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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941378/associations-among-adolescent-sleep-problems-emotion-regulation-and-affective-disorders-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#1
Cara A Palmer, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Joanne L Bower, Julie B Kaplow, Candice A Alfano
Sleep problems in youth reliably forecast the development of anxiety and mood disorders, presumably due to increased emotional difficulties. However, precise emotional mechanisms have yet to be delineated. The current study investigated how sleep problems in adolescence are associated with different emotion regulation strategies, and how sleep and psychiatric risk may be indirectly associated via poor emotion regulation. This study utilized data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative sample from the United States (N = 10,148; age range 13-18 years)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938479/pulmonary-function-and-sleep-breathing-two-new-targets-for-type-2-diabetes-care
#2
Albert Lecube, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M Punjabi, Carolina López-Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, Ferran Barbé
Population based studies showing the negative impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on lung function are overviewed. Among the well-recognized pathophysiological mechanisms, the metabolic pathways related to insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, leptin resistance, microvascular damage, and autonomic neuropathy are emphasized. Histopathological changes are exposed, and findings reported from experimental models are clearly differentiated from those described in humans. The accelerated decline in pulmonary function that appears in patients with cystic fibrosis with related abnormalities of glucose tolerance and diabetes is considered as an example to further investigate the relationship between T2D and the lung...
September 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938204/natural-outdoor-environments-and-mental-health-stress-as-a-possible-mechanism
#3
Margarita Triguero-Mas, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Edmund Seto, Antònia Valentín, David Martínez, Graham Smith, Gemma Hurst, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Daniel Masterson, Magdalena van den Berg, Albert Ambròs, Tania Martínez-Íñiguez, Audrius Dedele, Naomi Ellis, Tomas Grazulevicius, Martin Voorsmit, Marta Cirach, Judith Cirac-Claveras, Wim Swart, Eddy Clasquin, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Jolanda Maas, Michael Jerret, Regina Gražulevičienė, Hanneke Kruize, Christopher J Gidlow, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
INTRODUCTION: Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We used novel, objective measures to explore the relationships between exposure to NOE (i.e. residential availability and contact) and different indicators of mental health, and possible modifiers and mediators...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#4
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938004/predictive-models-of-objective-oropharyngeal-osa-surgery-outcomes-success-rate-and-ahi-reduction-ratio
#5
Ji Ho Choi, Jae Yong Lee, Jaehyung Cha, Kangwoo Kim, Seung-No Hong, Seung Hoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) reduction ratio in adult OSA patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective outcome research. METHODS: All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS) and palate-tongue position (PTP) grade (Gr)], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937905/combined-orthodontic-and-surgical-treatment-in-a-8-years-old-patient-affected-by-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report
#6
Antonio Gracco, Giovanni Bruno, Alberto de Stefani, Rosario Marchese Ragona, Sergio Mazzoleni, Edoardo Stellini
An eight-years-old girl showed a restless sleep with snoring and severe apnea episodes, a mandibular retrognathia, mouth breathing, maxillary transverse discrepancy, mandibular transverse discrepancy, moderate crowding and anterior open-bite. The CBCT showed an anterior collapse of the epiglottis. The treatment consisted in a rapid palatal expansion, an epiglottoplasty and a reduction of the tongue base. Polysomnography revealed that apnea-hypopnea index improved from 21,8 episodes/hr at the baseline to 0,6 episodes/hr, average oxygen saturation from 96,5% to 98,1%, oxygen desaturation events from 23,4 episodes/hr to 1/hr...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937858/our-mother-s-mitochondria-and-our-mind
#7
Peter Kramer, Paola Bressan
Most of the energy we get to spend is furnished by mitochondria, minuscule living structures sitting inside our cells or dispatched back and forth within them to where they are needed. Mitochondria produce energy by burning down what remains of our meal after we have digested it, but at the cost of constantly corroding themselves and us. Here we review how our mitochondria evolved from invading bacteria and have retained a small amount of independence from us; how we inherit them only from our mother; and how they are heavily implicated in learning, memory, cognition, and virtually every mental or neurological affliction...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937707/meta-analysis-of-the-antidepressant-effects-of-acute-sleep-deprivation
#8
Elaine M Boland, Hengyi Rao, David F Dinges, Rachel V Smith, Namni Goel, John A Detre, Mathias Basner, Yvette I Sheline, Michael E Thase, Philip R Gehrman
OBJECTIVE: To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. DATA SOURCES: English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937639/sleep-disorders-in-childhood-neurological-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Abdullah Tolaymat, Zhao Liu
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937533/chronic-poststernotomy-pain-incidence-risk-factors-treatment-prevention-and-the-anesthesiologist-s-role
#10
Amanda M Kleiman, Daniel T Sanders, Edward C Nemergut, Julie L Huffmyer
Chronic pain following median sternotomy is common after cardiac surgery. If left untreated, chronic sternal pain can reduce quality of life, affecting sleep, mood, activity level, and overall satisfaction. This has a significant societal effect given the large number of cardiac surgeries annually. Although a number of pathophysiologic processes and risk factors are assumed to contribute, the exact cause and major risk factors remain unknown. Moreover, the treatment of chronic poststernotomy pain is often inadequate, relying on opioids and other medications that provide minimal benefit to the patient and have significant adverse effects...
September 20, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937527/relationship-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-the-presence-and-severity-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#11
Aimee C Chang, Timothy P Fox, Shutao Wang, Albert Y Wu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Three hundred seventeen patients with International Classification of Diseases diagnoses of both DR and OSA were evaluated retrospectively. Diabetic retinopathy severity and diabetic macular edema status were determined by diagnostic coding and medical records. Obstructive sleep apnea severity and additional sleep measures were obtained from overnight polysomnography...
September 20, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937503/patient-burden-of-axial-spondyloarthritis
#12
Vibeke Strand, Jasvinder A Singh
Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is an inflammatory spondyloarthritis (SpA) that has significant impact on a patient's life. Symptoms, including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, and sexual dysfunction, can profoundly impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and limit work, leisure, and daily activities. Available therapies effectively manage pain and inflammation in early-stage disease, but patients often continue to experience impaired HRQoL. Thus, there remains a need for new therapies with novel mechanisms that can stop disease progression, potentially reverse damage caused by AxSpA and improve HRQoL in patients with AxSpA...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937474/patient-burden-of-axial-spondyloarthritis
#13
Vibeke Strand, Jasvinder A Singh
Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is an inflammatory spondyloarthritis (SpA) that has significant impact on a patient's life. Symptoms, including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, and sexual dysfunction, can profoundly impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and limit work, leisure, and daily activities. Available therapies effectively manage pain and inflammation in early-stage disease, but patients often continue to experience impaired HRQoL. Thus, there remains a need for new therapies with novel mechanisms that can stop disease progression, potentially reverse damage caused by AxSpA and improve HRQoL in patients with AxSpA...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937452/use-and-effectiveness-of-sleep-medications-by-parent-report-in-individuals-with-williams-syndrome
#14
Marilee A Martens, Daisha L Seyfer, Rebecca R Andridge, Daniel L Coury
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), and sleep disturbance has a significant negative effect on attention, learning, and behavior. The use of sleep-inducing medicine in individuals with WS has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of sleep medications among a large sample of individuals with WS by parent survey. METHODS: A survey of the use and effectiveness of sleep medications was completed by 513 (of 2846) members of the Williams Syndrome Association...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937235/heart-rate-variability-in-newborns
#15
K Javorka, Z Lehotska, M Kozar, Z Uhrikova, B Kolarovszki, M Javorka, M Zibolen
Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in newborns is influenced by genetic determinants, gestational and postnatal age, and other variables. Premature infants have a reduced HRV. In neonatal HRV evaluated by spectral analysis, a dominant activity can be found in low frequency (LF) band (combined parasympathetic and sympathetic component). During the first postnatal days the activity in the high frequency (HF) band (parasympathetic component) rises, together with an increase in LF band and total HRV...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937071/insomnia-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-multicenter-study-from-morocco
#16
Mohamed Amine Hamzi, Kawtar Hassani, Mohamed Asseraji, Driss El Kabbaj
Previous studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia in our chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in three HD units in Morocco. To assess the prevalence of insomnia, we used a specific questionnaire. Patients complaining of difficulty in falling asleep and/or nocturnal awakenings occurring seven nights a week during the last month were included in the group "insomnia;" the other patients were used as controls...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936572/spa-therapy-balneotherapy-relieves-mental-stress-sleep-disorder-and-general-health-problems-in-sub-healthy-people
#17
Bei Yang, Qi-Zhong Qin, Ling-Li Han, Jing Lin, Yu Chen
To investigate the relieving effects of hot spring balneotherapy on mental stress, sleep disorder, general health problems, and women's health problems in sub-healthy people, we recruited 500 volunteers in sub-health in Chongqing, and 362 volunteers completed the project, including 223 in the intervention group and 139 in the control group. The intervention group underwent hot spring balneotherapy for 5 months, while the control group did not. The two groups took questionnaire investigation (general data, mental stress, emotional status, sleep quality, general health problems, as well as some women's health problems) and physical examination (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid, blood sugar) 5 months before and after the intervention, respectively...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936183/consciousness-across-sleep-and-wake-discontinuity-and-continuity-of-memory-experiences-as-a-reflection-of-consolidation-processes
#18
Caroline L Horton
The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936176/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-differentially-impacts-different-states-of-inspiratory-activity-at-the-level-of-the-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex
#19
Alfredo J Garcia, Tatiana Dashevskiy, Maggie A Khuu, Jan-Marino Ramirez
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC) is a medullary brainstem network crucially involved in the generation of different inspiratory rhythms. In the isolated brainstem slice, the preBötC reconfigures to produce different rhythms that we refer to as "fictive eupnea" under baseline conditions (i.e., carbogen), and "fictive gasping" in hypoxia. We recently demonstrated that fictive eupnea is irregular following exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). However, it is unknown how CIH impacts fictive gasping...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935698/polysomnographic-phenotypes-and-their-cardiovascular-implications-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#20
Andrey V Zinchuk, Sangchoon Jeon, Brian B Koo, Xiting Yan, Dawn M Bravata, Li Qin, Bernardo J Selim, Kingman P Strohl, Nancy S Redeker, John Concato, Henry K Yaggi
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a heterogeneous disorder, and improved understanding of physiologic phenotypes and their clinical implications is needed. We aimed to determine whether routine polysomnographic data can be used to identify OSA phenotypes (clusters) and to assess the associations between the phenotypes and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of a multisite, observational US Veteran (n=1247) cohort were performed...
September 21, 2017: Thorax
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