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"Harm reduction"

Tina Lam, Simon Lenton, Rowan Ogeil, Lucinda Burns, Alexandra Aiken, Tanya Chikritzhs, William Gilmore, Belinda Lloyd, James Wilson, Dan Lubman, Richard Mattick, Steve Allsop
OBJECTIVE: Despite declines in Australian alcohol consumption, youth alcohol related harms remain prevalent. These alcohol-related consequences appear to be driven by a subset of risky drinkers who engage in 'high intensity' drinking episodes and are underrepresented in national health surveys. This project aims to investigate high risk drinking practices and alcohol-related harms amongst young people not otherwise recorded in existing data. METHODS: A community sample of the heaviest drinking 20-25% 16-19 year olds were surveyed across three Australian states (n=958; 80% metropolitan)...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Britta Wigginton, Coral Gartner, Ingrid J Rowlands
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping, is increasing against a backdrop of declining smoking rates. E-cigarettes contain fewer toxicants than cigarettes, but their appearance and mode of use has the potential to satisfy the habitual aspects of smoking. To date, we know little about lay perceptions of the safety of using e-cigarettes in pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a thematic discourse analysis of 13 online discussion forum threads that discussed e-cigarette use during pregnancy...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Sandra Nordmann, Thomas Nefau, Joëlle Micallef, Catherine Duplessy, Jean-Christophe Catusse, Elisabeth Frauger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the residual content of used syringes. METHODS: Used syringes were collected in March 2014 at 9 sites in Marseille (automatic injection kit dispensers, streets, drug-user risk reduction centers [Centres d'accueil et d'accompagnement à la réduction de risques pour usagers de drogues [CAARUD]). Several substances (n=28) were investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: On average, 2±1 substances in each syringe were found among 254 syringes analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Thérapie
Kelly Adamson, Lois Jackson, Jacqueline Gahagan
A complex array of intersecting social contextual factors are known to influence safer and/or unsafe practices among people who inject drugs. However, less is known about the social contextual factors that may specifically influence injection practices for young people who inject drugs. In this qualitative study, we explored with young people, ages 18-29, living in an urban centre in Nova Scotia, Canada, their perceptions and experiences of the social contextual factors that influence their safer and/or unsafe injection practices...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Louisa Gilbert, Tina Jiwatram-Negron, Danil Nikitin, Olga Rychkova, Tara McCrimmon, Irena Ermolaeva, Nadejda Sharonova, Aibek Mukambetov, Timothy Hunt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) are serious public health threats among women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of a two-session IPV and GBV screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment model (WINGS) with HIV counselling and testing for women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan, using a pre/post-design...
October 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Pamela Leece, Margaret Gassanov, Shaun Hopkins, Chantel Marshall, Peggy Millson, Rita Shahin
SETTING: A harm reduction program at a public health unit in Toronto, Ontario, between August 31, 2011 and August 31, 2013. INTERVENTION: We conducted a process evaluation of the first two years of an opioid overdose prevention and response program, Prevent Overdose in Toronto (POINT), including analysis of data from program documentation forms, as well as qualitative interviews with program staff, representatives from partner agencies, and program clients. OUTCOMES: In the first two years of the program, 662 individuals (52...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Daniella Barreto, Kate Shannon, Chrissy Taylor, Sabina Dobrer, Jessica St Jean, Shira M Goldenberg, Putu Duff, Kathleen N Deering
This research aimed to determine the effect of food insecurity on sexual HIV risk with clients among youth sex workers (YSWs) <30 years in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Data were drawn from a prospective community cohort of sex workers (2010-2013). We examined the independent relationship between YSWs' food insecurity and being pressured into sex without a condom by clients ("client condom refusal"). Of 220 YSWs, 34.5 % (n = 76) reported client condom refusal over the 3.5-year study period and 76.4 % (n = 168) reported any food insecurity...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Julie Latimer, Stephen Ling, Ian Flaherty, Marianne Jauncey, Allison M Salmon
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is a powerful analgesic, the prescription of which has increased markedly in recent years. The emergence of the drug at the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) warranted a retrospective clinical audit to assess the risk of fentanyl overdose in comparison with other opioids, in the context of a drug consumption room. METHOD: Heroin, fentanyl or other prescription opioids (PO) injections resulting in overdose were audited (September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2015)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Igor Barjaktarevic, Doug Arenberg, Brandon S Grimes, Kathleen Ruchalski, Denise R Aberle
Each year, more than 1 million persons worldwide are found to have a lung nodule that carries a risk of being malignant. In reality, the vast majority of lung nodules are benign, whether identified by screening or incidentally. The consequences of delaying or missing the diagnosis of lung cancer can be substantial, as can be the consequences of invasive procedures on patients with benign lung nodules. The challenge for the clinician caring for these patients is to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules with the least harm possible...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Michel Landry, Nadia Veilleux, Julie-Eve Arseneault, Saneea Abboud, André Barrieau, Mathieu Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment programs implemented in Aboriginal communities have proven to be beneficial for the control of opioid addiction and its associated consequences, but the perceptions and opinions of different community members about these programs remain elusive. The goal of this study was to determine the perceptions of members of a First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada, on the implementation of a methadone maintenance treatment program and its effects on the community...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Inge Van Schipstal, Swasti Mishra, Moritz Berning, Hayley Murray
This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Anita Hardon, Takeo David Hymans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Gen Sander, Alessio Scandurra, Anhelita Kamenska, Catherine MacNamara, Christina Kalpaki, Cristina Fernandez Bessa, Gemma Nicolás Laso, Grazia Parisi, Lorraine Varley, Marcin Wolny, Maria Moudatsou, Nuno Henrique Pontes, Patricia Mannix-McNamara, Sandro Libianchi, Tzanetos Antypas
While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
K Closson, R McNeil, P McDougall, S Fernando, A B Collins, R Baltzer Turje, T Howard, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)-individuals with common experiences to the participant population (e.g. people who use drugs, people living with HIV [PLHIV]). However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the operationalization of PRA hiring and thus limited understanding regarding how affected communities can be meaningfully involved through low-barrier engagement in paid positions within community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall
The high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness contributes substantially to the disproportionately high morbidity and premature mortality in this population. There is an urgent need to help people with serious mental illness to quit smoking. We discuss competing explanations for the high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness and the effectiveness of available smoking cessation interventions. We propose trials of harm reduction options, such as nicotine replacement therapy and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as long-term substitutes for cigarettes in smokers with serious mental illness who are unable to quit smoking...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Eric Egnot, Kim Jordan, John O Elliott
BACKGROUND: Use of the electronic cigarette for nicotine delivery has increased dramatically in recent years. Information continues to emerge on its role as a smoking cessation aid, but little is known about resident physician use of the device in clinical practice. METHODS: In 2015, an electronic survey was administered to resident physicians in one healthcare system in Columbus, Ohio. The survey included questions about personal smoking exposure, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes about electronic cigarettes and early adoption of electronic cigarettes with patients...
October 3, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Joseph A Boscarino, H Lester Kirchner, James M Pitcavage, Vijay R Nadipelli, Naoko A Ronquest, Michael H Fitzpatrick, John J Han
OBJECTIVE: Opioid overdoses (ODs) have been increasing, and harm reduction efforts are a priority. The success of these efforts will be dependent on the identification of at-risk patients and improved access to the antidote naloxone. Therefore, to identify access to naloxone and factors associated with negative health outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study of patients with OD to identify those at highest risk of adverse outcomes and to assess the use of naloxone. METHODS: We conducted a study of electronic health records for patients admitted to the largest multihospital system in the region - the Geisinger Health System (GHS) for ODs - from April 2005 through March 2015...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
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