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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191218/analysis-of-choroidal-and-central-foveal-thicknesses-in-acute-anterior-uveitis-by-enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Mirinae Kim, Seung Yong Choi, Young-Hoon Park
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are a limited number of reports of structural changes in the retina and choroid in acute anterior uveitis (AAU). The aim of this study was to evaluate choroidal and central foveal thicknesses during episodes of AAU. METHODS: The medical records of 120 patients with AAU and 120 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and spherical equivalent of refractive error were reviewed. Subjects were divided into group 1 (AAU-affected eyes), 2 (unaffected fellow eyes), and 3 (healthy control eyes)...
December 1, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146307/long-term-visual-outcomes-and-safety-profile-of-27-gauge-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-posterior-segment-disease
#2
M Ali Khan, Alexander Kuley, Christopher D Riemann, Maria H Berrocal, Rohit R Lakhanpal, Jason Hsu, Arunan Sivalingam, Allen C Ho, Carl D Regillo
PURPOSE: To report longer-term outcomes of 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in eyes with posterior segment disease. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 390 eyes of 360 patients undergoing 27-gauge PPV for a vitreoretinal surgery indication. INTERVENTION: Three-port, transconjunctival, 27-gauge PPV. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in visual acuity (VA) and occurrence of intraoperative and postoperative complications with a minimum follow-up of 365 days...
November 13, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135604/chemical-burns-of-the-eye-the-role-of-retinal-injury-and-new-therapeutic-possibilities
#3
Claes H Dohlman, Fabiano Cade, Caio V Regatieri, Chengxin Zhou, Fengyang Lei, Alja Crnej, Mona Harissi-Dagher, Marie-Claude Robert, George N Papaliodis, Dongfeng Chen, James V Aquavella, Esen K Akpek, Anthony J Aldave, Kimberly C Sippel, Donald J DʼAmico, Jan G Dohlman, Per Fagerholm, Liqiang Wang, Lucy Q Shen, Miguel González-Andrades, James Chodosh, Kenneth R Kenyon, C Stephen Foster, Roberto Pineda, Samir Melki, Kathryn A Colby, Joseph B Ciolino, Demetrios G Vavvas, Shigeru Kinoshita, Reza Dana, Eleftherios I Paschalis
PURPOSE: To propose a new treatment paradigm for chemical burns to the eye - in the acute and chronic phases. METHODS: Recent laboratory and clinical data on the biology and treatment of chemical burns are analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal blindness from chemical burns can now be successfully treated with a keratoprosthesis, on immediate and intermediate bases. Long term outcomes, however, are hampered by early retinal damage causing glaucoma. New data suggest that rapid diffusion of inflammatory cytokines posteriorly (TNF-α, etc) can severely damage the ganglion cells...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102785/melanopsin-expressing-retinal-ganglion-cells-are-relatively-resistant-to-excitotoxicity-induced-by-n-methyl-d-aspartate
#4
Songtao Wang, Dandan Gu, Peng Zhang, Jing Chen, Yan Li, Honglei Xiao, Guomin Zhou
Excitotoxicity plays an important role in neuronal loss in glaucoma. Previous studies indicate melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are more injury-resistant. However, whether melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs are resistant to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) induced excitotoxicity is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in conventional retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs in adult mice...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075764/the-effect-of-acutely-elevated-intraocular-pressure-on-the-functional-and-blood-flow-responses-of-the-rat-retina-to-flicker-stimulation
#5
Bingyao Tan, Benjamin MacLellan, Erik Mason, Kostadinka K Bizheva
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of acutely elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on the functional and blood flow responses of the rat retina to flicker stimulation. Methods: Brown Norway (n = 15) rats were dark-adapted before ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. IOP was raised acutely in one eye to ∼45 mm Hg with a vascular loop. In 11 rats, white light flicker stimulus (10 Hz, 2 seconds duration, 0.80 log scotopic cd·s/m2) was applied before and during IOP elevation, and 10 minutes after loop removal...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057162/augmenting-endogenous-levels-of-retinal-annexin-a1-suppresses-uveitis-in-mice
#6
Peter J Gardner, Samia Yazid, Joana Ribeiro, Robin R Ali, Andrew D Dick
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin A1 (AnxA1) in mice and human retinae during uveitis and to determine whether local administration of human recombinant AnxA1 (hrAnxA1) can suppress uveitis in mice. METHODS: Retinal sections from mice (healthy normal and uveitis) and postmortem human (no history of eye disease (n = 5) and uveitis (n = 7)) were stained for AnxA1 expression and imaged by immunofluorescence microscopy...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029471/protective-effect-of-resveratrol-against-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-aged-samp8-mice
#7
Zhirong Liu, Zhengzheng Wu, Jie Li, Anna Marmalidou, Ruifan Zhang, Man Yu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of Resveratrol (RESV) on acute bright light-induced retinal degeneration in aged senescence accelerated mouse strain. METHODS: Ten three-month-old male SAMP8 mice (prone to aging) were randomly assigned to two experimental dietary groups: one untreated group and one RESV treatment group (n=20 eyes for each group). After 30 days of treatment, mice were exposed to intense bright light. Ten male SAMR1 mice (resistant to aging) served as control (n=20 eyes)...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027919/shiga-toxins-induce-apoptosis-and-er-stress-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#8
Jun-Young Park, Yu-Jin Jeong, Sung-Kyun Park, Sung-Jin Yoon, Song Choi, Dae Gwin Jeong, Su Wol Chung, Byung Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Kim, Vernon L Tesh, Moo-Seung Lee, Young-Jun Park
Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and select serotypes of Escherichia coli are the most potent known virulence factors in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis progressing to potentially fatal systemic complications such as acute renal failure, blindness and neurological abnormalities. Although numerous studies have defined apoptotic responses to Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) or Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) in a variety of cell types, the potential significance of Stx-induced apoptosis of photoreceptor and pigmented cells of the eye following intoxication is unknown...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025171/-the-impact-of-macular-development-on-full-field-and-multifocal-erg-in-extremely-preterm-born-children-with-and-without-acute-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#9
Wadim Bowl, Silke Schweinfurth, Kerstin Holve, Knut Stieger, Birgit Lorenz, Monika Andrassi-Darida
Introduction Retinal development is a complex process that can continue into early childhood and beyond. Prematurity can affect the maturation of the central retina, characterised by a flatter foveal pit and overlying inner retinal layers (IRL), leading to a disturbed ratio of outer retinal layers to IRL ("macular developmental arrest": MDA) and functional impairment (Bowl et al. 2016 18). The purpose of this study was to correlate functional results by electrophysiology with the morphological appearance of the fovea in children with spontaneously regressed and without ROP and term-born age-matched controls...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994605/explicit-diagnostic-criteria-for-transient-ischemic-attacks-to-differentiate-it-from-migraine-with-aura
#10
Elena R Lebedeva, Natalia M Gurary, Denis V Gilev, Anne Francke Christensen, Jes Olesen
Background The diagnosis of transient ischemic attacks is fraught with problems. The inter-observer agreement has repeatedly been shown to be low even in a neurological setting, and the specificity of the diagnosis is modest to low, reflected in a poor separation of transient ischemic attacks and mimics, particularly migraine with aura with its varied symptomatology. In other disease areas, explicit diagnostic criteria have improved sensitivity and specificity of diagnoses. We therefore present novel explicit diagnostic criteria for transient ischemic attacks tested for sensitivity and for specificity against migraine with aura...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945661/second-neoplasms-in-children-following-a-treatment-for-acute-leukemia-and-or-lymphoma-29-years-of-experience-in-a-single-institution-in-argentina
#11
María S Felice, Jorge G Rossi, Cristina N Alonso, Patricia Rubio, Marta S Gallego, María L Galluzzo, Fabiana Lubieniecki, Gladys Gutiérrez, Myriam R Guitter, Daniel H Alderete, Adriana B Rose, Walter D Cacciavillano, Viviana Herzovich, Elizabeth M Alfaro, Cristian G Sánchez La Rosa, Natalia Millán, Guillermo L Chantada, Carlos M Figueroa Turienzo, Pedro A Zubizarreta
INTRODUCTION: Childhood acute leukemias (AL) and lymphomas achieve good survival rates. However, second neoplasms (SN) are a devastating event. METHODS: From August 1987 to December 2016, 34 of 3321 (1%) patients with diagnosis of AL or lymphoma developed SN. SN were AL (n=16), CNS tumors (n=5), endocrinal tumors (n=3), lymphomas (n=2), schwannoma (n=2) assorted sarcomas (n=4), retinal melanoma (n=1), and Vanek tumor (n=1). Median latency was 51 (range, 10 to 110) months for hematological malignancies and 119 (range, 25 to 236) months for solid tumors (P=0...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901515/vulnerability-study-of-myelinated-and-unmyelinated-nerve-fibers-in-acute-ocular-hypertension-in-rabbit
#12
Jiying Shen, Qiang Yang, Daoyi Yu, Jihong Wu, Yuanfang Zhu, Wenyi Guo
In the current study, it was aimed to evaluate the changes in myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers in retinal ischemia‑reperfusion injuries caused by acute ocular hypertension and to determine the sequence of these changes. Adult healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to the hemodynamic group [n=12; used to determine the optimal intraocular pressure (IOP) for the subsequent experiments] and the hypertension group (n=6; 70‑mmHg hypertension induced in one eye). IOP was adjusted using a cannula and saline...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871477/-diagnostics-and-management-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#13
R N Werner, N-I Steinhorst, A Nast, U Pleyer
Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) represents the secondary manifestation of an infection with varicellazoster virus (VZV). A reactivation of dormant VZV in the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve leads to ophthalmic HZ (HZO). The predominantly older and immune compromised patients often present with eye involvement (approximately 50%) as well as characteristic skin changes. Clinical manifestations include the cornea and conjunctiva but anterior uveitis and (rarely) acute retinal necrosis may also occur...
October 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646330/-imaging-of-vessels-supplying-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
S M Schellong, N Abolmaali, B Voigts, C Stelzner
Nowadays, several technically validated modalities are available for imaging both the extracranial and intracranial segments of arteries supplying blood to the brain. In the acute stroke setting, computed tomography (CT) angiography is of utmost importance because it provides the key diagnostic criteria indicative for the use of catheter-based recanalization techniques. Ultrasound imaging of extracranial arteries is most suitable for detecting an underlying stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in patients with stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), retinal vessel occlusion and amaurosis fugax...
August 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638951/isoflurane-and-ketamine-xylazine-differentially-affect-intraocular-pressure-associated-scotopic-threshold-responses-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Vivian Choh, Akshay Gurdita, Bingyao Tan, Yunwei Feng, Kostadinka Bizheva, Daphne L McCulloch, Karen M Joos
PURPOSE: Amplitudes of electroretinograms (ERG) are enhanced during acute, moderate elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats anaesthetised with isoflurane. As anaesthetics alone are known to affect ERG amplitudes, the present study compares the effects of inhalant isoflurane and injected ketamine:xylazine on the scotopic threshold response (STR) in rats with moderate IOP elevation. METHODS: Isoflurane-anaesthetised (n = 9) and ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised (n = 6) rats underwent acute unilateral IOP elevation using a vascular loop anterior to the equator of the right eye...
October 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581442/photopharmacological-control-of-bipolar-cells-restores-visual-function-in-blind-mice
#16
Laura Laprell, Ivan Tochitsky, Kuldeep Kaur, Michael B Manookin, Marco Stein, David M Barber, Christian Schön, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Richard H Kramer, Martin P Sumser, Dirk Trauner, Russell N Van Gelder
Photopharmacological control of neuronal activity using synthetic photochromic ligands, or photoswitches, is a promising approach for restoring visual function in patients suffering from degenerative retinal diseases. Azobenzene photoswitches, such as AAQ and DENAQ, have been shown to restore the responses of retinal ganglion cells to light in mouse models of retinal degeneration but do not recapitulate native retinal signal processing. Here, we describe diethylamino-azo-diethylamino (DAD), a third-generation photoswitch that is capable of restoring retinal ganglion cell light responses to blue or white light...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567539/retinal-ganglion-cell-analysis-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-optic-neuritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Josefine Britze, Gorm Pihl-Jensen, Jette Lautrup Frederiksen
The aim of this study was to summarise existing findings regarding optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of ganglion cell layer (GCL) alterations in optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Peer-reviewed studies published prior to April 2016 were searched using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus. Studies were included if they measured GCL thickness using OCT in patients with either ON, MS or clinically isolated syndrome. For the meta-analysis, we compared GCL thickness in MS patients with and without prior ON, to healthy controls...
September 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550169/the-gliotransmitter-d-serine-promotes-synapse-maturation-and-axonal-stabilization-in-vivo
#18
Marion R Van Horn, Arielle Strasser, Lois S Miraucourt, Loredano Pollegioni, Edward S Ruthazer
The NMDAR is thought to play a key role in the refinement of connectivity in developing neural circuits. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss-of-function manipulations that prevent NMDAR function during development result in the disorganization of topographic axonal projections. However, because NMDARs contribute to overall glutamatergic neurotransmission, such loss-of-function experiments fail to adequately distinguish between the roles played by NMDARs and neural activity in general. The gliotransmitter d-serine is a coagonist of the NMDAR that is required for NMDAR channel opening, but which cannot mediate neurotransmission on its own...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538613/acute-retinal-damage-after-using-a-toxic-perfluoro-octane-for-vitreo-retinal-surgery
#19
J Carlos Pastor, Rosa M Coco, Ivan Fernandez-Bueno, Maria L Alonso-Alonso, Jesús Medina, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Fernando Rull, Manuel J Gayoso, Antonio Dueñas, Maria T Garcia-Gutierrez, Lucia Gonzalez-Buendia, Santiago Delgado-Tirado, Emilio Abecia, Miguel Ruiz-Miguel, Miguel A Serrano, Jose M Ruiz-Moreno, Girish K Srivastava
PURPOSE: To describe a series of retinal acute toxicity cases with severe visual loss after intraocular use of a toxic perfluoro-octane (PFO). The clinical presentation is described, and the likely causes are analyzed. New biological methods for testing safety of intraocular medical devices are proposed. METHODS: Information regarding a series of eyes suffering acute severe events after intraocular use of a toxic PFO was analyzed. Four types of spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chromatography were used to identify the potential PFO contaminants...
June 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494563/-the-clinical-manifestations-and-imaging-characteristics-of-acute-syphilitic-posterior-placoid-chorioretinitis
#20
F Hu, X N Wang, X S Cao, X Y Peng
Objective: To investigate the clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC). Methods: Retrospective study of 10 patients diagnosed ASPPC in the Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital from 2011 to 2016, including 6 males (10 eyes involved) and 4 females (8 eyes involved) with an age of (43.4±11.6) years (range, 26-60 years). Their clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics were summarized. Results: All 10 ASPPC patients complained about the reduction of visual acuity, and the majority of them had both eyes involved...
May 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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