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toll like receptor 12

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#1
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775741/replacement-of-fishmeal-by-spirulina-arthrospira-platensis-affects-growth-immune-related-gene-expression-in-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-var-cas-iii-and-its-challenge-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#2
Shenping Cao, Peiyu Zhang, Tao Zou, Shuzhan Fei, Dong Han, Junyan Jin, Haokun Liu, Yunxia Yang, Xiaoming Zhu, Shouqi Xie
The present study examined the effect of dietary spirulina, Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, blood physiological indices, immune-related gene expressions and resistance of juvenile gibel carp against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Four isonitrogenous (360 g kg-1 ) and isolipidic (90 g kg-1 ) diets were formulated with containing different levels of spirulina powder of 0 g (SP0, the control diet), 3.38 g (SP3.38), 6.76 g (SP6.76) and 13.52 g (SP13.52) per 100 g diet to replace 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of fishmeal protein, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767672/blockade-of-tlr4-within-the-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-blood-pressure-by-regulating-ros-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-prehypertensive-rats
#3
Mo-Lin Wang, Xiao-Jing Yu, Xiao-Guang Li, De-Zhi Pang, Qing Su, Roland Osei Saahene, Hong-Bao Li, Xu-Ying Mao, Kai-Li Liu, Li-Yan Fu, Ying Li, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Ming Kang
Background: Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in the progression of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. However, the role of TLR4 in the development of prehypertension is uncertain. Methods: Prehypertensive rats were treated with 8% salt for 12 weeks to induce prehypertension. These rats were then given either TAK-242 selective TLR4 blocker, or vehicle by bilateral micro-injection to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity were recorded...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767328/a-placebo-controlled-efficacy-study-of-the-intravesical-immunomodulators-tmx-101-and-tmx-202-in-an-orthotopic-bladder-cancer-rat-model
#4
Johannes Falke, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Roberto Maj, Egbert Oosterwijk, J Alfred Witjes
PURPOSE: TMX-101 and TMX-202 are formulations of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) agonists, under investigation for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma. Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of intravesical instillations of TMX-101 or TMX-202 in an orthotopic bladder cancer rat model. METHODS: Four groups of 14 rats received an instillation with isogenic AY-27 tumor cells on day 0, starting tumor development. On day 2 and 5, the rats were treated with an intravesical instillation of TMX-101 0...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764544/-effects-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-toll-like-receptor-4-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-targeted-pathway-on-hyperglycemia-induced-myocardium-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Changle Liu, Ruimeng Liu, Xiaohan Wu, Peize Tan, Huaying Fu, Xinghua Wang, Tong Liu, Guangping Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effects and mechanism on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-toll-like receptor 4-tumor necrosis factor-α (PPARγ-TLR4-TNF-α) targeted pathway on hyperglycemia induced myocardium inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Thirty-two Japanese healthy adult rabbits were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rabbits in each group: normal control group (NC group), diabetes mellitus group (DM group), diabetes mellitus + pioglitazone 4 mg×kg-1 ×d-1 and 8 mg×kg-1 ×d-1 groups (DM+PGZ 4 mg and 8 mg groups)...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755461/efficient-uptake-of-recombinant-lipidated-survivin-by-antigen-presenting-cells-initiates-antigen-cross-presentation-and-antitumor-immunity
#6
Chen-Yi Chiang, Yi-Jyun Chen, Chiao-Chieh Wu, Shih-Jen Liu, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Hsin-Wei Chen
Survivin is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, but rarely expressed in terminally differentiated adult tissues. Thus, survivin is a potential target antigen for a cancer vaccine. However, self-tumor-associated antigens are not highly immunogenic. Bacteria-derived lipoproteins can activate antigen-presenting cells through their toll-like receptors to enhance immune responses. In this context, lipidated survivin is an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. In the present study, recombinant lipidated human survivin (LSur) was prepared from an Escherichia coli -based system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752990/fecal-bacteria-from-crohn-s-disease-patients-more-potently-activated-nod-like-receptors-and-toll-like-receptors-in-macrophages-in-an-il-4-repressible-fashion
#7
Jun Gu, Gang Liu, Junjie Xing, Haihan Song, Zhongchuan Wang
Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by a pathogenic intestinal inflammation mediated by a Th1-skewed immune system and a dysregulated intestinal mucosal community. In this study, we investigated the role of bacteria on the activation and function of monocytes, and its association with CD pathogenesis. To this end, fecal bacteria from CD patients and healthy controls were collected and used to stimulate autologous circulating monocytes. Fecal bacteria from CD patients were more effective at upregulating NOD2, NLRP3, TLR2, and TLR4 expression than fecal bacteria from healthy controls...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725321/induction-of-avian-%C3%AE-defensin-2-is-possibly-mediated-by-the-p38-mapk-signal-pathway-in-chicken-embryo-fibroblasts-after-newcastle-disease-virus-infection
#8
Chenggang Liu, Lei Jiang, Liangliang Liu, Li Sun, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Tianming Qi, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Shengwang Liu, Deying Ma
The study was conducted to evaluate whether avian β-defensins (AvBDs) could be induced by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection, and to investigate the potential signaling pathway of AvBD2 induction in response to NDV infection as well. First, mRNA expression of AvBDs (1-14) was evaluated in the chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) infected with NDV strain F48E9 at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi), respectively. The results demonstrated a significant induction of AvBD2 in CEFs elicited by the NDV strain...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723986/ebv-positive-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-exhibit-increased-anti-dutpase-antibodies
#9
Marshall Williams, Maria Eugenia Ariza
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus, establishes a latent infection in more than 90% of the global adult population. EBV-associated malignancies have increased by 14.6% over the last 20 years, and account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers worldwide and 1.8% of all cancer deaths. However, the potential involvement/contribution of lytic proteins to the pathophysiology of EBV-associated cancers is not well understood. We have previously demonstrated that the EBV-deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) modulates innate and adaptive immune responses by engaging the Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), which leads to the modulation of downstream genes involved in oncogenesis, chronic inflammation, and in effector T-cell function...
May 1, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717061/the-interaction-between-ikk%C3%AE-and-lc3-promotes-type-i-interferon-production-through-the-tlr9-containing-laposome
#10
Kachiko Hayashi, Manabu Taura, Akiko Iwasaki
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes DNA in endosomes and activates distinct signaling pathways to stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). The assembly of signaling platforms on microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-decorated endosomal vesicles is required to transduce TLR9 signals that stimulate the production of IFN but not interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), a form of noncanonical autophagy, is critical for the activation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and for IFN synthesis...
May 1, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709593/a-novel-toll-like-receptor-from-mytilus-coruscus-is-induced-in-response-to-stress
#11
Mengshan Xu, Jiong Wu, Delong Ge, Changwen Wu, Changfeng Chi, Zhenming Lv, Zhi Liao, Huihui Liu
Toll-like receptor (TLR) is considered to be an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein which promotes the Toll signal pathway to active the expression of transcription factors in the innate immunity of the organism. In this study, a full length of TLR homologue of 2525bp in Mytilus coruscus (named as McTLR-a, GenBank accession no: KY940571) was characterized. Its ORF was 1815 bp with a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 128 bp and a 3'UTR of 582 bp, encoding 602 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 70...
April 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695002/changes-in-the-messenger-rna-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-healthy-infants-according-to-age
#12
Francesco Savino, Ilaria Galliano, Maria Garro, Andrea Savino, Paolo Manzoni, Valentina Daprà, Paola Montanari, Massimiliano Bergallo
BACKGROUND:  Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potentially useful indicators of several pediatric disease states. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which inflammation is regulated by interactions between microbiota and the host. Little data are available regarding the expression of TLRs in postnatal healthy infants. TLR 2 and TLR4 are extracellular TLRs that act as innate immune receptors by recognizing a wide range of endogenous ligands and microorganisms. METHODS:  The aim of this study was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of TLR2 and TLR4 in blood samples obtained from healthy full-term infants and toddlers...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691704/different-susceptibility-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-among-chinese-native-pig-breeds
#13
Chunhua Meng, Lei Su, Yinxia Li, Qianming Zhu, Jingxin Li, Huili Wang, Qiang He, Chunling Wang, Wei Wang, Shaoxian Cao
China is rich in native pig breeds, yet information regarding the susceptibility/resistance of local breeds to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is lacking. In the present study, an in vitro method based on assessing PRRSV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was established to evaluate PRRSV susceptibility/resistance in a commercial pig breed (Landrace) and five native pig breeds from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China. Expression levels of cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ), Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), CD163 (PRRSV receptor), and sialoadhesin (Sn, PRRSV receptor) in infected pigs were determined using real-time PCR, and the association between PRRSV susceptibility/resistance and the abundance of the cytokines and receptors was investigated...
April 24, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686176/association-between-arg753gln-and-arg677trp-polymorphisms-of-tlr2-gene-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-an-indonesian-population
#14
Arto Yuwono Soeroto, Zulkarnain Dahlan, Cissy B Kartasasmita, Ida Parwati
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in a microorganism. Macrophages recognize the presence of mycobacteria through Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and signaling further lead to the production of cytokines, both proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18 and IFN-γ, as well as anti-inflammatory IL4, IL-10 and TGF-β. TLR2 gene polymorphism is strongly determined by ethnicity and geography...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679995/early-feed-restriction-of-lambs-modifies-ileal-epimural-microbiota-and-affects-immunity-parameters-during-the-fattening-period
#15
J Frutos, S Andrés, D R Yáñez-Ruiz, J Benavides, S López, A Santos, M Martínez-Valladares, F Rozada, F J Giráldez
Bacteria firmly attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium during the pre-weaning phase may show a significant impact on nutrient processing, immunity parameters, health and feed efficiency of lambs during post-weaning phases. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the differences in the ileal epimural microbiota (e.g. total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) of fattening lambs promoted by early feed restriction during the suckling phase trying to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms behind changes in feed efficiency during the fattening period...
April 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675795/oral-adsorbent-ast-120-ameliorates-gut-environment-and-protects-against-the-progression-of-renal-impairment-in-ckd-rats
#16
Ayumi Yoshifuji, Shu Wakino, Junichiro Irie, Ayumi Matsui, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: Oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 (AST) is reported to ameliorate renal dysfunction by the absorption of toxic substance in the gut. Recent study revealed that, in CKD, gut environment is disturbed including the decrease in tight junctions and Lactobacillus (Lact). In this study, we examined whether AST improves the renal dysfunction through gut environment. METHOD: Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were rendered CKD by 5/6th nephrectomy (Nx)...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670287/electrophilic-properties-of-itaconate-and-derivatives-regulate-the-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-atf3-inflammatory-axis
#17
Monika Bambouskova, Laurent Gorvel, Vicky Lampropoulou, Alexey Sergushichev, Ekaterina Loginicheva, Kendall Johnson, Daniel Korenfeld, Mary Elizabeth Mathyer, Hyeryun Kim, Li-Hao Huang, Dustin Duncan, Howard Bregman, Abdurrahman Keskin, Andrea Santeford, Rajendra S Apte, Raghav Sehgal, Britney Johnson, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Miguel P Soares, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira, Tsonwin Hai, Cristina de Guzman Strong, Karine Auclair, Thomas P Roddy, Scott A Biller, Marko Jovanovic, Eynav Klechevsky, Kelly M Stewart, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Maxim N Artyomov
Metabolic regulation has been recognized as a powerful principle guiding immune responses. Inflammatory macrophages undergo extensive metabolic rewiring 1 marked by the production of substantial amounts of itaconate, which has recently been described as an immunoregulatory metabolite 2 . Itaconate and its membrane-permeable derivative dimethyl itaconate (DI) selectively inhibit a subset of cytokines 2 , including IL-6 and IL-12 but not TNF. The major effects of itaconate on cellular metabolism during macrophage activation have been attributed to the inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase2,3 , yet this inhibition alone is not sufficient to account for the pronounced immunoregulatory effects observed in the case of DI...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610858/high-mobility-group-box-1-in-dry-eye-inflammation
#18
Carolina Lema, Rose Y Reins, Rachel L Redfern
Purpose: To determine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression during experimental dry eye (EDE) and dry eye-like culture conditions and elucidate its role in corneal dry eye-related inflammation. Methods: EDE was induced in 8- to 12-week-old C57BL/6 mice. Corneal tissue sections and lysates from EDE and untreated mice were evaluated for HMGB1 expression by immunostaining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). For in vitro studies, human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were treated with hyperosmolar media, toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, or proinflammatory cytokines to determine HMGB1 expression...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599775/cd86-expression-by-monocytes-influences-an-immunomodulatory-profile-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease
#19
Bruna F Pinto, Nayara I Medeiros, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Silvana M Eloi-Santos, Tereza C M Fontes-Cal, Débora A Rocha, Walderez O Dutra, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Juliana A S Gomes
In the chronic phase of Chagas disease, 60% of the patients develop the asymptomatic form known as indeterminate (IND). The remaining 30% of the patients develop a life-threatening form in which digestive and/or cardiac (CARD) alterations take place. The mechanisms underlying the development of severe forms of Chagas disease remain poorly understood. It is well known that interactions between immune cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes drive immune responses. Further, the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 expressed by monocytes and subsets induce lymphocyte activation, thereby triggering cellular immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596890/immuno-modulators-enhance-antigen-specific-immunity-and-anti-tumor-effects-of-mesothelin-specific-chimeric-dna-vaccine-through-promoting-dc-maturation
#20
Yu-Li Chen, Ming-Cheng Chang, Ying-Cheng Chiang, Han-Wei Lin, Nai-Yun Sun, Chi-An Chen, Wei-Zen Sun, Wen-Fang Cheng
As a tumor antigen, mesothelin (MSLN) can be identified in various malignancies. MSLN is potential for antigen-specific cancer vaccines. We generated a novel chimeric DNA vaccine using antigen-specific connective tissue growth factor lined with MSLN (CTGF/MSLN). The anti-tumor effects of the CTGF/MSLN DNA vaccine combined with anti-CD40 Ab and toll-like receptor 3 ligand-poly(I:C) were validated in an MSLN-expressing model. CTGF/MSLN DNA with anti-CD40Ab and poly(I:C) vaccinated mice demonstrated potent anti-tumor effects with longer survival and less tumor volumes...
March 26, 2018: Cancer Letters
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