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"Harm reduction"

Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes
A life history approach enables study of how risk or health protection is shaped by critical transitions and turning points in a life trajectory and in the context of social environment and time. We employed visual and narrative life history methods with people who inject drugs to explore how hepatitis C protection was enabled and maintained over the life course. We overview our methodological approach, with a focus on the ethics in practice of using life history timelines and life-grids with 37 participants...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Therese M Lynn, Ena Lynn, Eamon Keenan, Suzi Lyons
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide trend analysis on all deaths among drug users who injected at or around the time of their death in Ireland between 1998 and 2014. METHOD: A review of the data recorded by the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI) was conducted to identify individuals who were known to be injecting at or around the time of their death, from 1998 to 2014. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2014, 16,500 deaths were recorded by the NDRDI...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Yi Chen, Zhenzhu Tang, Shuai Tang, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Rongjian Li, Wenbo Huang, Yuman Huang, Fuxiong Liang, Lu Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sian Hsiang-Te Tsuei, Guanghua Lan
OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, the Chinese central government has implemented several harm reduction and preventive measures to control HIV. We aim to describe epidemiological trends of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis in Guangxi drug users after the policy implementation. METHOD: A total of 12,161-15,870 drug users in Guangxi, China, were recruited annually from 2009 to 2015 through community outreach or snowball sampling. The participants' demographics, behavior, and infection status were used to characterize rates of protective behaviors and disease prevalence (HIV, syphilis, and HCV)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Oliver Stevens, Jamie I Forrest
Chemsex is a growing public health concern in urban centres, and few interventions exist to mitigate the significant sexual, drug-related, and social harms potentially experienced by people who participate in chemsex. In much of the world, these immediate harms are further compounded by the criminalisation and stigmatisation of both homosexuality and drug use, preventing participants fully engaging with treatment services or provision of health care. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men participating in chemsex fall between the traditional definitions of key populations and consequently are poorly provided for by existing drug and sexual health frameworks...
March 19, 2018: Sexual Health
Derek Wakeman, Max R Langham
The operating room (OR) is a special place wherein groups of highly skilled individuals must work in a coordinated and harmonious fashion to deliver optimal patient care. Team dynamics and human factors principles were initially studied by the aviation industry to better understand and prevent airline accidents. As a result, crew resource management (CRM) training was designed for all flight personnel to create a highly reliable industry with a commitment to a culture of safety. CRM has since been adapted to health care, resulting in care improvement and harm reduction across a wide variety of medical specialties...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Natalie Thomas, Melissa Bull
Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Celia Jackson, Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Celia Aitken, Andrew McAuley, Norah Palmateer, Rory Gunson, David Goldberg, Catriona Milosevic, Andrew J Leigh Brown
Harm reduction has dramatically reduced HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Glasgow, Scotland, <10 infections/year have been diagnosed among PWID since the mid-90s. However, in 2015 a sharp rise in diagnoses was noted among PWID: many were subtype C with two identical drug resistant mutations and some displayed low avidity, suggesting the infections were linked and recent.We collected Scottish pol sequences and identified closely related sequences from public databases. Genetic linkage was ascertained among 228 Scottish, 1820 UK and 524 global sequences...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Samir S Soneji, Hai-Yen Sung, Brian A Primack, John P Pierce, James D Sargent
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help cigarette smokers quit smoking, yet they may also facilitate cigarette smoking for never-smokers. We quantify the balance of health benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use at the population level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Monte Carlo stochastic simulation model. Model parameters were drawn from census counts, national health and tobacco use surveys, and published literature. We calculate the expected years of life gained or lost from the impact of e-cigarette use on smoking cessation among current smokers and transition to long-term cigarette smoking among never smokers for the 2014 US population cohort...
2018: PloS One
Mariana Caricati Kataoka, Ana Paula Pinho Carvalheira, Anna Paula Ferrari, Maíra Barreto Malta, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite Carvalhaes, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada
BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown the advantages of abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy to promote full fetal development. Given that pregnant women do not always abstain from smoking, this study aimed to analyze the effect of different intensities of smoking on birth weight of the newborn. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was adopted to explore smoking in a population of pregnant women from a medium-sized city in São Paulo state, Brazil, who gave birth between January and June of 2012...
March 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Margaret Olivia Little
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Julia Tasset, Lisa H Harris
Access to abortion in the United States has eroded significantly. Accordingly, there is a growing movement to empower women to self-induce abortion. To date, physicians' roles and responsibilities in this changing environment have not been defined. Here, we consider a harm reduction approach to first-trimester abortion as a way for physicians to honor clinical and moral obligations to care for women, negotiate ever-increasing abortion restrictions, and support women who consider abortion self-induction. Harm reduction approaches to abortion have been successfully implemented in a range of countries around the world and typically take the form of teaching women how to use misoprostol...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alexandra B Collins, Ricky N Bluthenthal, Jade Boyd, Ryan McNeil
Language has significant implications for how we view and respond to public health issues. Conventional moralistic messaging around drug use stigmatizes people who use drugs and inhibits the implementation of evidence-based harm reduction interventions that do not condemn drug use. However, within the context of the unprecedented North American opioid overdose crisis, we argue that shifting conventional moral messaging around overdose prevention and response strategies is key to supporting the rapid roll-out of evidence-based harm reduction interventions...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Leslie Citrome
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) has long been thought to be a generally irreversible consequence of the use of dopamine receptor blocking agents. There is now an opportunity to successfully manage this condition with agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This is important because TD has not been eliminated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics, and the expansion of antipsychotics to treat conditions other than schizophrenia has resulted in millions of additional individuals at risk for developing TD...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Rebekah Brennan, John Wells, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: New evidence with regard to a previously undocumented practice - self phlebotomy, known as 'bloodletting' - incontemporary injecting performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) culture is the subject of this paper. While self phlebotomy has been evidenced in psychiatric patients previously, it was performed here in people who inject AAS as a self directed health care procedure. METHODS: Data was collected from five publicly accessible internet discussion forums and coded using NVivo software...
March 5, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Pieter S Hiemstra, Robert Bals
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Eric K Layland, Brian H Calhoun, Michael A Russell, Jennifer L Maggs
College drinking and its negative consequences remain a major public health concern. Yet, many prevention efforts targeting college drinkers are expensive, are difficult to implement, use indicated approaches targeting only high-risk drinkers, and/or are only marginally effective. An alternative strategy taken explicitly or implicitly by many colleges is campus-led alcohol-free programming which provides students with attractive leisure alternatives to drinking on weekend nights. This study aimed to extend work by Patrick et al...
March 8, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Samuel P L Veissière, Moriah Stendel
We present a deflationary account of smartphone addiction by situating this purportedly antisocial phenomenon within the fundamentally social dispositions of our species. While we agree with contemporary critics that the hyper-connectedness and unpredictable rewards of mobile technology can modulate negative affect, we propose to place the locus of addiction on an evolutionarily older mechanism: the human need to monitor and be monitored by others. Drawing from key findings in evolutionary anthropology and the cognitive science of religion, we articulate a hypernatural monitoring model of smartphone addiction grounded in a general social rehearsal theory of human cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jody Boffa, Maria Mayan, Sithembile Ndlovu, Tsholofelo Mhlaba, Tyler Williamson, Reginald Sauve, Dina Fisher
INTRODUCTION: In response to revisions in global and national policy in 2011, six-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) became freely available as a preventive measure for people living with HIV in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Given a difference in uptake and completion by sex, we sought to explore the reasons why Zulu women were more likely to accept and complete IPT compared to men in an effort to inform future implementation. METHODS: Utilising a community-based participatory research approach and ethnographic methods, we undertook 17 individual and group interviews, and met regularly with grassroots community advisory teams in three Zulu communities located in uMgungundlovu District between March 2012-December 2016...
2018: PloS One
S Olafsson, T Tyrfingsson, V Runarsdottir, O M Bergmann, I Hansdottir, E S Björnsson, B Johannsson, B Sigurdardottir, R H Fridriksdottir, A Löve, M Hellard, T J Löve, T Gudnason, M Heimisdottir, M Gottfredsson
A nationwide programme for the treatment of all patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was launched in Iceland in January 2016. By providing universal access to direct-acting antiviral agents to the entire patient population, the two key aims of the project were to (i) offer a cure to patients and thus reduce the long-term sequelae of chronic hepatitis C, and (ii) to reduce domestic incidence of HCV in the population by 80% prior to the WHO goal of HCV elimination by the year 2030. An important part of the programme is that vast majority of cases will be treated within 36 months from the launch of the project, during 2016-2018...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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