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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922655/zymosan-a-protects-the-hematopoietic-system-from-radiation-induced-damage-by-targeting-tlr2-signaling-pathway
#1
Jicong Du, Ying Cheng, Suhe Dong, Pei Zhang, Jiaming Guo, Jiaqi Han, Fu Gao, Hainan Zhao, Ding Sun, Jianguo Cui, Jianming Cai, Cong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The hematopoietic system is vulnerable to ionizing radiation and is often severely damaged by radiation. Molecules affecting radioresistance include Toll-like receptor 2. We investigated whether Zymosan-A, a novel TLR2 agonist, can protect the hematopoietic system from radiation-induced damage after total body irradiation. METHODS: Mice were exposed to total body radiation after treatment with Zymosan-A or normal saline, and their survival was recorded...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916574/systematic-review-of-the-gastrointestinal-effects-of-a1-compared-with-a2-%C3%AE-casein
#2
REVIEW
Simon Brooke-Taylor, Karen Dwyer, Keith Woodford, Natalya Kost
This is the first systematic review, to our knowledge, of published studies investigating the gastrointestinal effects of A1-type bovine β-casein (A1) compared with A2-type bovine β-casein (A2). The review is relevant to nutrition practice given the increasing availability and promotion in a range of countries of dairy products free of A1 for both infant and adult nutrition. In vitro and in vivo studies (all species) were included. In vivo studies were limited to oral consumption. Inclusion criteria encompassed all English-language primary research studies, but not reviews, involving milk, fresh-milk products, β-casein, and β-casomorphins published through 12 April 2017...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912751/decreased-secondary-lesion-growth-and-attenuated-immune-response-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-tlr2-4-mice
#3
Sandro M Krieg, Florian Voigt, Pascal Knuefermann, Carsten Jürgen Kirschning, Nikolaus Plesnila, Florian Ringel
Danger-associated molecular patterns are released by damaged cells and trigger neuroinflammation through activation of non-specific pattern recognition receptors, e.g., toll-like receptors (TLRs). Since the role of TLR2 and 4 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unclear, we examined the outcome and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators after experimental TBI in Tlr2/4(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Tlr2/4(-/-) and WT mice were subjected to controlled cortical injury and contusion volume and brain edema formation were assessed 24 h thereafter...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903312/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#4
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Onzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-Sampedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901374/ferulic-acid-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-injury-via-antioxidant-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Zhongkun Ren, Rongping Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Yu Li, Zhiyong Yang, Hui Yang
Ferulic acid (FA) is a derivative of cinnamic acid. It is used in the treatment of heart head blood-vessel disease and exerts protective effects against hypoxia/ischemia-induced cell injury in the brain. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of FA against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in vivo and in vitro through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining assays, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopic analysis...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894119/evidence-for-biochemical-barrier-restoration-topical-solenopsin-analogs-improve-inflammation-and-acanthosis-in-the-kc-tie2-mouse-model-of-psoriasis
#6
Jack L Arbiser, Ron Nowak, Kellie Michaels, Yuliya Skabytska, Tilo Biedermann, Monica J Lewis, Michael Y Bonner, Shikha Rao, Linda C Gilbert, Nabiha Yusuf, Isabella Karlsson, Yi Fritz, Nicole L Ward
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2.5-6 million patients in the United States. The cause of psoriasis remains unknown. Previous human and animal studies suggest that patients with a susceptible genetic background and some stimulus, such as barrier disruption, leads to a coordinated signaling events involving cytokines between keratinocytes, endothelial cells, T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Ceramides are endogenous skin lipids essential for maintaining skin barrier function and loss of ceramides may underlie inflammatory and premalignant skin...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891983/protective-effects-of-ethanolic-extracts-from-artichoke-an-edible-herbal-medicine-against-acute-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#7
Xuchong Tang, Ruofan Wei, Aihua Deng, Tingping Lei
Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily...
September 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883757/time-dependent-proteomic-and-genomic-alterations-in-toll-like-receptor-4-activated-human-chondrocytes-increased-expression-of-lamin-a-c-and-annexins
#8
Seung Hee Ha, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Anh, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) in articular chondrocytes increases the catabolic compartment and leads to matrix degradation during the development of osteoarthritis. In this study, we determined the proteomic and genomic alterations in human chondrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of TLR-4 activation. Human chondrocytes were cultured with LPS for 12, 24, and 36 h to induce TLR-4 activation. The TLR-4-induced inflammatory response was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression levels...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878771/coordinated-role-of-toll-like-receptor-3-and-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-in-the-innate-response-of-bovine-endometrial-cells-to-virus
#9
Luisa C Carneiro, Carmen Bedford, Sarah Jacca, Alfonso Rosamilia, Vera F de Lima, Gaetano Donofrio, I Martin Sheldon, James G Cronin
Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871935/topical-imiquimod-is-an-effective-and-safe-drug-for-molluscum-contagiosum-in-children
#10
George Badavanis, Efstathia Pasmatzi, Alexandra Monastirli, Sophia Georgiou, Dionysios Tsambaos
Dear Editor, Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a very common skin infection caused by a molluscipox virus gene of the poxvirus family. It usually occurs in young children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. The typical clinical picture of this infection is characterized by asymptomatic flesh-colored, single or multiple papules, measuring 2-6 mm in diameter with a central umbilication that occur on the skin and the mucous membranes. In adults, the skin lesions are predominantly located in the genital region, whereas in children they are found on the trunk, the extremities, and the face...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860791/soluble-st2-correlates-with-some-indicators-of-right-ventricular-function-in-hypertensive-heart-failure
#11
Dike B Ojji, Sandrine Lecour, Olusoji M Adeyemi, Karen Sliwa
PURPOSE: ST2 receptor, which is a member of the Toll-like/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor family, has been found to be increased in the serum of patients 1 day after myocardial infarction. Several other studies have shown that soluble ST2 levels correlate with severity of heart failure (HF), left ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine clearance, B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein, and are predictors of mortality in HF. Most of these studies were not only limited to ischemic heart disease but also concentrated on left-sided HF...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858111/association-of-polymorphisms-in-tlr2-and-tlr4-with-asthma-risk-an-update-meta-analysis
#12
Junling Zhao, Huihui Shang, Xiaopei Cao, Yali Huang, Xiaoyu Fang, Shengding Zhang, Min Xie, Jungang Xie, Xiansheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have focused on the association between polymorphisms in toll-like receptors (TLRs) and asthma. However, the results remained inconclusive. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the database of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CNKI, and Google scholar for all related articles on TLR polymorphisms and asthma. We used the software STATA 12.0 to conduct the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity and publication bias were examined, respectively...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843858/tlr7-deficiency-contributes-to-attenuated-diabetic-retinopathy-via-inhibition-of-inflammatory-response
#13
Yun-Ru Liao, Zi-Jing Li, Peng Zeng, Yu-Qing Lan
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes, resulting in neuronal dysfunction, retinal vascular leakage, and apoptosis within the retina. Innate immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related complications. The toll-like receptors (TLRs), central to innate immunity, are essential participants in the progression and pathogenesis of the disease and its complications. In the study, streptozotocin (STZ) was combined with whole-body hypoxia for quicker induction of early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the wild type (WT) and TLR7-knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice...
August 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836366/lipoteichoic-acid-upregulates-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-expression-in-parapneumonic-effusions
#14
Kai-Ling Lee, Wei-Lin Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Kevin S Lai, Chi-Li Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parapneumonic effusion (PPE) is commonly caused by Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and often presents with pleural loculation, which is characterized by overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a surface adhesion molecule of GPB, binds to the pleural mesothelium and triggers inflammation. However, the effects of LTA on PAI-1 expression in PPE and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with PPE were enrolled, including uncomplicated culture negative (CN, n = 11), Gram-negative bacteria (GNB, n = 7) and GPB (n = 12) groups stratified by pleural fluid characteristics and bacteriology, and the effusion PAI-1 levels were measured...
August 23, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834688/innate-immune-genes-in-persistent-mating-induced-endometritis-in-horses
#15
Christina D Marth, Simon M Firestone, Dave Hanlon, Lisa Y Glenton, Glenn F Browning, Neil D Young, Natali Krekeler
Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) severely decreases fertility in horses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences between horses susceptible to PMIE and a control group in terms of the expression of selected immune response and effector genes, and the effects of oestrous cycle stage on this expression. Endometrial biopsies from 18 uterine samples of mares in the control group (eight in dioestrus, 10 in oestrus) and 16 PMIE-susceptible mares (four in dioestrus, 12 in oestrus) were analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
August 24, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826648/the-synergistic-effects-of-combining-tlr-ligand-based-adjuvants-on-the-cytokine-response-are-dependent-upon-p38-jnk-signalling
#16
Lucia Fischetti, Ziyun Zhong, Christopher L Pinder, John S Tregoning, Robin J Shattock
Toll like receptor (TLR) ligands are important adjuvant candidates, causing antigen presenting cells to release inflammatory mediators, leading to the recruitment and activation of other leukocytes. The aim of this study was to define the response of human blood derived dendritic cells and macrophages to three TLR ligands acting singly or in combination, Poly I:C (TLR3), GLA (TLR4) and R848 (TLR7/8). Combinations of TLR agonists have been shown to have a synergistic effect on individual cytokines, here we look at the global inflammatory response measuring both cytokines and chemokines...
August 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822965/diabetes-increases-the-susceptibility-to-acute-kidney-injury-after-myocardial-infarction-through-augmented-activation-of-renal-toll-like-receptors-in-rats
#17
Kouhei Ohno, Atsushi Kuno, Hiromichi Murase, Shingo Muratsubaki, Takayuki Miki, Masaya Tanno, Toshiyuki Yano, Satoko Ishikawa, Tomohisa Yamashita, Tetsuji Miura
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) worsens the prognosis of MI patients. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of AKI after MI, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined roles of renal toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the impact of DM on AKI after MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in OLETF, a rat DM model, and LETO, non-diabetic controls. Sham-operated rats served as no-MI controls. Renal mRNA levels of TLR2 and MyD88 were significantly higher in sham-operated OLETF than in sham-operated LETO, though levels of TLR1, TLR3, and TRL4 were similar...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812045/soluble-st2-predicts-outcome-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-acute-stroke
#18
Zoe Wolcott, Ayush Batra, Matthew B Bevers, Cristina Sastre, Jane Khoury, Matthew Sperling, Brett C Meyer, Kyle B Walsh, Opeolu Adeoye, Joseph P Broderick, W Taylor Kimberly
OBJECTIVE: ST2 is a member of the toll-like receptor superfamily that can alter inflammatory signaling of helper T-cells. We investigated whether soluble ST2 (sST2) could independently predict outcome and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in the setting of stroke. METHODS: We measured sST2 in patients enrolled in the Specialized Program of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) network biomarker study. 646 patients had plasma samples collected at the time of hospital admission and 210 patients had a second sample collected 48 h after stroke onset...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-pathway
#19
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808017/antitumor-effect-of-batf2-through-il-12-p40-up-regulation-in-tumor-associated-macrophages
#20
Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Takanori Matsuki, Takahiro Kawasaki, Isao Ebina, Kanako Kuniyoshi, Hiroki Tanaka, Kenta Maruyama, Kazuhiko Maeda, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
The development of effective treatments against cancers is urgently needed, and the accumulation of CD8(+) T cells within tumors is especially important for cancer prognosis. Although their mechanisms are still largely unknown, growing evidence has indicated that innate immune cells have important effects on cancer progression through the production of various cytokines. Here, we found that basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like 2 (Batf2) has an antitumor effect. An s.c. inoculated tumor model produced fewer IL-12 p40(+) macrophages and activated CD8(+) T cells within the tumors of Batf2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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