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Guangwei Li, Danyang Chen, Xiaofeng Tang, Yongsheng Liu
Constitutive expression of AchGLK from A. chinensis in transgenic tomato (S. lycopersicum) confers fruits an elevated plastid biogenesis with intensified granule thylakoid stacks and increased content of nutritional compounds. Plastid development is regulated by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Golden2-like (GLK) genes, members from GARP subfamily of the MYB transcription factors, have been shown to regulate plastid biogenesis and development in several species. In tomato (S. lycopersicum), SlGLK2 gene is expressed in the fruit in a manner of latitudinal gradient and determines the green shoulder phenotype...
March 8, 2018: Planta
Alessandra Metelli, Mohammad Salem, Caroline H Wallace, Bill X Wu, Anqi Li, Xue Li, Zihai Li
GARP (glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant) is a type I transmembrane cell surface docking receptor for latent transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that is abundantly expressed on regulatory T lymphocytes and platelets. GARP regulates the availability of membrane-bound latent TGF-β and modulates its activation. For this reason, GARP expression on immune and non-immune cells is involved in maintaining peripheral tolerance. It plays an important role in preventing inflammatory diseases such as allergy and graft versus host disease (GvHD)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Xiaoming Sun, José Tomás Matus, Darren Chern Jan Wong, Zemin Wang, Fengmei Chai, Langlang Zhang, Ting Fang, Li Zhao, Yi Wang, Yuepeng Han, Qingfeng Wang, Shaohua Li, Zhenchang Liang, Haiping Xin
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a widely cultivated fruit crop whose growth and productivity are largely affected by low temperatures. On the other hand, wild Vitis species represent valuable genetic resources of natural stress tolerance. We have isolated and characterized a MYB-like gene encoding a putative GARP-type transcription factor from Amur grape (V. amurensis) designated as VaAQUILO. AQUILO (AQ) is induced by cold in both V. amurensis and V. vinifera and its overexpression results in significantly improved tolerance to cold both in transgenic Arabidopsis and Amur grape calli...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mingce Zhang, Tanya O Robinson, Alexandra Duverger, Olaf Kutsch, Sonya L Heath, Randy Q Cron
During chronic HIV-1 infection, regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) frequently represent the largest subpopulation of CD4 T cell subsets, implying relative resistant to HIV-1. When HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells was explored in vitro and ex vivo from patient samples, Tregs possessed lower levels of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in comparison with conventional effector and memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, Tregs suppressed HIV-1 expression in other CD4 T cells in an in vitro co-culture system. This suppression was mediated in part via multiple inhibitory surface proteins expressed on Tregs...
January 8, 2018: Virology
Jian Niu, Wang Yue, Zhu Le-Le, Liu Bin, Xin Hu
Intervention with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reveals a promising therapeutic tool to treat transplantation and autoimmune disease due to their immunoregulation capability. But the mechanisms of action are not fully investigated yet. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibit multiple effects in migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) is an important marker of activated Treg (regulatory T cells). GARP binds latent TGF-β1 to regulate its activation, which is the indispensable step in Treg suppressing effector T cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
Viridiana Lizardo, Federico Escobar, Octavio Rojas-Soto
In this study, we systematized available distribution data, obtained from biological databases and relevant literature, for Mexican species belonging to the tribe Phanaeini. The main objectives were to provide an overall description of the distribution records in biological collections, to detect potential sampling biases, to describe the seasonality of collections and to obtain species distribution models using the Desktop GARP algorithm. A total of 5,562 records, corresponding to 32 species in Mexico, were compiled, including the recently described Phanaeus zoque Moctezuma & Halffter, 2017...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Nirmala Chandralega Kampan, Mutsa Tatenda Madondo, Orla M McNally, Andrew N Stephens, Michael A Quinn, Magdalena Plebanski
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Julie Stockis, Stéphanie Liénart, Didier Colau, Amandine Collignon, Stephen L Nishimura, Dean Sheppard, Pierre G Coulie, Sophie Lucas
Human regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress other T cells by converting the latent, inactive form of TGF-β1 into active TGF-β1. In Tregs, TGF-β1 activation requires GARP, a transmembrane protein that binds and presents latent TGF-β1 on the surface of Tregs stimulated through their T cell receptor. However, GARP is not sufficient because transduction of GARP in non-Treg T cells does not induce active TGF-β1 production. RGD-binding integrins were shown to activate TGF-β1 in several non-T cell types. Here we show that αVβ8 dimers are present on stimulated human Tregs but not in other T cells, and that antibodies against αV or β8 subunits block TGF-β1 activation in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mingqian Li, Judith Eckl, Jan-Michael Abicht, Tanja Mayr, Bruno Reichart, Dolores J Schendel, Heike Pohla
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in maintenance of homeostasis in vivo. Treg application to alleviate allo-organ rejection is being studied extensively. However, natural Treg (nTreg) expansion in vitro is laborious and expensive. Antigen-specific Treg are more effective and require lower cell numbers than use of nTreg for immune control. The baboon, as a non-human primate experimental animal model, is widely used in xenotransplantation research. An effective method to generate baboon xeno-specific Treg would benefit research on immune tolerance in xenotransplantation using this model system...
October 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
Miguel A Ortega-Huerta, Jorge H Vega-Rivera
Considering the high biodiversity and conservation concerns of the tropical dry forest, this study aim is to predict and evaluate the potential and current distributions of twelve species of endemic birds which distribute along the western slope of Mexico. The main goal is to evaluate altogether different methods for predicting actual species distribution models (ADMs) of the twelve species including the identification of key environmental potential limiting factors. ADMs for twelve endemic Mexican birds were generated and validated by means of applying: (1) three widely used species niche modeling approaches (ENFA, Garp, and Maxent); (2) two thresholding methods, based on ROC curves and Kappa Index, for transforming continuous models to presence/absence (binary) models; (3) documented habitat-species associations for reducing species potential distribution models (PDMs); and (4) field occurrence data for validating final ADMs...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Hui-Kuan Chung, Agnieszka Tymula, Paul Glimcher
The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 years correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Melise Cristine Lecheta, Rodrigo César Corrêa, Mauricio Osvaldo Moura
For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Bill X Wu, Anqi Li, Liming Lei, Satoshi Kaneko, Caroline Wallace, Xue Li, Zihai Li
Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) (encoded by the Lrrc32 gene) plays important roles in cell-surface docking and activation of TGFβ. However, GARP's role in organ development in mammalian systems is unclear. To determine the function of GARP in vivo , we generated a GARP KO mouse model. Unexpectedly, the GARP KO mice died within 24 h after birth and exhibited defective palatogenesis without apparent abnormalities in other major organs. Furthermore, we observed decreased apoptosis and SMAD2 phosphorylation in the medial edge epithelial cells of the palatal shelf of GARP KO embryos at embryonic day 14...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
September 9, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Yoshimi Nakano, Yuki Naito, Toshitsugu Nakano, Namie Ohtsuki, Kaoru Suzuki
Nitrogen (N) is a major macronutrient that is essential for plant growth. It is important for us to understand the key genes that are involved in the regulation of N utilization. In this study, we focused on a GARP-type transcription factor known as NSR1/MYR2, which has been reported to be induced under N-deficient conditions. Our results demonstrated that NSR1/MYR2 has a transcriptional repression activity and is specifically expressed in vascular tissues, especially in phloem throughout the plant under daily light-dark cycle regulation...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Alaeddine Safi, Anna Medici, Wojciech Szponarski, Sandrine Ruffel, Benoît Lacombe, Gabriel Krouk
Plant specific GARP transcription factor family (made of ARR-B and G2-like) contains genes with very diverse in planta functions: nutrient sensing, root and shoot development, floral transition, chloroplast development, circadian clock oscillation maintenance, hormonal transport and signaling. In this work we review: first, their structural but distant relationships with MYB transcription factors, second, their role in planta, third, the diversity of their Cis-regulatory elements, fourth, their potential protein partners...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Julie Stockis, Olivier Dedobbeleer, Sophie Lucas
TGF-β1, 2 and 3 cytokines are involved in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Whereas TGF-β2 and 3 play important roles in embryonic development, TGF-β1 is mostly implicated in controlling immune responses after birth. The production of TGF-β1 is a tightly regulated process, occurring mostly at a post-translational level. Virtually all cells produce the latent, inactive form of TGF-β1. In latent TGF-β1, the mature TGF-β1 dimer is non-covalently associated to the Latency Associated Peptide, or LAP, which prevents binding to the TGF-β1 receptor...
September 26, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Saleh Rachidi, Alessandra Metelli, Brian Riesenberg, Bill X Wu, Michelle H Nelson, Caroline Wallace, Chrystal M Paulos, Mark P Rubinstein, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Mirko Hennig, Daniel W Bearden, Yi Yang, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
Cancer-associated thrombocytosis has long been linked to poor clinical outcome, but the underlying mechanism is enigmatic. We hypothesized that platelets promote malignancy and resistance to therapy by dampening host immunity. We show that genetic targeting of platelets enhances adoptive T cell therapy of cancer. An unbiased biochemical and structural biology approach established transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and lactate as major platelet-derived soluble factors to obliterate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell functions...
May 5, 2017: Science Immunology
Michał Korostyński, Natalia Małek, Marcin Piechota, Katarzyna Starowicz
Biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) that can accurately diagnose the disease at the earliest stage would significantly support efforts to develop treatments for prevention and early intervention. We have sought to determine the time course of alterations in peripheral blood gene expression profile associated with the development of OA. Blood samples were collected from a tail vein of individual rats with monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced OA (2, 14, 21, and 28 days after the treatment). We used whole-genome microarrays to reveal OA-related transcriptional alterations of 72 transcripts...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
Jian Wei, Ying-Yu Zhang, Jie Luo, Ju-Qiong Wang, Yu-Xia Zhou, Hong-Hua Miao, Xiong-Jie Shi, Yu-Xiu Qu, Jie Xu, Bo-Liang Li, Bao-Liang Song
Proper intracellular cholesterol trafficking is critical for cellular function. Two lysosome-resident proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, mediate the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. However, other proteins involved in this process remain largely unknown. Through amphotericin B-based selection, we isolated two cholesterol transport-defective cell lines. Subsequent whole-transcriptome-sequencing analysis revealed two cell lines bearing the same mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 53 (Vps53) gene...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
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