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Simone Altmann, Tomáš Korytář, Danuta Kaczmarzyk, Mareen Nipkow, Carsten Kühn, Tom Goldammer, Alexander Rebl
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) interact directly with particular pathogenic structures and are thus highly important to innate immunity. The present manuscript characterises a suite of 14 TLRs in maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena), a salmonid species with increasing importance for aquaculture. Whitefish TLRs were structurally and evolutionary analysed. The results revealed a close relationship with TLRs from salmonid fish species rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Profiling the baseline expression of TLR genes in whitefish indicated that mainly members of the TLR11 family were highly expressed across all investigated tissues...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Urs B Müller, Jonathan C Howard
Nobody doubts that infections have imposed specialisations on the mammalian genome. However sufficient information is usually missing to attribute a specific genomic modification to pressure from a specific pathogen. Recent studies on mechanisms of mammalian resistance against the ubiquitous protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, have shown that the small rodents presumed to be largely responsible for transmission of the parasite to its definitive host, the domestic cat, possess distinctive recognition proteins, and interferon-inducible effector proteins (IRG proteins) that limit the potential virulence of the parasite...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Susweta Das Mitra, Bibek Ranjan Shome, Bhuvana Mani, D Velu, Apala Banerjee, Kiran Bankar, Sankar Kumar Ghosh, Sandip Santra, K P Suresh, Habibur Rahman
Streptococcus uberis causing mastitis is a growing challenge to the dairy industry. Molecular, epidemiological and population structure studies have revealed clonal diversity among the infecting strains. In this study, mouse intramammary infection model was used to uncover the host immune response to two epidemiologically important live strains of S. uberis (SU1and SU2) obtained from subclinical case of mastitis possessing specific and unique multi locus sequence types (ST), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pulsotypes and virulence profiles...
July 10, 2016: Gene
Dorsaf Hedhli, Nathalie Moiré, Haroon Akbar, Fabrice Laurent, Bruno Héraut, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Marie Noëlle Mévélec
Agonists that activate Toll-like receptors (TLR) are potential vaccine adjuvants. In particular, Toxoplasma gondii profilin (TgPRF) is recognized by TLR11/12 to generate an inflammatory response. Unlike most TLR ligands, TgPRF is also a protein and can therefore simultaneously induce innate and adaptive immune responses. We found that variations in the conformation of TgPRF can affect its ability to induce a TLR11/12-dependent inflammatory response. The secreted recombinant T. gondii (S2-profilin), produced by Schneider 2 cells, has lost its ability to generate an IL-12 response...
August 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Dandan Yu, Yong Wu, Ling Xu, Yu Fan, Li Peng, Min Xu, Yong-Gang Yao
In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew...
July 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Hirotsugu Hatai, Alice Lepelley, Wangyong Zeng, Matthew S Hayden, Sankar Ghosh
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that sense a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by interacting with them and subsequently initiating signal transduction cascades that elicit immune responses. TLR11 has been shown to interact with two known protein PAMPs: Salmonella and E. coli flagellin FliC and Toxoplasma gondii profilin-like protein. Given the highly divergent biology of these pathogens recognized by TLR11, it is unclear whether common mechanisms are used to recognize these distinct protein PAMPs...
2016: PloS One
Yuanyuan Feng, Shulin Yang, Yuxiang Ma, Xue-Yuan Bai, Xiangmei Chen
The mechanisms of diabetic renal injury remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that immunological and inflammatory elements play important roles in the initiation and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a superfamily of innate immune system receptors. The roles and mechanisms of TLRs in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal lesions are mostly unknown. Compared with rodents, miniature pigs are more similar to humans with respect to metabolism, kidney structure, and immune system, and therefore represent an ideal large-animal model for DN mechanistic studies...
June 2015: Science Advances
Kevin W Tosh, Lara Mittereder, Sandra Bonne-Annee, Sara Hieny, Thomas B Nutman, Steven M Singer, Alan Sher, Dragana Jankovic
As a major natural host for Toxoplasma gondii, the mouse is widely used for the study of the immune response to this medically important protozoan parasite. However, murine innate recognition of toxoplasma depends on the interaction of parasite profilin with TLR11 and TLR12, two receptors that are functionally absent in humans. This raises the question of how human cells detect and respond to T. gondii. In this study, we show that primary monocytes and dendritic cells from peripheral blood of healthy donors produce IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines when exposed to toxoplasma tachyzoites...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jinlan Wang, Zheng Zhang, Hui Fu, Shangli Zhang, Jing Liu, Fen Chang, Fang Li, Jing Zhao, Deling Yin
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system of fish. Although ten years have passed since the first identification, the systematic knowledge about fish-specific TLR19 is still far insufficient. In present study, a phylogenetic analysis showed that TLR19 belonged to family 11, and clustered with TLR20 and TLR11/12 on the evolutionary tree. TLR20 is the closest paralogue of TLR19. The ectodomain of TLR19 contains 24 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules. The electrostatic surface potential analysis indicated that the modeled structure of TLR19 ectodomain showed much stronger polarity on the ascending lateral surface than on the descending lateral surface...
November 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
P T Lee, J Zou, J W Holland, S A M Martin, B Collet, T Kanellos, C J Secombes
Teleost fish possess many types of toll-like receptor (TLR) some of which exist in other vertebrate groups and some that do not (ie so-called "fish-specific" TLRs). In this study, we identified in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs seven TLRs that are not found in mammals, including six types of fish-specific TLRs (one TLR18, one TLR19, and four TLR20 members (two of which are putative soluble forms (s)) and one TLR21. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that teleost TLR19-21 are closely related with murine TLR11-TLR13, whilst teleost TLR18 groups with mammalian TLR1, 2, 6 and 10...
December 2014: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lori M Neal, Laura J Knoll
Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes are essential to host defense against Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes and other infections. During T. gondii infection impaired inflammatory monocyte emigration results in severe inflammation and failure to control parasite replication. However, the T. gondii factors that elicit these monocytes are unknown. Early studies from the Remington laboratory showed that mice with a chronic T. gondii infection survive lethal co-infections with unrelated pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, but a mechanistic analysis was not performed...
June 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Jennifer Morger, Jaroslav Bajnok, Kellyanne Boyce, Philip S Craig, Michael T Rogan, Zhao-Rong Lun, Geoff Hide, Barbara Tschirren
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful parasite with a worldwide prevalence. Small rodents are the main intermediate hosts, and there is growing evidence that T. gondii modifies their behaviour. Chronically infected rodents show impaired learning capacity, enhanced activity, and, most importantly, a reduction of the innate fear towards cat odour. This modification of host behaviour ensures a successful transmission of T. gondii from rodents to felids, the definitive hosts of the parasite. Given the negative fitness consequences of this behavioural manipulation, as well as an increased mortality during the acute phase of infection, we expect rodents to evolve potent resistance mechanisms that prevent or control infection...
August 2014: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rosa Maria Salazar Gonzalez, Hesham Shehata, Michael J O'Connell, Yanfen Yang, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Claire A Chougnet, Julio Aliberti
Up to a third of the world's population is infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Natural infection in humans can be life threatening during pregnancy and in immunocompromised individuals. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 11 is the mouse innate sensor that recognizes T. gondii profilin; however, in humans the TLR11 gene leads to transcription of no functional protein. Herein, by using a multiple sequence alignment phylogenetic analysis program between human and mouse species, we found that human TLR5 seems to be the evolutionarily closest member of the TLR gene family to mouse tlr11...
2014: Journal of Innate Immunity
Yue Xi, Feng Shao, Xue-Yuan Bai, Guangyan Cai, Yang Lv, Xiangmei Chen
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of kidney aging are not yet clear. Studies have shown that immunological inflammation is related to kidney aging. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the receptor types of the body's innate immune system. The function of the TLR system and the mechanisms by which it functions in renal aging remain unclear. In the present study, we, for the first time, systematically investigated the role of the TLR system and the inflammation responses activated by TLRs during kidney aging...
2014: PloS One
H T Atmaca, O Kul, E Karakuş, O S Terzi, S Canpolat, T Anteplioğlu
Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a specific receptor for Toxoplasma gondii and uropathogenic Escherichia coli and has recently been identified in the mouse brain. In the present study, TLR11 gene expression was measured in the mouse brain by Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the TLR11 protein expression profile was evaluated in neuroglia and neurons throughout the encephalitic period (10, 20, and 30days after inoculation) in mice with experimentally induced T. gondii infection...
June 6, 2014: Neuroscience
Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Rondon Mendonça-Neto, Jingtao Lilue, Jonathan Howard, Alan Sher
Recent studies have revealed remarkable species specificity of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR11 and TLR12 and the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) proteins that are essential elements for detection and immune control of Toxoplasma gondii in mice, but not in humans. The biological and evolutionary implications of these findings for the T. gondii host-pathogen relationship and for human disease are discussed.
February 12, 2014: Cell Host & Microbe
Qiaoyuan Chen, Weiwei Zhu, Zhenghui Liu, Keqin Yan, Shutao Zhao, Daishu Han
Toxoplasma gondii and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may infect the testis and impair testicular function. Mechanisms underlying testicular innate immune response to these two pathogens remain to be clarified. The present study examined the function of TLR11, which can be recognized by T. gondii-derived profilin and UPEC, in initiating innate immune response in male mouse germ cells. TLR11 is predominantly expressed in spermatids. Profilin and UPEC induced the expressions of different inflammatory cytokine profiles in the germ cells...
February 2014: Biology of Reproduction
Danilo Pietretti, Marleen Scheer, Inge R Fink, Nico Taverne, Huub F J Savelkoul, Herman P Spaink, Maria Forlenza, Geert F Wiegertjes
Like other vertebrate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the TLRs of teleost fish can be subdivided into six major families, each of which recognize a general class of molecular patterns. However, there also are a number of Tlrs with unknown function, the presence of which seems unique to the bony fish, among which is Tlr20. We identified full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences for tlr20 of zebrafish and common carp, two closely related fish species. Zebrafish have six copies of tlr20, whereas carp express only a single copy...
February 2014: Immunogenetics
Megan Raetz, Alexey Kibardin, Carolyn R Sturge, Reed Pifer, Haiying Li, Ezra Burstein, Keiko Ozato, Sergey Larin, Felix Yarovinsky
TLRs play a central role in the innate recognition of pathogens and the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we establish that, in addition to TLR11, TLR12 recognizes the profilin protein of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and regulates IL-12 production by DCs in response to the parasite. Similar to TLR11, TLR12 is an endolysosomal innate immune receptor that colocalizes and interacts with UNC93B1. Biochemical experiments revealed that TLR11 and TLR12 directly bind to T. gondii profilin and are capable of forming a heterodimer complex...
November 1, 2013: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Carolyn R Sturge, Alicia Benson, Megan Raetz, Cara L Wilhelm, Julie Mirpuri, Ellen S Vitetta, Felix Yarovinsky
IFN-γ is a major cytokine that is critical for host resistance to a broad range of intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-γ by natural killer and T cells is initiated by the recognition of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In an experimental model of toxoplasmosis, we have identified the presence of a nonlymphoid source of IFN-γ that was particularly evident in the absence of TLR-mediated recognition of Toxoplasma gondii. Genetically altered mice lacking all lymphoid cells due to deficiencies in Recombination Activating Gene 2 and IL-2Rγc genes also produced IFN-γ in response to the protozoan parasite...
June 25, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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