr cells express low levels of PD-1 and reside at the border between the T cell zone and B cell follicle, with very few found in the germinal centers (GCs)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766641/tailoring-the-homing-capacity-of-human-tregs-for-directed-migration-to-sites-of-th1-inflammation-or-intestinal-regions
#2
Romy E Hoeppli, Katherine N MacDonald, Pascal Leclair, Vivian C W Fung, Majid Mojibian, Jana Gillies, Seyed M R Rahavi, Andrew I M Campbell, Sanjiv K Gandhi, Anne M Pesenacker, Gregor Reid, Chinten J Lim, Megan K Levings
Cell-based therapy with CD4+ FOXP3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising strategy to limit organ rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Ongoing clinical applications have yet to consider how human Tregs could be modified to direct their migration to specific inflammation sites and/or tissues for more targeted immunosuppression. We show here that stable, homing-receptor-tailored human Tregs can be generated from thymic Tregs isolated from pediatric thymus or adult blood. To direct migration to Th1-inflammatory sites, addition of IFN-γ and IL-12 during Treg expansion produced suppressive, epigenetically-stable CXCR3+ TBET+ FOXP3+ Th1-Tregs...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703231/predicting-the-distribution-of-phortica-variegata-and-potential-for-thelazia-callipaeda-transmission-in-europe-and-the-united-kingdom
#3
Jennifer Palfreyman, John Graham-Brown, Cyril Caminade, Paul Gilmore, Domenico Otranto, Diana J L Williams
BACKGROUND: Male fruitflies Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae, Steganinae) are the intermediate host of the zoonotic nematode Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae). More than 10 years ago, when T. callipaeda was confined to remote regions of southern Italy, ecological niche models were used to predict the potential distribution of P. variegata across Europe and the likely risk of the nematode spreading through infected dogs travelling to/from endemic regions. As predicted, over the last 10 years T...
April 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622567/repression-of-nitrogen-starvation-responses-by-members-of-the-arabidopsis-garp-type-transcription-factor-nigt1-hrs1-subfamily
#4
Takatoshi Kiba, Jun Inaba, Toru Kudo, Nanae Ueda, Mineko Konishi, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Yuko Takiguchi, Youichi Kondou, Takeshi Yoshizumi, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Minami Matsui, Kentaro Yano, Shuichi Yanagisawa, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Nitrogen (N) is often a limiting nutrient whose availability determines plant growth and productivity. Because its availability is often low and/or not uniform over time and space in nature, plants respond to variations in N availability by altering uptake and recycling mechanisms, but the molecular mechanisms underlying how these responses are regulated are poorly understood. Here we show that a group of GARP G2-like transcription factors, Arabidopsis NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, GARP-TYPE TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSOR 1/HYPERSENSITIVE TO LOW Pi-ELICITED PRIMARY ROOT SHORTENING 1 proteins (NIGT1/HRS1s) are factors that bind to the promoter of the N-starvation marker NRT2...
April 5, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618665/b-lymphocytes-confer-immune-tolerance-via-cell-surface-garp-tgf-%C3%AE-complex
#5
Caroline H Wallace, Bill X Wu, Mohammad Salem, Ephraim A Ansa-Addo, Alessandra Metelli, Shaoli Sun, Gary Gilkeson, Mark J Shlomchik, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
GARP, a cell surface docking receptor for binding and activating latent TGF-β, is highly expressed by platelets and activated Tregs. While GARP is implicated in immune invasion in cancer, the roles of the GARP-TGF-β axis in systemic autoimmune diseases are unknown. Although B cells do not express GARP at baseline, we found that the GARP-TGF-β complex is induced on activated human and mouse B cells by ligands for multiple TLRs, including TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9. GARP overexpression on B cells inhibited their proliferation, induced IgA class-switching, and dampened T cell-independent antibody production...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618596/alternative-splicing-of-foxp3-controls-regulatory-t-cell-effector-functions-and-is-associated-with-human-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability
#6
Anne-Laure Joly, Christina Seitz, Sang Liu, Nikolai V Kouznetsov, Karl Gertow, Lisa S Westerberg, Gabrielle Paulsson-Berne, Göran K Hansson, John Andersson
<u>Rationale:</u> Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress immune responses and have been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis. The Treg cell lineage specification factor FOXP3 is essential for Treg cells' ability to uphold immunological tolerance. In humans, FOXP3 exists in several different isoforms, however, their specific role is poorly understood. <u>Objective:</u> To define the regulation and functions of the two major FOXP3 isoforms, FOXP3fl and FOXP3Δ2, as well as to establish whether their expression is associated with ischemic atherosclerotic disease...
April 4, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608571/endocytic-recycling-via-the-tgn-underlies-the-polarized-hyphal-mode-of-life
#7
Miguel Hernández-González, Ignacio Bravo-Plaza, Mario Pinar, Vivian de Los Ríos, Herbert N Arst, Miguel A Peñalva
Intracellular traffic in Aspergillus nidulans hyphae must cope with the challenges that the high rates of apical extension (1μm/min) and the long intracellular distances (>100 μm) impose. Understanding the ways in which the hyphal tip cell coordinates traffic to meet these challenges is of basic importance, but is also of considerable applied interest, as fungal invasiveness of animals and plants depends critically upon maintaining these high rates of growth. Rapid apical extension requires localization of cell-wall-modifying enzymes to hyphal tips...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576879/the-balance-of-th1-th2-and-lap-tregs-th17-cells-is-crucial-for-graft-survival-in-allogeneic-corneal-transplantation
#8
Shang Li, Jing Yu, Chungang Guo, Ying Jie, Zhiqiang Pan
Purpose: CD4+LAP+ T cells are newly discovered regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study is to investigate the balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 in mice after allogeneic corneal transplantation. Methods: A total of 65 mice received orthotopic penetrating transplantation. According to the survival scores of the grafts, the mice were divided into the rejection group and the survival group 3 weeks after transplantation. Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells in the ipsilateral drainage lymph nodes and spleens were measured with flow cytometry...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520458/heterologous-expression-of-kiwifruit-actinidia-chinensis-golden2-like-homolog-elevates-chloroplast-level-and-nutritional-quality-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#9
Guangwei Li, Danyang Chen, Xiaofeng Tang, Yongsheng Liu
Constitutive expression of AchGLK from A. chinensis in transgenic tomato (S. lycopersicum) confers fruits an elevated plastid biogenesis with intensified granule thylakoid stacks and increased content of nutritional compounds. Plastid development is regulated by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Golden2-like (GLK) genes, members from GARP subfamily of the MYB transcription factors, have been shown to regulate plastid biogenesis and development in several species. In tomato (S. lycopersicum), SlGLK2 gene is expressed in the fruit in a manner of latitudinal gradient and determines the green shoulder phenotype...
June 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458436/immunoregulatory-functions-and-the-therapeutic-implications-of-garp-tgf-%C3%AE-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Alessandra Metelli, Mohammad Salem, Caroline H Wallace, Bill X Wu, Anqi Li, Xue Li, Zihai Li
GARP (glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant) is a type I transmembrane cell surface docking receptor for latent transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that is abundantly expressed on regulatory T lymphocytes and platelets. GARP regulates the availability of membrane-bound latent TGF-β and modulates its activation. For this reason, GARP expression on immune and non-immune cells is involved in maintaining peripheral tolerance. It plays an important role in preventing inflammatory diseases such as allergy and graft versus host disease (GvHD)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385617/the-garp-myb-related-grape-transcription-factor-aquilo-improves-cold-tolerance-and-promotes-the-accumulation-of-raffinose-family-oligosaccharides
#11
Xiaoming Sun, José Tomás Matus, Darren Chern Jan Wong, Zemin Wang, Fengmei Chai, Langlang Zhang, Ting Fang, Li Zhao, Yi Wang, Yuepeng Han, Qingfeng Wang, Shaohua Li, Zhenchang Liang, Haiping Xin
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a widely cultivated fruit crop whose growth and productivity are greatly affected by low temperatures. On the other hand, wild Vitis species represent valuable genetic resources of natural stress tolerance. We have isolated and characterized a MYB-like gene encoding a putative GARP-type transcription factor from Amur grape (V. amurensis) designated as VaAQUILO. AQUILO (AQ) is induced by cold in both V. amurensis and V. vinifera, and its overexpression results in significantly improved tolerance to cold both in transgenic Arabidopsis and in Amur grape calli...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324358/regulatory-cd4-t-cells-inhibit-hiv-1-expression-of-other-cd4-t-cell-subsets-via-interactions-with-cell-surface-regulatory-proteins
#12
Mingce Zhang, Tanya O Robinson, Alexandra Duverger, Olaf Kutsch, Sonya L Heath, Randy Q Cron
During chronic HIV-1 infection, regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) frequently represent the largest subpopulation of CD4 T cell subsets, implying relative resistant to HIV-1. When HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells was explored in vitro and ex vivo from patient samples, Tregs possessed lower levels of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in comparison with conventional effector and memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, Tregs suppressed HIV-1 expression in other CD4 T cells in an in vitro co-culture system. This suppression was mediated in part via multiple inhibitory surface proteins expressed on Tregs...
March 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245940/mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-cell-activation-by-releasing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-from-tgf-%C3%AE-1-garp-complex
#13
Jian Niu, Wang Yue, Zhu Le-Le, Liu Bin, Xin Hu
Intervention with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reveals a promising therapeutic tool to treat transplantation and autoimmune disease due to their immunoregulation capability. But the mechanisms of action are not fully investigated yet. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibit multiple effects in migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) is an important marker of activated Treg (regulatory T cells). GARP binds latent TGF-β1 to regulate its activation, which is the indispensable step in Treg suppressing effector T cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245469/diversity-and-distribution-of-phanaeini-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-in-mexico
#14
Viridiana Lizardo, Federico Escobar, Octavio Rojas-Soto
In this study, we systematized available distribution data, obtained from biological databases and relevant literature, for Mexican species belonging to the tribe Phanaeini. The main objectives were to provide an overall description of the distribution records in biological collections, to detect potential sampling biases, to describe the seasonality of collections and to obtain species distribution models using the Desktop GARP algorithm. A total of 5,562 records, corresponding to 32 species in Mexico, were compiled, including the recently described Phanaeus zoque Moctezuma & Halffter, 2017...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163543/interleukin-6-present-in-inflammatory-ascites-from-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-patients-promotes-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-expressing-regulatory-t-cells
#15
Nirmala Chandralega Kampan, Mutsa Tatenda Madondo, Orla M McNally, Andrew N Stephens, Michael A Quinn, Magdalena Plebanski
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109269/blocking-immunosuppression-by-human-tregs-in-vivo-with-antibodies-targeting-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-8
#16
Julie Stockis, Stéphanie Liénart, Didier Colau, Amandine Collignon, Stephen L Nishimura, Dean Sheppard, Pierre G Coulie, Sophie Lucas
Human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other T cells by converting the latent, inactive form of TGF-β1 into active TGF-β1. In Tregs, TGF-β1 activation requires GARP, a transmembrane protein that binds and presents latent TGF-β1 on the surface of Tregs stimulated through their T cell receptor. However, GARP is not sufficient because transduction of GARP in non-Treg T cells does not induce active TGF-β1 production. RGD-binding integrins were shown to activate TGF-β1 in several non-T cell types. Here we show that αVβ8 dimers are present on stimulated human Tregs but not in other T cells, and that antibodies against αV or β8 subunits block TGF-β1 activation in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057512/induction-of-porcine-specific-regulatory-t-cells-with-high-specificity-and-expression-of-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-using-baboon-derived-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#17
Mingqian Li, Judith Eckl, Jan-Michael Abicht, Tanja Mayr, Bruno Reichart, Dolores J Schendel, Heike Pohla
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in maintenance of homeostasis in vivo. Treg application to alleviate allo-organ rejection is being studied extensively. However, natural Treg (nTreg) expansion in vitro is laborious and expensive. Antigen-specific Treg are more effective and require lower cell numbers than use of nTreg for immune control. The baboon, as a non-human primate experimental animal model, is widely used in xenotransplantation research. An effective method to generate baboon xeno-specific Treg would benefit research on immune tolerance in xenotransplantation using this model system...
January 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043024/validating-distribution-models-for-twelve-endemic-bird-species-of-tropical-dry-forest-in-western-mexico
#18
Miguel A Ortega-Huerta, Jorge H Vega-Rivera
Considering the high biodiversity and conservation concerns of the tropical dry forest, this study aim is to predict and evaluate the potential and current distributions of twelve species of endemic birds which distribute along the western slope of Mexico. The main goal is to evaluate altogether different methods for predicting actual species distribution models (ADMs) of the twelve species including the identification of key environmental potential limiting factors. ADMs for twelve endemic Mexican birds were generated and validated by means of applying: (1) three widely used species niche modeling approaches (ENFA, Garp, and Maxent); (2) two thresholding methods, based on ROC curves and Kappa Index, for transforming continuous models to presence/absence (binary) models; (3) documented habitat-species associations for reducing species potential distribution models (PDMs); and (4) field occurrence data for validating final ADMs...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982708/the-reduction-of-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-gray-matter-volume-correlates-with-loss-of-economic-rationality-in-aging
#19
Hui-Kuan Chung, Agnieszka Tymula, Paul Glimcher
The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 years correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981671/climate-shapes-the-geographic-distribution-of-the-blowfly-sarconesia-chlorogaster-diptera-calliphoridae-an-environmental-niche-modeling-approach
#20
Melise Cristine Lecheta, Rodrigo César Corrêa, Mauricio Osvaldo Moura
For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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