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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935787/e-cigarette-nicotine-delivery-data-and-learnings-from-pharmacokinetic-studies
#1
Ian M Fearon, Alison Eldridge, Nathan Gale, Christopher J Shepperd, Mike McEwan, Oscar M Camacho, Mitch Nides, Kevin McAdam, Christopher J Proctor
OBJECTIVES: E-cigarettes could potentially play a major role in tobacco harm reduction by delivering nicotine in a vapor containing significantly fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke and may aid smoking behavior changes such as reduction or cessation. METHODS: We examined blood nicotine levels in smokers who were non-accustomed to e-cigarette use (Study 1) and accustomed e-cigarette users (Study 2). We compared nicotine levels when participants used a closed modular system e-cigarette to those when participants smoked a cigarette...
January 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#2
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928050/smokeless-tobacco-and-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Zohaib Khan, Sheraz Khan, Lara Christianson, Sara Rehman, Obinna Ekwunife, Florence Samkange-Zeeb
: Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) are chronic lesions or conditions characterized by a potential for malignant transformation. While recent meta-analyses show that smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a risk factor for oral cancer in South Asia, there is a lack of pooled evidence regarding SLT use and the development of OPMDs. We searched Medline via PubMed, the Science Citation Index (SCI) via Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Index Medicus and Google Scholar databases for relevant literature using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms...
December 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-under-researched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#4
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA[) in the United States since at least 2008; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly", although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#5
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical-personnel (lay person) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years, but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925486/real-talk-developing-a-computer-delivered-sexual-health-program-for-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Charles Klein, Carmela Lomonaco
HIV disproportionately affects Black men who have sex with men (MSM), yet there are few evidence-based programs that respond to the diverse realities of Black MSM communities. This article examines the development of Real Talk, a new harm reduction-based, sexual health intervention for Black MSM. We first analyze the key themes from our formative research: (1) stigma, discrimination, and intersectionalities in the lives of Black MSM, (2) the importance of safe spaces and community provided by health promotion programs, and (3) moving beyond condoms in sexual health messaging...
December 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923864/outcomes-of-the-smoker-s-health-project-a-pragmatic-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-tobacco-dependence-interventions-based-on-self-determination-theory
#7
Geoffrey C Williams, Christopher P Niemiec, Heather Patrick, Richard M Ryan, Edward L Deci
A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely, Intensive Treatment (IT; six contacts over 6 months), Extended Need Support (ENS; eight contacts over 12 months) and Harm Reduction (HR; eight contacts over 12 months with medication use if willing to reduce cigarette use by half)...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#8
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891317/outcome-of-tobacco-cessation-in-workplace-and-clinic-settings-a-comparative-study
#9
Ramdas S Ransing, Dipak B Patil, Maruti B Desai, Asawari Modak
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Several biological, social, and cultural factors contribute to the poor outcome of tobacco cessation interventions. Inability to engage large number of participants is one of the major identifiable factors. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of tobacco cessation interventions in the clinical and workplace settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we recruited 100 participants in tobacco cessation clinic (TCC) group and workplace group (50 participants in each)...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#10
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886046/views-and-preferences-for-nicotine-products-as-an-alternative-to-smoking-a-focus-group-study-of-people-living-with-mental-disorders
#11
Carla Meurk, Pauline Ford, Ratika Sharma, Lisa Fitzgerald, Coral Gartner
Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883944/allocative-and-implementation-efficiency-in-hiv-prevention-and-treatment-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#12
Clemens Benedikt, Sherrie L Kelly, David Wilson, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Estimated global new HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) remained stable over the 2010-2015 period and the target of a 50% reduction over this period was missed. To achieve the 2020 UNAIDS target of reducing adult HIV infections by 75% compared to 2010, accelerated action in scaling up HIV programs for PWID is required. In a context of diminishing external support to HIV programs in countries where most HIV-affected PWID live, it is essential that available resources are allocated and used as efficiently as possible...
November 21, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883298/how-should-physicians-refer-when-referral-options-are-limited-for-transgender-patients
#13
Elizabeth Dietz, Jessica Halem
Transgender people encounter many barriers to health care, and recommendations about where their treatment would best be offered can promote or thwart good care. This case examines the care setting from the perspective of a patient whose experiences with specialists have been negative. We argue that an ethos of harm reduction and informed consent, with a strong emphasis on continuity of care within a primary care setting, should guide questions about how to refer transgender patients to caregivers and to good care settings...
November 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882861/status-report-public-health-2016-time-for-a-cultural-shift-in-the-field-of-public-health
#14
E Rm Mallach, T Ferrao, R MacLean, S Fl Kirk
Public Health 2016, the Canadian Public Health Association's annual conference, was held from June 13 to 16, 2016, in Toronto, Canada, and showcased a wide variety of public health issues that fostered considerable discussion at the conference and on social media. The four plenary sessions, while on seemingly disparate topics including technology, violence prevention, racism and harm reduction, all revealed the need for a cultural shift in the field of public health that acknowledges and addresses the broader inequities that influence the health and well-being of populations...
November 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869972/effectiveness-of-psychosocial-care-in-school-continuity-of-adolescents-in-social-vulnerability
#15
Tassiane Cristine Santos de Paula, Fernanda Gonçalves Moreira, Sérgio Baxter Andreoli
OBJECTIVE: to study the effectiveness of a psychosocial care program in school continuity of adolescents in social vulnerability. METHODS: this was a retrospective cohort study involving 200 adolescents assisted in a multidisciplinary intervention program with harm reduction approach, from 2007 to 2012; the intervention effect was assessed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: 200 adolescents were included in the program; 116 of them continued and 84 dropped it; 74...
October 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862847/development-of-australia-s-first-older-adult-specific-early-intervention-for-alcohol-related-harm-feasibility-and-proof-of-concept
#16
Stephen J Bright, Cylie M Williams
OBJECTIVES: The rate of older Australians at risk of experiencing alcohol-related harm increased by 31% over the past 10 years, yet there are no Australian age-specific early interventions. We describe the development of Australia's first age-specific early intervention protocol. METHODS: Through examining effective overseas older adult-specific interventions, in addition to other relevant literature, an early intervention protocol was developed. RESULTS: The Older Wiser Lifestyles (OWL) early intervention protocol extends protocols that have been developed overseas through providing: (i) interventions that are tailored to the person's readiness to change, including the provision of harm reduction strategies for people who are precontemplative; and (ii) individualised psychoeducational materials regarding medical conditions and medications...
November 14, 2016: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855325/-not-human-dead-already-perceptions-and-experiences-of-drug-related-stigma-among-opioid-using-young-adults-from-the-former-soviet-union-living-in-the-u-s
#17
Alana Gunn, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. METHODS: This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder...
November 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845159/evaluation-of-the-tobacco-heating-system-2-2-part-9-application-of-systems-pharmacology-to-identify-exposure-response-markers-in-peripheral-blood-of-smokers-switching-to-ths2-2
#18
Florian Martin, Marja Talikka, Nikolai V Ivanov, Christelle Haziza, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch
As part of current harm reduction strategies, candidate modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) are developed to offer adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco product an alternative to cigarettes while potentially reducing individual risk and population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. One of these candidate MRTPs is the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 which does not burn tobacco, but instead heats it, thus producing significantly reduced levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) compared with combustible cigarettes (CC)...
November 11, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843889/the-5th-canadian-symposium-on-hepatitis-c-virus-we-are-not-done-yet-remaining-challenges-in-hepatitis-c
#19
Nicholas van Buuren, Lorraine Fradette, Jason Grebely, Alexandra King, Mel Krajden, Sonya A MacParland, Alison Marshall, Sahar Saeed, Joyce Wilson, Marina B Klein, Selena M Sagan
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 268,000 Canadians and results in more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. Both the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) have identified HCV-related liver disease as a priority and supported the establishment of a National Hepatitis C Research Network. In 2015, the introduction of new interferon- (IFN-) free therapies with high cure rates (>90%) and few side effects revolutionized HCV therapy...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834915/opioid-substitution-treatment-planning-in-a-disaster-context-perspectives-from-emergency-management-and-health-professionals-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#20
Denise Blake, Antonia Lyons
Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) is a harm reduction strategy enabling opiate consumers to avoid withdrawal symptoms and maintain health and wellbeing. Some research shows that within a disaster context service disruptions and infrastructure damage affect OST services, including problems with accessibility, dosing, and scripts. Currently little is known about planning for OST in the reduction and response phases of a disaster. This study aimed to identify the views of three professional groups working in Aotearoa/New Zealand about OST provision following a disaster...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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