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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414059/a-mouse-ocular-explant-model-that-enables-the-study-of-living-optic-nerve-head-events-after-acute-and-chronic-intraocular-pressure-elevation-focusing-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-and-mitochondria
#1
Elizabeth C Kimball, Mary E Pease, Matthew R Steinhart, Ericka N Oglesby, Ian Pitha, Cathy Nguyen, Harry A Quigley
We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours...
April 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405758/-prognosis-and-treatment-of-macular-bleeding-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
H T Agostini, S Bopp, N Feltgen
Macular bleeding is associated with an acute loss of visual function and is frequently a complication of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Blood degradation products can lead to permanent retinal neuronal damage over time. The extent of the bleeding is correlated to the coagulation status of the patient. The treatment strategy depends on the age, size and exact location of the bleeding. The spectrum of therapeutic options ranges from watchful waiting to large scale vitrectomy with removal of subretinal mass bleeding...
April 12, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389912/pigmented-and-albino-rats-differ-in-their-responses-to-moderate-acute-and-reversible-intraocular-pressure-elevation
#3
Akshay Gurdita, Bingyao Tan, Karen M Joos, Kostadinka Bizheva, Vivian Choh
PURPOSE: To compare the electrophysiological and morphological responses to acute, moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rat eyes. METHODS: Eleven-week-old SD (n = 5), LE (n = 5) and BN (n = 5) rats were used. Scotopic threshold responses (STRs), Maxwellian flash electroretinograms (ERGs) or ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) images of the rat retinas were collected from both eyes before, during and after IOP elevation of one eye...
April 7, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356707/epigenetic-intervention-with-a-bet-inhibitor-ameliorates-acute-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-in-mice
#4
Jun Li, Lei Zhao, Go Urabe, Yingmei Fu, Lian-Wang Guo
PURPOSE: The bromo and extraterminal (BET) epigenetic "reader" family is becoming an appealing new therapeutic target for several common diseases, yet little is known of its role in retinal neurodegeneration. We explored the potential of BET inhibition in the protection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). METHODS: To test the therapeutic effect of JQ1, an inhibitor highly selective for the BET family of proteins, we used an acute RGC damage model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) excitotoxicity...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135360/retinal-architecture-and-melanopsin-mediated-pupillary-response-characteristics-a-putative-pathophysiologic-signature-for-the-retino-hypothalamic-tract-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Ethan Meltzer, Peter V Sguigna, Adnan Subei, Shin Beh, Eric Kildebeck, Darrel Conger, Amy Conger, Marlen Lucero, Benjamin S Frohman, Ashley N Frohman, Shiv Saidha, Steven Galetta, Peter A Calabresi, Robert Rennaker, Teresa C Frohman, Randy H Kardon, Laura J Balcer, Elliot M Frohman
Importance: A neurophysiologic signature of the melanopsin-mediated persistent constriction phase of the pupillary light reflex may represent a surrogate biomarker for the integrity of the retinohypothalamic tract, with potential utility for investigating alterations in homeostatic mechanisms associated with brain disorders and implications for identifying new treatments. Objective: To characterize abnormalities of retinal architecture in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and corresponding alterations in the melanopsin-mediated sustained pupillary constriction response...
January 30, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117076/oct-angiography-of-acute-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#6
M-B Rougier, M-N Delyfer, J-F Korobelnik
PURPOSE: To describe changes of the retinal peripapillary microvasculature on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic (NAION) neuropathy. METHODS: Observational study of 10 patients at the acute phase of NAION. OCT-A was performed using a 3mm×3mm square centered on the optic disc (Cirrus HD-OCT with Angioplex, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). A qualitative comparison was made with the healthy fellow eye of each patient...
February 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115520/cellular-uptake-and-delivery-of-myeloperoxidase-to-lysosomes-promote-lipofuscin-degradation-and-lysosomal-stress-in-retinal-cells
#7
Gouri Yogalingam, Amanda R Lee, Donald S Mackenzie, Travis J Maures, Agnes Rafalko, Heather Prill, Geoffrey Y Berguig, Chuck Hague, Terri Christianson, Sean M Bell, Jonathan H LeBowitz
Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the H2O2-dependent oxidation of chloride anion to generate hypochlorous acid, a potent antimicrobial agent. Besides its well defined role in innate immunity, aberrant degranulation of neutrophils in several inflammatory diseases leads to redistribution of MPO to the extracellular space, where it can mediate tissue damage by promoting the oxidation of several additional substrates. Here, we demonstrate that mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated cellular uptake and delivery of MPO to lysosomes of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells acts to clear this harmful enzyme from the extracellular space, with lysosomal-delivered MPO exhibiting a half-life of 10 h...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064304/evaluation-of-ophthalmic-artery-branch-retrograde-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-crao
#8
Runsheng Wang, Lu Qian, Yi Wang, Yi Zheng, Shanshuang Du, Tao Lei, Peilin Lv, Tan Long, Wenjun Wang
BACKGROUND Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the occlusion of the central retinal artery resulting in retinal infarction and acute vision loss. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-guided superselective ophthalmic artery or selective carotid thrombolysis remains the preferred treatment method for CRAO. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of the novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde thrombolytic intervention for CRAO. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty patients with monocular CRAO were enrolled, including 28 males and 22 females (mean age: 55...
January 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003454/modulation-of-recognition-memory-performance-by-light-requires-both-melanopsin-and-classical-photoreceptors
#9
Shu K E Tam, Sibah Hasan, Steven Hughes, Mark W Hankins, Russell G Foster, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Acute light exposure exerts various effects on physiology and behaviour. Although the effects of light on brain network activity in humans are well demonstrated, the effects of light on cognitive performance are inconclusive, with the size, as well as direction, of the effect depending on the nature of the task. Similarly, in nocturnal rodents, bright light can either facilitate or disrupt performance depending on the type of task employed. Crucially, it is unclear whether the effects of light on behavioural performance are mediated via the classical image-forming rods and cones or the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893096/chemogenetic-activation-of-iprgcs-drives-changes-in-dark-adapted-scotopic-electroretinogram
#10
Nina Milosavljevic, Annette E Allen, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Robert J Lucas
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of activating melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) on dark-adapted (scotopic) electroretinograms (ERG). Methods: We used mice (Opn4Cre/+) expressing cre recombinase in melanopsin-expressing cells for a targeted gene delivery of a chemogenetic Gq-coupled receptor, hM3Dq, to ipRGCs. Intraperitoneal injection of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) at 5 mg/kg was used for acute activation of hM3Dq and thus excitation of ipRGCs in darkness...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769323/test-characteristics-of-point-of-care-ultrasonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-posterior-ocular-pathology
#11
Michael Y Woo, Nathan Hecht, Bernard Hurley, David Stitt, Venkatesh Thiruganasambandamoorthy
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the test characteristics of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) for the diagnosis of retinal tear (RT), retinal detachment (RD), posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), and vitreous hemorrhage (VH). DESIGN: A prospective observation study on a convenience sample of patients presenting to a tertiary care emergency general ophthalmology clinic was performed. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with acute flashes/floaters or new visual field defects were included (n = 62)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647253/-is-glaucoma-a-mitochondrial-neurodegenerative-disease
#12
Z Zhang, J M Ma, N L Wang
The retinal ganglion cell, due to peculiar structural and energetic constraints, appears acutely susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)and in nuclear DNA genes that encode mitochondrial proteins may influence mitochondrial structure and function and, therefore, contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma. As the main glaucoma risk factors are elevated intraocular pressure and older age, we discuss their relationship with mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556216/acute-and-chronic-hyperglycemia-elicit-jip1-jnk-mediated-endothelial-vasodilator-dysfunction-of-retinal-arterioles
#13
Travis W Hein, Wenjuan Xu, Xin Xu, Lih Kuo
PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus, is associated with retinal inflammation and impairment of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation of retinal arterioles. However, molecular mechanisms involved in this diminished endothelial vasodilator function remain unclear. We examined whether inflammatory stress-activated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, contribute to retinal arteriolar dysfunction during exposure to acute and chronic hyperglycemia...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516733/aav-vectors-for-fret-based-analysis-of-protein-protein-interactions-in-photoreceptor-outer-segments
#14
Elvir Becirovic, Sybille Böhm, Ong N P Nguyen, Lisa M Riedmayr, Verena Hammelmann, Christian Schön, Elisabeth S Butz, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel, Stylianos Michalakis
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful method for the detection and quantification of stationary and dynamic protein-protein interactions. Technical limitations have hampered systematic in vivo FRET experiments to study protein-protein interactions in their native environment. Here, we describe a rapid and robust protocol that combines adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated in vivo delivery of genetically encoded FRET partners with ex vivo FRET measurements. The method was established on acutely isolated outer segments of murine rod and cone photoreceptors and relies on the high co-transduction efficiency of retinal photoreceptors by co-delivered AAV vectors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472185/20-40-or-better-visual-acuity-after-optic-neuritis-not-as-good-as-we-once-thought
#15
Sakinah B Sabadia, Rachel C Nolan, Kristin M Galetta, Kannan M Narayana, James A Wilson, Peter A Calabresi, Elliot M Frohman, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
BACKGROUND: Although patients with acute optic neuritis (ON) recover high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) to 20/40 or better in 95% of affected eyes, patients with a history of ON continue to note subjective abnormalities of vision. Furthermore, substantial and permanent thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is now known to occur early in the course of ON. We measured vision-specific quality of life (QOL) in patients with a history of acute ON and recovery of VA to 20/40 or better in their affected eyes to determine how these QOL scores relate to RNFL and GCL thickness and low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) across the spectrum of visual recovery...
December 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454223/retinal-vascular-development-with-0-312-mg-intravitreal-bevacizumab-to-treat-severe-posterior-retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-longitudinal-fluorescein-angiographic-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger, Melanie Jäger, Christine Mais, Susann Stieger, Monika Andrassi-Darida
PURPOSE: To report the outcome of intravitreal 0.312 mg bevacizumab (IVB) monotherapy in acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to describe the vascular development over time. METHODS: Seventeen prematurely born infants were treated with IVB (0.312 mg in 0.025 mL per eye) because of acute ROP in posterior Zone II or Zone I, including aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were examined by fluorescein angiography (FA) using RetCam II or III (Clarity Medical Systems Inc) before IVB (n = 21 eyes), within 6 weeks (n = 23 eyes), 8 to 13 weeks (n = 22 eyes), and up to 45 months (n = 10 eyes)...
January 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441270/neuroprotective-effects-of-vcp-modulators-in-mouse-models-of-glaucoma
#17
Noriko Nakano, Hanako Ohashi Ikeda, Tomoko Hasegawa, Yuki Muraoka, Sachiko Iwai, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Masaki Nakano, Tomohiro Fuchigami, Toshiyuki Shudo, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Glaucoma is a major cause of adult blindness due to gradual death of retinal ganglion cells. Currently, no therapeutics are available for the protection of these cells from the cell death. We have recently succeeded in synthesizing novel compounds, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances), which can reduce cellular ATP consumption by specifically inhibiting the ATPase activities of VCP, a major ATPase in the cell, and we have shown that KUSs could mitigate the disease progression of rd10, a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa, without any apparent side effects...
April 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409477/oct-based-macular-structure-function-correlation-in-dependence-on-birth-weight-and-gestational-age-the-giessen-long-term-rop-study
#18
Wadim Bowl, Knut Stieger, Magdalena Bokun, Silke Schweinfurth, Kerstin Holve, Monika Andrassi-Darida, Birgit Lorenz
PURPOSE: To compare retinal layer thicknesses in preterm and term-born children using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to correlate structure with retinal function. METHODS: We performed SD-OCT single and volume scans in the foveal region of premature children aged 6 to 13 years without ROP (no-ROP, n = 100) and with spontaneously regressed ROP (sr-ROP, n = 50) documented with wide-angle digital imaging during routine screening for acute ROP, and 30 age-matched term-born children...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296490/outcomes-of-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease-a-subanalysis-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-antimetabolite-therapies
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Elizabeth Shen, Sivakumar R Rathinam, Manohar Babu, Anuradha Kanakath, Radhika Thundikandy, Salena M Lee, Erica N Browne, Travis C Porco, Nisha R Acharya
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease from a clinical trial of antimetabolite therapies. DESIGN: Subanalysis from an observer-masked randomized clinical trial for noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis. METHODS: setting: Clinical practice at Aravind Eye Hospitals, India. PATIENT POPULATION: Forty-three of 80 patients enrolled (54%) diagnosed with VKH. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to either 25 mg oral methotrexate weekly or 1 g mycophenolate mofetil twice daily, with a corticosteroid taper...
August 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273917/endophthalmitis-after-small-gauge-vitrectomy-a-retrospective-case-series-from-sweden
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Marcin Piotr Czajka, Eva Byhr, Göran Olivestedt, Eva M Olofsson
PURPOSE: To investigate the anatomical and functional outcomes of acute-onset endophthalmitis after small-gauge vitrectomy. METHODS: Retrospective case series of patients who underwent 23- or 25-gauge vitrectomy at four centres in Sweden between 2008 and 2012. Postvitrectomy endophthalmitis was identified through the search of the journal records of each institution, and the diagnosis was based on clinical criteria regardless of culture results. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (24 eyes) were included...
December 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
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