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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625263/-bacterial-endotoxin-induced-endothelial-cell-injury-and-calcium-overload-associated-with-toll-like-receptor-and-calcium-signal
#2
Jianguo Xiao, Qing Song, Tanshi Li, Rongju Sun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), and stromal interaction molecular 1 (STIM1) for regulating human vascular endothelial calcium overload injury and inflammatory reaction induced by bacterial endotoxin (LPS). METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). (1) The levels of TLR4, MD2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by reverse transcriotion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) before and 0...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620394/vitamin-d-counteracts-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-cathelicidin-downregulation-in-dendritic-cells-and-allows-th1-differentiation-and-ifn%C3%AE-secretion
#3
Anna K O Rode, Martin Kongsbak, Marie M Hansen, Daniel Villalba Lopez, Trine B Levring, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Charlotte M Bonefeld, Carsten Geisler
Tuberculosis (TB) presents a serious health problem with approximately one-third of the world's population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a latent state. Experience from the pre-antibiotic era and more recent clinical studies have established a beneficial role of sunlight and vitamin D in patients with TB. At the same time, experimental data have shown that Th1 cells through production of IFNγ are crucial for cathelicidin release by macrophages, bacterial killing, and containment of M. tuberculosis in granulomas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620271/glutamine-ameliorates-mucosal-damage-caused-by-immune-responses-to-duck-plague-virus
#4
Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yan Zhou, Chenxi Diao, Lingxia Han, Niu Yinjie, Shengwang Liu, Hongyan Chen
The immune-releasing effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in duck plague virus (DPV)-infected ducklings were evaluated in 120 seven-day-old ducklings that were divided into 8 groups. The ducklings in control and DPV, 0.5Gln and DPV + 0.5Gln, 1.0Gln and DPV + 1.0Gln, and 2.0Gln and DPV + 2.0Gln received 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g of Gln/kg feed/d by gastric perfusion, respectively. Then, the ducklings in control to 2.0Gln were injected with 0.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline, while those in DPV to DPV + 2...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611775/inhibition-of-myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-reduces-human-and-mouse-t-cell-interleukin-17-and-ifn%C3%AE-production-and-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-induced-in-mice
#5
Shira Dishon, Shmuel J Cohen, Irun R Cohen, Gabriel Nussbaum
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) recruits signaling proteins to the intracellular domain of receptors belonging to the toll-like/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor superfamily. Mice lacking MyD88 are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, but tend to resist experimentally induced autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and manifest diminished allograft rejection. We reasoned that inhibition of MyD88 should influence the cytokine profile of responding T cells by blocking costimulatory molecule expression by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and by inhibiting T-cell responses to IL-18...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595383/cooperative-interactions-between-toll-like-receptor-2-and-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infections
#6
Hee-Yeon Jeon, Jong-Hyung Park, Jin-Il Park, Jun-Young Kim, Sun-Min Seo, Seung-Hoon Ham, Eui-Suk Jeong, Yang-Kyu Choi
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic and clinically significant emerging pathogen. We investigated the relative roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in initiating host defenses against K. pneumoniae. TLR2 knockout (KO), TLR4 KO, TLR2/4 double KO (DKO), and wild-type (WT) mice were inoculated with K. pneumoniae. Mice in each group were sacrificed after either 12 or 24 hours, and lungs, livers, and blood were harvested to enumerate bacterial colony-forming units (CFU). Cytokine and chemokine levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR, and pneumonia severity was determined by histopathological analysis...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592890/polymorphism-in-the-gene-encoding-toll-like-receptor-10-may-be-associated-with-asthma-after-bronchiolitis
#7
Sari Törmänen, Matti Korppi, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Juho Vuononvirta, Petri Koponen, Merja Helminen, Qiushui He, Kirsi Nuolivirta
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise microbes that contribute to the severity of bronchiolitis and the subsequent risk of asthma. We evaluated whether post-bronchiolitis asthma was associated with polymorphisms in the TLR3 rs3775291, TLR4 rs4986790, TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084, and TLR10 rs4129009 genes. The gene polymorphisms were studied at the age of 6.4 years (mean) in 135 children hospitalised for bronchiolitis in infancy. The outcome measure was current or previous asthma. Current asthma was more common (30%) in children with the variant AG or GG genotype in the TLR10 rs4129009 gene versus those who were homozygous for the major allele A (11%) (p = 0...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592648/allelic-variation-in-the-toll-like-receptor-adaptor-protein-ticam2-contributes-to-sars-coronavirus-pathogenesis-in-mice
#8
Lisa E Gralinski, Vineet D Menachery, Andrew P Morgan, Allison L Totura, Anne Beall, Jacob Kocher, Jessica Plante, D Corinne Harrison-Shostak, Alexandra Schäfer, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Martin T Ferris, Ralph S Baric
Host genetic variation is known to contribute to differential pathogenesis following infection. Mouse models allow direct assessment of host genetic factors responsible for susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Based on an assessment of early stage lines from the Collaborative Cross mouse multi-parent population, we identified two lines showing highly divergent susceptibilities to SARS-CoV: the resistant CC003/Unc and the susceptible CC053/Unc. We generated 264 F2 mice between these strains, and infected them with SARS-CoV...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592245/in-silico-identification-of-potential-key-regulatory-factors-in-smoking-induced-lung-cancer
#9
Salem A El-Aarag, Amal Mahmoud, Medhat H Hashem, Hatem Abd Elkader, Alaa E Hemeida, Mahmoud ElHefnawi
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. Like other cancers, it is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease involving multiple signaling pathways. Identifying potential therapeutic targets is critical for the development of effective treatment strategies. METHODS: We used a systems biology approach to identify potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer. We first identified genes that were differentially expressed between smokers with normal lungs and those with cancerous lungs, then integrated these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with data from a protein-protein interaction database to build a network model with functional modules for pathway analysis...
June 7, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591543/influence-of-polyphenol-rich-diet-on-exercise-induced-immunomodulation-in-male-endurance-athletes
#10
Korbinian Lackermair, Johannes Scherr, Georg Waidhauser, Heiko Methe, Eva Hoster, David C Nieman, Alan Hanley, Sebastian Clauss, Martin Halle, Thomas Nickel
<u>Introduction:</u> Stress is associated with increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated if the mechanism involves immunomodulation of dendritic cells and whether this can be inhibited by a polyphenol-rich diet. <u>Methods:</u> Blood samples were taken from a total of 100 male endurance athletes at five time points around a marathon run: four weeks before, during one week before, and immediately, 24hours and 72hours after. Participants were randomized into two double blinded groups...
June 7, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587577/vitamin-k2-can-suppress-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-and-tlr4-and-inhibit-calcification-of-aortic-intima-in-apoe-mice-as-well-as-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Zhaojun Wang, Zhongqun Wang, Jie Zhu, Xinguang Long, Jinchuan Yan
Background and objectives Vascular calcification is a common complication in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence showed that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate pro-inflammatory and atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated that vascular calcification is one of the detrimental effects of vitamin K (Vit K) antagonists. However, the effects of Vit K on the expression of TLR2 and 4 and intimal calcification in artery remained unidentified. Methods and results Eighteen ApoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into model group, Vit K-treated group, and control group...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572512/deletion-of-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-1-irak1-improves-glucose-tolerance-primarily-by-increasing-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#12
Xiao Jian Sun, Soohyun Park Kim, Dongming Zhang, Helen Sun, Qi Cao, Xin Lu, Zhekang Ying, Liwu Li, Robert R Henry, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simeon I Taylor, Michael J Quon
Chronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance (IR) via molecular cross-talk between pathways for pro-inflammatory and insulin signaling. Interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) mediates pro-inflammatory signaling via IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptors, which may contribute to insulin resistance, but this hypothesis is untested. Here, we used male Irak1 null (k/o) mice to investigate the metabolic role of IRAK1. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and k/o mice had comparable body weights on low-fat and high-fat diets (LFD and HFD, respectively)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569136/molecular-differences-in-susceptibility-of-the-kidney-to-sepsis-induced-kidney-injury
#13
Martin Matejovic, Lenka Valesova, Jan Benes, Roman Sykora, Roman Hrstka, Jiri Chvojka
BACKGROUND: Septic acute kidney injury affects 40-50% of all septic patients. Molecular differences between septic patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI) are only poorly understood. Here, we investigated gene expression changes that differentiated the subjects who developed septic AKI from those who did not and coupled this approach with traditional parameters of renal physiology. METHODS: In 15 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs, progressive sepsis was induced either by peritonitis or by continuous intravenous infusion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
May 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559967/effect-of-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-7-in-the-inhibition-of-allergic-asthma-on-a-mouse-model
#14
Li Ma, Xiaojun Xiao, Yihe Ma, Haiqiang Wu, Shuqi Qiu, Jing Li, Pingchang Yang, Zhigang Liu
Targeting Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is known to have a potential therapeutic effect on experimental allergic asthma, but the exact mechanism is incompletely understood. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of TLR7 agonist (TLR7a) a new versatile TLR7 agonist conjugated to Der f 1 was synthesized and evaluated in vivo here. It was confirmed that the course of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophilia of the TLR7a vaccine-treated mice were limited. Levels of specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgE antibodies of these mice were changed obviously compared with that of the model mice...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544543/acute-toll-like-receptor-4-activation-impairs-rat-renal-microvascular-autoregulatory-behaviour
#15
Justin P Van Beusecum, Shali Zhang, Anthony K Cook, Edward W Inscho
AIM: Little is known about how toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) influences the renal microvasculature. We hypothesized that acute TLR4 stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs afferent arteriole autoregulatory behaviour, partially through reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS: We assessed afferent arteriole autoregulatory behaviour after LPS treatment (1 mg kg(-1) ; i.p.) using the in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Autoregulatory behaviour was assessed by measuring diameter responses to step-wise changes in renal perfusion pressure...
May 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536249/bronchial-inflammation-and-bacterial-load-in-stable-copd-is-associated-with-tlr4-overexpression
#16
Antonino Di Stefano, Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Gaetano Caramori, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung, Peter J Barnes, Paola Brun, Andrea Leonardi, Filippo Andò, Davide Vallese, Isabella Gnemmi, Luisella Righi, Francesco Cappello, Bruno Balbi
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are two major forms of innate immune sensors but their role in the immunopathology of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is incompletely studied. Our objective here was to investigate TLR and NLR signalling pathways in the bronchial mucosa in stable COPD.Using immunohistochemistry, the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, CD14, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases phospho-IRAK1 and IRAK4 were measured in the bronchial mucosa of subjects with stable COPD of different severity (n=34), control smokers (n=12) and nonsmokers (n=12)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530548/critical-role-of-rig-i-and-mda5-in-early-and-late-stages-of-tulane-virus-infection
#17
Preeti Chhabra, Priya Ranjan, Theresa Cromeans, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Jan Vinjé
Human noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but the lack of a robust cell culture system or small animal model have hampered a better understanding of innate immunity against these viruses. Tulane virus (TV) is the prototype virus of a tentative new genus, Recovirus, in the family Caliciviridae. Its epidemiology and biological properties most closely resemble human norovirus. The host innate immune response to RNA virus infection primarily involves pathogen-sensing toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR3 and TLR7 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor RIG-I and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526573/transcriptomic-variation-of-locally-infected-skin-of-epinephelus-coioides-reveals-the-mucosal-immune-mechanism-against-cryptocaryon-irritans
#18
Yazhou Hu, Anxing Li, Yang Xu, Biao Jiang, Geling Lu, Xiaochun Luo
Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system...
May 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507179/elevated-expression-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-its-correlation-with-disease-activity-in-adult-onset-still-disease
#19
Chia-Wei Hsieh, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chen Lin, Kuo-Tung Tang, Hsin-Hua Chen, Wei-Ting Hung, Kuo-Lung Lai, Der-Yuan Chen
OBJECTIVE: The dysregulation of the NLRP3 (NLR containing a pyrin domain) inflammasome is involved in autoinflammatory diseases. Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is regarded as an autoinflammatory disease. However, the pathogenic involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in AOSD remains unclear and NLRP3 activators in AOSD are currently unknown. METHODS: The mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 34 patients with AOSD and 14 healthy subjects was determined using quantitative-PCR (qPCR)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502294/-resiquimod-r848-has-more-stronger-immune-adjuvantivity-than-other-tested-tlr-agonists
#20
Yuan Shen, Menghua Zeng, Feng Qiu, Hua Tang
Objective To compare and characterize the Th1 immune responses induced by the most commonly used commercial Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists through in vivo and ex vivo experiments. Methods The concentrations of IL-12 were tested by ELISA after mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro were stimulated by one of tested TLR agonists, including poly(I:C), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), resiquimod (R848), cytosine polyguanine-C (CpG-C). The changes in percentage and phenotype of DCs, NK cells and effector T cells in the draining lymph nodes were analyzed by flow cytometry after BALB/c mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with selected TLR agonist...
May 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
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