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Z Zhang, J M Ma, N L Wang
The retinal ganglion cell, due to peculiar structural and energetic constraints, appears acutely susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)and in nuclear DNA genes that encode mitochondrial proteins may influence mitochondrial structure and function and, therefore, contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma. As the main glaucoma risk factors are elevated intraocular pressure and older age, we discuss their relationship with mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Travis W Hein, Wenjuan Xu, Xin Xu, Lih Kuo
PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus, is associated with retinal inflammation and impairment of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation of retinal arterioles. However, molecular mechanisms involved in this diminished endothelial vasodilator function remain unclear. We examined whether inflammatory stress-activated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, contribute to retinal arteriolar dysfunction during exposure to acute and chronic hyperglycemia...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Elvir Becirovic, Sybille Böhm, Ong N P Nguyen, Lisa M Riedmayr, Verena Hammelmann, Christian Schön, Elisabeth S Butz, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel, Stylianos Michalakis
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful method for the detection and quantification of stationary and dynamic protein-protein interactions. Technical limitations have hampered systematic in vivo FRET experiments to study protein-protein interactions in their native environment. Here, we describe a rapid and robust protocol that combines adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated in vivo delivery of genetically encoded FRET partners with ex vivo FRET measurements. The method was established on acutely isolated outer segments of murine rod and cone photoreceptors and relies on the high co-transduction efficiency of retinal photoreceptors by co-delivered AAV vectors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sakinah B Sabadia, Rachel C Nolan, Kristin M Galetta, Kannan M Narayana, James A Wilson, Peter A Calabresi, Elliot M Frohman, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
BACKGROUND: Although patients with acute optic neuritis (ON) recover high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) to 20/40 or better in 95% of affected eyes, patients with a history of ON continue to note subjective abnormalities of vision. Furthermore, substantial and permanent thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is now known to occur early in the course of ON. We measured vision-specific quality of life (QOL) in patients with a history of acute ON and recovery of VA to 20/40 or better in their affected eyes to determine how these QOL scores relate to RNFL and GCL thickness and low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) across the spectrum of visual recovery...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger, Melanie Jäger, Christine Mais, Susann Stieger, Monika Andrassi-Darida
PURPOSE: To report the outcome of intravitreal 0.312 mg bevacizumab (IVB) monotherapy in acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to describe the vascular development over time. METHODS: Seventeen prematurely born infants were treated with IVB (0.312 mg in 0.025 mL per eye) because of acute ROP in posterior Zone II or Zone I, including aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were examined by fluorescein angiography (FA) using RetCam II or III (Clarity Medical Systems Inc) before IVB (n = 21 eyes), within 6 weeks (n = 23 eyes), 8 to 13 weeks (n = 22 eyes), and up to 45 months (n = 10 eyes)...
July 21, 2016: Retina
Noriko Nakano, Hanako Ohashi Ikeda, Tomoko Hasegawa, Yuki Muraoka, Sachiko Iwai, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Masaki Nakano, Tomohiro Fuchigami, Toshiyuki Shudo, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Glaucoma is a major cause of adult blindness due to gradual death of retinal ganglion cells. Currently, no therapeutics are available for the protection of these cells from the cell death. We have recently succeeded in synthesizing novel compounds, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances), which can reduce cellular ATP consumption by specifically inhibiting the ATPase activities of VCP, a major ATPase in the cell, and we have shown that KUSs could mitigate the disease progression of rd10, a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa, without any apparent side effects...
April 2016: Heliyon
Wadim Bowl, Knut Stieger, Magdalena Bokun, Silke Schweinfurth, Kerstin Holve, Monika Andrassi-Darida, Birgit Lorenz
PURPOSE: To compare retinal layer thicknesses in preterm and term-born children using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to correlate structure with retinal function. METHODS: We performed SD-OCT single and volume scans in the foveal region of premature children aged 6 to 13 years without ROP (no-ROP, n = 100) and with spontaneously regressed ROP (sr-ROP, n = 50) documented with wide-angle digital imaging during routine screening for acute ROP, and 30 age-matched term-born children...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Elizabeth Shen, Sivakumar R Rathinam, Manohar Babu, Anuradha Kanakath, Radhika Thundikandy, Salena M Lee, Erica N Browne, Travis C Porco, Nisha R Acharya
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease from a clinical trial of antimetabolite therapies. DESIGN: Subanalysis from an observer-masked randomized clinical trial for noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis. METHODS: setting: Clinical practice at Aravind Eye Hospitals, India. PATIENT POPULATION: Forty-three of 80 patients enrolled (54%) diagnosed with VKH. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to either 25 mg oral methotrexate weekly or 1 g mycophenolate mofetil twice daily, with a corticosteroid taper...
August 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Marcin Piotr Czajka, Eva Byhr, Göran Olivestedt, Eva M Olofsson
PURPOSE: To investigate the anatomical and functional outcomes of acute-onset endophthalmitis after small-gauge vitrectomy. METHODS: Retrospective case series of patients who underwent 23- or 25-gauge vitrectomy at four centres in Sweden between 2008 and 2012. Postvitrectomy endophthalmitis was identified through the search of the journal records of each institution, and the diagnosis was based on clinical criteria regardless of culture results. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (24 eyes) were included...
June 8, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Sho Nobuyoshi, Akiyasu Kanamori, Yoshiko Matsumoto, Makoto Nakamura
PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that predominantly attacks the optic nerve and spinal cord. This study evaluated the effect of administration of human IgG (hIgG) into the caudal vein on optic nerve degeneration in a rodent model of NMO. METHODS: The optic nerves were exposed to AQP4-Ab-positive sera, and the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was performed immediately, at 7 days (cohort A) or at 7 days and 10 days (cohort B) after exposure to the sera...
September 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
N Gueven
Idebenone is a rapidly absorbed, safe and well-tolerated drug and is currently the only clinically proven treatment option for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients. Idebenone (Raxone®) is approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of LHON and has been available on the European market since 2015. Due to its molecular mode of action of bypassing the defective mitochondrial complex I, idebenone leads to improved energy supply and a functional recovery of retinal ganglion cells during the acute stage of the disease, thereby preventing further vision loss and promoting recovery of vision...
March 2016: Drugs of Today
Salime Pelin Ertürküner, Elif Yaprak Saraç, Semil Selcen Göçmez, Hakan Ekmekçi, Zeynep Banu Öztürk, İsmail Seçkin, Özkan Sever, Kadircan Keskinbora
INTRODUCTION: Experimental animal models of acute uveitis, an inflammatory eye disease, can be established via endotoxin-induced inflammation. Propolis, a natural substance collected by honeybees from buds and tree exudates, has antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of propolis, obtained from the Sakarya province of Turkey, on endotoxin-induced uveitis using immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and biochemical approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats (n = 6/group) received intraperitoneal (ip) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (150 μg/kg) followed by aqueous extract of propolis (50 mg/kg ip) or vehicle; two additional groups received either saline (control) or propolis only...
2016: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Rohit Varma, Farzana Choudhury, Sardius Chen, Shuang Wu, Chunyi Hsu, Mina Torres, Ronald Klein, Stanley P Azen, Roberta McKean-Cowdin
Importance: Population-based prevalence estimates of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) need to be determined to assess its burden among Chinese Americans, the fastest growing racial group in the United States. Objective: To determine the age- and sex- specific prevalence of AMD among Chinese Americans. Design: The Chinese American Eye Study (CHES) was conducted in a general urban community of 10 census tracts in Monterey Park, California...
April 7, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
O N Phuong Nguyen, Sybille Böhm, Andreas Gießl, Elisabeth S Butz, Uwe Wolfrum, Johann H Brandstätter, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel, Elvir Becirovic
Peripherin-2 is a glycomembrane protein exclusively expressed in the light-sensing compartments of rod and cone photoreceptors designated as outer segments (OS). Mutations in peripherin-2 are associated with degenerative retinal diseases either affecting rod or cone photoreceptors. While peripherin-2 has been extensively studied in rods, there is only little information on its supramolecular organization and function in cones. Recently, we have demonstrated that peripherin-2 interacts with the light detector rhodopsin in OS of rods...
March 30, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Abdullah Ilhan, Umit Yolcu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Polona Jaki Mekjavic, Eva Lenassi, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
To gain insights into microgravity-induced ophthalmic changes (microgravity ocular syndrome), and as part of a project investigating effects of future planetary habitats, we investigated the effect of acute hypercapnia following 10-day bed rest and hypoxia on posterior eye structures. Female subjects (N = 7) completed three 10-day experimental interventions: 1) normoxic bed rest [NBR; partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 ) = 132.9 ± 0.3 Torr]; 2) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; PiO2 = 90.4 ± 0.3 Torr); and 3) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; n = 12; PiO2 = 90...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Rubens N Belfort, Jordan Isenberg, Bruno F Fernandes, Sebastian Di Cesare, Rubens Belfort, Miguel N Burnier
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of Toxoplasmosis gondii in samples of peripheral blood from patients with varying etiologies of uveitis. Whole blood from patients with different forms of uveitis was tested for the presence of T. gondii using real-time PCR targeting the well-characterized 529 bp fragment. Extracted DNA was both frozen. Thirty-one patients were included in the current study and grouped as follows: acute toxoplasmosis (n = 10); toxoplasmic retinal scars (n = 9); non-infectious etiologies of uveitis (n = 6); and IgG negative for toxoplasmosis (n = 6)...
March 14, 2016: International Ophthalmology
E T Fahy, V Chrysostomou, C J Abbott, P van Wijngaarden, J G Crowston
It has been established that beyond middle age, mice are slower to recover inner retinal function following an acute intraocular pressure (IOP) injury. While 3 month old animals exhibit near-complete recovery 1 week following injury, 12 and 18 month old animals demonstrate prolonged inner retinal dysfunction. In this study we aim to determine whether age-related differences in functional recovery of the inner retina are due to differences in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal transport. C57BL/6J mice at 3 (n = 8) and 18 months (n = 8) of age were used...
May 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Leoné Malan, Mark Hamer, Roland von Känel, Markus P Schlaich, Manja Reimann, Nancy Frasure-Smith, Gavin W Lambert, Walthard Vilser, Brian H Harvey, Faans Steyn, Nico T Malan
BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with impaired nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation and vascular dysregulation (VD). Whether depression and NO levels will disturb retinal haemodynamics is not clear. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Associations between the retinal vasculature, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure (DOPP) as measure of hypoperfusion, NO metabolites (NOx) and depression symptoms were assessed. Chronic VD risk markers [depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire/PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and 24 h pulse pressure] were determined in a bi-ethnic cohort (n = 313; 48...
May 1, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Xu Wang, Lian Zhao, Jun Zhang, Robert N Fariss, Wenxin Ma, Friedrich Kretschmer, Minhua Wang, Hao Hua Qian, Tudor C Badea, Jeffrey S Diamond, Wen-Biao Gan, Jerome E Roger, Wai T Wong
UNLABELLED: Microglia, the principal resident immune cell of the CNS, exert significant influence on neurons during development and in pathological situations. However, if and how microglia contribute to normal neuronal function in the mature uninjured CNS is not well understood. We used the model of the adult mouse retina, a part of the CNS amenable to structural and functional analysis, to investigate the constitutive role of microglia by depleting microglia from the retina in a sustained manner using genetic methods...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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