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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342380/e-cigarettes-and-the-harm-reduction-continuum
#1
Amy L Fairchild, Ju Sung Lee, Ronald Bayer, James Curran
On July 28, 2017, the recently appointed commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Scott Gottlieb, announced a "new comprehensive plan for tobacco and nicotine regulation." To permit both scientific deliberation and product innovation, the FDA will delay rules on the regulation of..
January 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#2
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331928/being-in-control-a-thematic-content-analysis-of-14-in-depth-interviews-with-2-4-dinitrophenol-users
#3
Neha Prasad Ainsworth, Elisabeth Julie Vargo, Andrea Petróczi
BACKGROUND: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound with multiple industrial purposes. Currently unlicensed for human consumption, it is used by the gym-going population for drastic, short-term body fat loss. Nonetheless, physiological mechanisms can lead to potentially fatal hyperthermia. Reported fatal incidents have caused concern and highlighted the need for intervention. Understanding decision-making leading to 2,4-DNP use alongside the perceived outgroup attitudes is vital to forming effective harm minimisation policies targeting current and potential users...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331772/alcohol-induced-risk-behaviors-among-brazilian-nightclub-patrons-a-latent-class-analysis
#4
A Sañudo, S Andreoni, Z M Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify risk behavior profiles associated with alcohol consumption among patrons during or just after departure from nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The study used a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Data were collected on a probabilistic sample of nightclub patrons. Overall, 2422 patrons were interviewed at the entrance of 31 nightclubs. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify risk behavior profiles with an emphasis on risky driving, fights, alcoholic blackouts, and harm and unsafe sex...
January 11, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331756/-you-re-repulsive-limits-to-acceptable-drunken-comportment-for-young-adults
#5
Sarah MacLean, Amy Pennay, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Researchers have described a 'culture of intoxication' among young people. Yet drunkenness remains a socially risky practice with potential to evoke emotions of irritation and even disgust. We consider intoxicated practices that young adults in Melbourne, Australia, described as distasteful, to identify contemporary cultural forces that constrain intoxication and limit how it is enacted. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 60 participants in Melbourne, Australia, each with recent drinking experience...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331185/-patients-and-caregivers-in-the-treatment-of-addictions
#6
Anne Coppel
Since the 1980s, risk and harm reduction has been a public health issue in the area of addictions. A new approach has been adopted with drug users, who are considered as patients like any other and players in their own health care. The therapeutic alliance with the caregiver is therefore essential.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330172/origins-of-tobacco-harm-reduction-in-the-uk-the-product-modification-programme-1972-1991
#7
Jesse Elias, Pamela M Ling
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the current embrace of long-term nicotine maintenance by British governmental agencies and tobacco harm reduction by several leading British public health organisations, describe the context and deliberations of the UK's first formal tobacco risk reduction programme: 'Product Modification'. METHODS: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, news archives and Parliamentary debate records. RESULTS: From 1972 to 1991, the British government sought to investigate safer smoking through the 'product modification programme'...
January 12, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329544/the-importance-of-drug-checking-outside-the-context-of-nightlife-in-slovenia
#8
Matej Sande, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the implementation of the drug checking service in Slovenia and to obtain the opinion of users included in harm reduction programmes for high-risk drug users and of drug users in nightlife settings on drug checking, the reasons for drug checking, and their attitude towards adulterants in the drugs that they use. METHODS: The two final unrepresentative research samples included 102 respondents from harm reduction programmes and 554 respondents from the online sample...
January 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327445/don-t-just-do-something-stand-there-the-value-and-art-of-deliberate-clinical-inertia
#9
Gerben Keijzers, Louise Cullen, Diana Egerton-Warburton, Daniel M Fatovich
It can be difficult to avoid unnecessary investigations and treatments, which are a form of low-value care. Yet every intervention in medicine has potential harms, which may outweigh the potential benefits. Deliberate clinical inertia is the art of doing nothing as a positive response. This paper provides suggestions on how to incorporate deliberate clinical inertia into our daily clinical practice, and gives an overview of current initiatives such as 'Choosing Wisely' and the 'Right Care Alliance'. The decision to 'do nothing' can be complex due to competing factors, and barriers to implementation are highlighted...
January 12, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323504/protective-behavioral-strategies-mediate-the-relationship-between-behavioral-economic-risk-factors-and-alcohol-related-problems
#10
Andrew T Voss, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value and future orientation have received support as predictors of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and response to intervention. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been shown to be a significant mediator between a variety of risk factors and alcohol-related problems. The current article examines direct and mediating associations between measures of alcohol reward value (proportionate substance-related activity participation and enjoyment) and future orientation, use of PBS, and alcohol-related problems...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320513/a-harm-reduction-model-of-abortion-counseling-about-misoprostol-use-in-peru-with-telephone-and-in-person-follow-up-a-cohort-study
#11
Daniel Grossman, Sarah E Baum, Denitza Andjelic, Carrie Tatum, Guadalupe Torres, Liza Fuentes, Jennifer Friedman
BACKGROUND: In Peru, abortion is legal only to preserve the life and health of the woman. A non-profit clinic system in Peru implemented a harm-reduction model for women with unwanted pregnancy that included pre-abortion care with instructions about misoprostol use and post-abortion care; they started offering telephone follow-up for clients in 2011. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the harm-reduction model, and to compare outcomes by type of follow-up obtained...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315834/medical-safety-in-the-care-of-the-person-with-end-stage-kidney-disease
#12
John V Duronville, Clarissa J Diamantidis
Much is written about medical safety as it pertains to patients with chronic kidney disease, yet the transition to end-stage kidney disease and processes inherent to the receipt of dialysis present unique safety challenges in this population. Educational efforts in medical safety need to focus on the areas of greatest threat and where intervention can provide the greatest benefit. This study addresses such safety topics in the dialysis population and identifies potential strategies that may aid in harm reduction...
January 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313764/an-ethical-bone-to-picc-considering-a-harm-reduction-approach-for-a-second-valve-replacement-for-a-person-who-uses-drugs
#13
Daniel Z Buchman, Marie-Josee Lynch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312527/global-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-progresses-and-the-remaining-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour
Today, with the introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals and outstanding progresses in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the elimination of HCV infection seems more achievable. A further challenge is continued transmission of HCV infection in high-risk population specially injecting drug users (IDUs) as the major reservoir of HCV infection. Considering the fact that most of these infections remain undiagnosed, unidentified HCV-infected IDUs are potential sources for the rapid spread of HCV in the community...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306786/differences-in-risk-behaviours-and-hiv-status-between-primary-amphetamines-and-opioid-injectors-in-estonia-and-russia
#15
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Lucy Platt, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Peter Vickerman, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) account for over half of new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and central Asia, where opioids continue to be the dominant illicit drugs injected. Stimulants including amphetamines (ATS) have been associated with HIV infection risk in several settings. We sought to examine whether primary ATS injection was associated with greater HIV risk, compared to opioid injection in two European locales with significant HIV epidemics. METHODS: PWID in Kohtla-Järve and St...
January 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304871/music-festival-attendees-illicit-drug-use-knowledge-and-practices-regarding-drug-content-and-purity-a-cross-sectional-survey
#16
Niamh Day, Joshua Criss, Benjamin Griffiths, Shireen Kaur Gujral, Franklin John-Leader, Jennifer Johnston, Sabrina Pit
BACKGROUND: Drug checking is a harm reduction strategy which allows users to check the content and purity of illicit drugs. Although drug checking has been trialled internationally, with demonstrated value as a harm reduction and health promotion strategy, the use of such services in Australia remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to investigate the proportion and patterns of illicit drug use among young people, their attitudes towards drug checking at festivals and the potential impact of drug checking on intended drug use behaviour...
January 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301003/lest-we-forget-harm-reduction-research-is-important-and-increasing-but-other-facets-of-tobacco-control-research-remain-a-high-priority
#17
Richard Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298367/e-cigarette-toxicity
#18
Gulay Tegin, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Simrat Kaur Sarai, Steven Lippmann
Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291506/nonmedical-prescription-drug-use-among-african-americans-who-use-mdma-ecstasy-molly-implications-for-risk-reduction
#19
Khary K Rigg, Amanda Sharp
Recent data suggest that both nonmedical prescription drug and MDMA (ecstasy/molly) use have risen among African Americans. However, studies investigating these two forms of drug use among African Americans are rare. As a result, very little is known about African-American MDMA users and their nonmedical use of prescription medications. The primary goal of this study, therefore, was to describe patterns of nonmedical prescription drug use among African Americans who use MDMA. We also assessed alcohol and illicit drug use among the sample...
December 21, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289871/sheltering-risks-implementation-of-harm-reduction-in-homeless-shelters-during-an-overdose-emergency
#20
Bruce Wallace, Katrina Barber, Bernadette Bernie Pauly
BACKGROUND: The current opioid overdose crisis in North America is heightening awareness of the need for and the challenges of implementing harm reduction, notably within complex and diverse settings such as homeless shelters. In this paper, we explore the implementation of harm reduction in homeless shelters during an emerging overdose emergency. METHODS: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand micro-environment level factors within emergency shelters responding to homelessness and substance use, and the macro-level influences that produce and sustain structural vulnerabilities...
December 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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