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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826297/lipopolysaccharide-attenuates-induction-of-proallergic-cytokines-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-interleukin-33-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells-stimulated-with-polyi-c-and-human-parechovirus
#1
Tsang-Hsiung Lin, Chih-Chi Cheng, Hsing-Hao Su, Nan-Chieh Huang, Jih-Jung Chen, Hong-Yo Kang, Tsung-Hsien Chang
Epidemiological studies based on the "hygiene hypothesis" declare that the level of childhood exposure to environmental microbial products is inversely related to the incidence of allergic diseases in later life. Multiple types of immune cell-mediated immune regulation networks support the hygiene hypothesis. Epithelial cells are the first line of response to microbial products in the environment and bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, their role in the hygiene hypothesis is unknown. To demonstrate the hygiene hypothesis in airway epithelial cells, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; toll-like receptor 4 ligand) on the expression of the proallergic cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin 33 (IL33) in H292 cells (pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768958/impaired-toll-like-receptor-9-response-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Kartik Ramakrishna, Kalpana Premkumar, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, K R John
BACKGROUND & AIM: Innate immune responses are important in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In order to test the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 function would be abnormal in patients with active pulmonary TB we compared the cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to innate immune ligands in a case-control study. METHODS: PBMC from 19 untreated pulmonary TB patients, 17 healthy controls, and 11 treated pulmonary TB patients, were cultured for 24h with TLR 2 ligand (PAM-CSK) and other TLR ligands (muramyl dipeptide, flagellin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN))...
October 18, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744078/tumor-location-and-survival-outcomes-in-adult-patients-with-supratentorial-glioblastoma-by-levels-of-toll-like-receptor-9-expression
#3
Linsen Mu, Yongzhi Wang, Yonggang Wang, Hongbo Zhang, Dewei Shang, Fuqiang Tan, Yan Li, Xuzhu Chen
INTRODUCTION: Toll-like receptor 9(TLR9) is a key immunotherapy target for glioblastoma (GBM). This study explored the correlation of TLR9 expression with tumor location and survival outcomes in patients with supratentorial GBM. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 46 patients with supratentorial GBMs and divided them into those with high (TRL9(High)) and low TLR9 (TRL9(Low)) levels. The two groups were compared by patients' ages, sex, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), resection extent, tumor location, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738838/elevated-levels-of-serum-mrp8-14-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-associated-with-peripheral-arthritis-and-active-disease
#4
Latika Gupta, Shruti Bhattacharya, Vikas Agarwal, Amita Aggarwal
Monocytes of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) overexpression on their monocytes. Myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 protein complexes are calcium-binding proteins, which act as endogenous ligands to TLR4. Thus, we studied the levels of MRP8/14 in adult AS patients. MRP8/14 levels were assessed in 99 adult AS patients satisfying Assessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis International Society 2010 criteria and 71 healthy controls by ELISA. Patient disease parameters like patient and physician global assessment, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), swollen and tender joint count, entheseal count by Maastricht enthesitis index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also recorded...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725770/genetic-dissection-of-host-immune-response-in-pneumonia-development-and-progression
#5
Tamara V Smelaya, Olesya B Belopolskaya, Svetlana V Smirnova, Artem N Kuzovlev, Viktor V Moroz, Arkadiy M Golubev, Noel A Pabalan, Lyubov E Salnikova
The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713068/cloning-and-expression-study-of-a-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-gene-from-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#6
Haiyan Zhang, Guobin Hu, Qiuming Liu, Shicui Zhang
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in mammals is a member of the ancient Toll-like family of receptors that predominantly recognizes conserved components of Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, a tlr2 gene and its 5'-flanking sequence were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, its responsive expressions to various immunostimulants were subsequently studied in vivo. The turbot (sm)tlr2 gene spans over 9.0 kb with a structure of 12 exon-11 intron and encodes 816 amino acids. The deduced protein shows the highest sequence identity (76...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706807/intermediate-monocytes-are-increased-in-enthesitis-related-arthritis-a-category-of-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#7
P Gaur, A Myles, R Misra, A Aggarwal
Microarray of peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (PBMC, SFMC) of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-enthesitis-related arthritis (JIA-ERA) has shown the involvement of monocytes. On the basis of CD14 and CD16 expression, monocytes are classified as classical, intermediate and non-classical. In response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, intermediate monocytes produce proinflammatory cytokines and play a role in inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we have studied the microarray profile of monocytes, the frequency of their subsets and cytokine production...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696085/transcriptomic-effects-of-adenosine-2a-receptor-deletion-in-healthy-and-endotoxemic-murine-myocardium
#8
Kevin J Ashton, Melissa E Reichelt, S Jamal Mustafa, Bunyen Teng, Catherine Ledent, Lea M D Delbridge, Polly A Hofmann, R Ray Morrison, John P Headrick
Influences of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) activity on the cardiac transcriptome and genesis of endotoxemic myocarditis are unclear. We applied transcriptomic profiling (39 K Affymetrix arrays) to identify A2AR-sensitive molecules, revealed by receptor knockout (KO), in healthy and endotoxemic hearts. Baseline cardiac function was unaltered and only 37 A2AR-sensitive genes modified by A2AR KO (≥1.2-fold change, <5 % FDR); the five most induced are Mtr, Ppbp, Chac1, Ctsk and Cnpy2 and the five most repressed are Hp, Yipf4, Acta1, Cidec and Map3k2...
September 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693201/dietary-choline-deficiency-and-excess-induced-intestinal-inflammation-and-alteration-of-intestinal-tight-junction-protein-transcription-potentially-by-modulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-stat-and-p38-mapk-signaling-molecules-in-juvenile-jian-carp
#9
Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Jun Jiang, Juan Zhao, Yang Liu, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
This study investigated the effects of choline on intestinal mucosal immune and the possible mechanisms in fish by feeding juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with graded levels of dietary choline (165-1820 mg/kg diet) for 65 days. The results firstly showed that choline deficiency induced inflammatory infiltration in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of fish. Meanwhile, compared with the optimal choline group, choline deficiency decreased the activities of lysozyme and acid phosphatase, contents of complement 3 and IgM in the intestine, downregulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A and defensin-3 in the PI and MI, LEAP-2B and hepcidin in the PI, MI and DI), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL) 10 and transforming growth factor β2 in the PI, MI and DI), and signaling molecule IκB in the PI, MI and DI; while upregulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6a and tumor necrosis factor α in the MI and DI, interferon γ2b in the PI and MI, IL-1β and IL-6b in the PI, MI and DI), and signaling molecules (Toll-like receptor 4 in the MI, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 in the PI and MI, Janus kinase 3 and tyrosine kinase 2 in the MI and DI, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 4 and STAT5 in the PI, MI and DI) of juvenile Jian carp, further indicating that choline deficiency caused inflammation and immunity depression in the intestine of fish...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688795/fungal-cell-wall-agents-and-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-in-organic-dust-as-possible-risk-factors-for-pulmonary-sarcoidosis
#10
Sanja Stopinšek, Alojz Ihan, Barbara Salobir, Marjeta Terčelj, Saša Simčič
BACKGROUND: Composition of organic dust is very complex, involving particles of microbial, animal and plant origin. Several environmental exposure studies associate microbial cell wall agents in organic dust with various respiratory symptoms and diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the co-exposure of fungal cell wall agents (FCWAs) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682967/idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-the-ebv-hypothesis
#11
REVIEW
Claire Dossier, Agnès Jamin, Georges Deschênes
Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is marked by a massive proteinuria and loss of podocytes foot processes. The mechanism of the disease remains debated but recent publications suggest a primary role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). EBV replication in the peripheral blood is found in 50% of patients during the first flare of the disease. The genetic locus of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome was also identified as influencing antibodies directed against EBNA1. EBV is able to establish, latent benign infection in memory B cells that display phenotypes similar to antigen-selected memory B cells...
November 9, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672296/may-the-assessment-of-baseline-mucosal-molecular-pattern-predict-the-development-of-gluten-related-disorders-among-microscopic-enteritis
#12
Giuseppe Losurdo, Floriana Giorgio, Domenico Piscitelli, Lucia Montenegro, Claudia Covelli, Maria Grazia Fiore, Antonio Giangaspero, Andrea Iannone, Mariabeatrice Principi, Annacinzia Amoruso, Michele Barone, Alfredo Di Leo, Enzo Ierardi
AIM: To evaluate mucosal baseline mRNA expression of tissue transglutaminase 2 (tTG2), interferon gamma (IFNγ), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in patients with microscopic enteritis (ME). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 89 patients with ME of different etiology, which was defined within a 2-year mean period of follow-up. Baseline histological examination was performed on Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections and CD3 lymphocyte immunohistochemistry was used for intraepithelial lymphocyte count (IELs)...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668221/cblb502-administration-protects-gut-mucosal-tissue-in-ulcerative-colitis-by-inhibiting-inflammation
#13
Yang Xu, Hongxia Dong, Changhui Ge, Yan Gao, Haifeng Liu, Weiguang Li, Chenggang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a nonspecific inflammatory disease for which medications and therapeutic strategies have only been moderately successful. CBLB502, a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist derived from Salmonella flagellin, exhibits anticancer and radioprotective activities via modulation of TLRs and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and can protect against acute renal ischemic failure. In this study, we intend to examine the effects of CBLB502 on both TLR responses and the interleukin (IL) and NF-κB signaling pathways in UC treatment...
August 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667736/impaired-virus-replication-and-decreased-innate-immune-responses-to-viral-infections-in-nasal-epithelial-cells-from-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis
#14
A Głobińska, M Pawełczyk, A Piechota-Polańczyk, A Olszewska-Ziąber, S Moskwa, A Mikołajczyk, A Jabłońska, P Zakrzewski, M Brauncajs, M Jarzębska, S Taka, N G Papadopoulos, M L Kowalski
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the immune response to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), rhinovirus 1B (RV1B) and intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLR) agonists in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy controls. METHODS: NECs were obtained from 8 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and 11 non-atopic healthy controls (HC) by nasal scraping, grown to confluence and exposed to PIV3, RV1B infection or TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists...
September 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641666/microglial-response-to-lps-increases-in-wild-type-mice-during-aging-but-diminishes-in-an-alzheimer-s-mouse-model-implication-of-tlr4-signaling-in-disease-progression
#15
Michelle Go, Jinghong Kou, Jeong-Eun Lim, Junling Yang, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Microglia-mediated clearance of amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, as the disease progresses, activated microglia appear to become incapable of clearing Aβ deposits. Because repeated exposure to a TLR4 ligand leads to a diminished response of monocytes/macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and because aggregated Aβ is a TLR4 ligand, we hypothesize that chronic exposure of microglia to Aβ deposits may induce a state of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling dysfunction, leading to decreased Aβ clearance and accelerated disease progression...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603136/ureaplasma-diversum-genome-provides-new-insights-about-the-interaction-of-the-surface-molecules-of-this-bacterium-with-the-host
#16
Lucas M Marques, Izadora S Rezende, Maysa S Barbosa, Ana M S Guimarães, Hellen B Martins, Guilherme B Campos, Naíla C do Nascimento, Andrea P Dos Santos, Aline T Amorim, Verena M Santos, Sávio T Farias, Fernanda  C Barrence, Lauro M de Souza, Melissa Buzinhani, Victor E Arana-Chavez, Maria E Zenteno, Gustavo P Amarante-Mendes, Joanne B Messick, Jorge Timenetsky
Whole genome sequencing and analyses of Ureaplasma diversum ATCC 49782 was undertaken as a step towards understanding U. diversum biology and pathogenicity. The complete genome showed 973,501 bp in a single circular chromosome, with 28.2% of G+C content. A total of 782 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), and 6 rRNA and 32 tRNA genes were predicted and annotated. The metabolic pathways are identical to other human ureaplasmas, including the production of ATP via hydrolysis of the urea. Genes related to pathogenicity, such as urease, phospholipase, hemolysin, and a Mycoplasma Ig binding protein (MIB)-Mycoplasma Ig protease (MIP) system were identified...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590200/apocynin-inhibits-toll-like-receptor-4-mediated-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-suppressing-the-akt-and-mtor-pathways
#17
Yoon Jeong Nam, Arum Kim, Dong Suep Sohn, Chung Soo Lee
Microbial product lipopolysaccharide has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Apocynin has demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of apocynin on the Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, which is involved in productions of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes, has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of apocynin on the inflammatory mediator production in relation to the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated-Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulates the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses...
September 2, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535005/increased-expression-of-microrna-155-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-psoriasis-patients-is-related-to-disease-activity
#18
S García-Rodríguez, S Arias-Santiago, G Blasco-Morente, J Orgaz-Molina, A Rosal-Vela, P Navarro, C Magro-Checa, A Martínez-López, J-C Ruiz, E Raya, R Naranjo-Sintes, J Sancho, M Zubiaur
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) gene expression regulators are altered in psoriasis suggesting their role in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To study expression changes of inflammation and toll-like receptor (TLR)-related miRNAs, miRNA-155, let-7i, miRNA-21, miRNA-146a and miRNA-223 in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and miRNA-21, miRNA-146a and miRNA-223 in plasma, from chronic plaque-type psoriasis patients who were treatment-naive or had undergone a washout period (n = 11)...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495363/a-case-control-study-of-innate-immunity-pathway-gene-polymorphisms-in-puerto-ricans-reveals-association-of-toll-like-receptor-2%C3%A2-596-variant-with-asthma
#19
Mario G Ortiz-Martínez, Orquídea Frías-Belén, Sylvette Nazario-Jiménez, María López-Quintero, Rosa I Rodríguez-Cotto, Braulio D Jiménez-Vélez
BACKGROUND: For many years, African Dust Storms (ADE) has been thought to be associated with high prevalence of asthma in Puerto Rico (PR). Endotoxins (ENX) have been associated with ADE particulate matter (PM) and are known to promote pro-inflammatory responses in lung cells of susceptible individuals through the Toll-like receptor (TLR2/4) signaling pathways. Genetic variants are plausible contributors to such susceptibility. Therefore, we have evaluated a series of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR genes, which have been correlated positive and negatively to asthma prevalence and/or risk, in the Puerto Rican asthmatic population...
2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465988/enhanced-biglycan-gene-expression-in-the-adipose-tissues-of-obese-women-and-its-association-with-obesity-related-genes-and-metabolic-parameters
#20
Jimin Kim, Seul Ki Lee, Ji-Min Shin, Un-Woo Jeoun, Yeon Jin Jang, Hye Soon Park, Jong-Hyeok Kim, Gyung-Yub Gong, Taik Jong Lee, Joon Pio Hong, Yeon Ji Lee, Yoon-Suk Heo
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women...
2016: Scientific Reports
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