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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905855/reply-promise-and-limitations-of-relaxin-based-therapies-in-chronic-fibrotic-lung-diseases
#1
Jiangning Tan, Daniel J Kass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905854/promise-and-limitations-of-relaxin-based-therapies-in-chronic-fibrotic-lung-diseases
#2
Simon G Royce, Ross A D Bathgate, Chrishan S Samuel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888281/the-actions-of-relaxin-family-peptides-on-signal-transduction-pathways-activated-by-the-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-rxfp4
#3
Sheng Y Ang, Dana S Hutchinson, Bronwyn A Evans, Mohammed A Hossain, Nitin Patil, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Roger J Summers
The relaxin family peptide receptor 4 (RXFP4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in the colorectum with emerging roles in metabolism and appetite regulation. It is activated by its cognate ligand insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) that is expressed in enteroendocrine L cells in the gut. Whether other evolutionarily related peptides such as relaxin-2, relaxin-3, or INSL3 activate RXFP4 signal transduction mechanisms with a pattern similar to or distinct from INSL5 is still unclear. In this study, we compare the signaling pathways activated by various relaxin family peptides to INSL5...
November 26, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864846/monochorial-diamniotic-dizygotic-twins-in-a-german-shepherd-dog-a-case-report
#4
C Urhausen, K Wolf, A Beineke, C Dierks, M Schmicke, A Einspanier, A R Günzel-Apel
A 6.5-year-old clinically healthy German Shepherd Dog with regular oestrous cycles of 6 months was presented for pregnancy diagnosis on day 38 after ovulation (p.ov.). Ultrasonography revealed three individual placental sites in progressed resorption and two vital adequately developed foetuses sharing a joint placenta. On days 41 and 48 p.ov., sonographic signs indicated normal development of both foetuses, but on day 52 p.ov., both foetuses were found to be dead. A caesarean section was performed the same day...
November 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816005/assessing-placental-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-disruption-by-hexestrol-in-a-cell-model
#5
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Studies have shown that corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and relaxin are associated with early delivery. Our lab previously has shown the mycotoxin zeranol increases placental CRH expression. The mycotoxin is used in the farming industry to promote cattle growth, and some synthetic hormones are also used for the same purposes. In order to complete the picture of these growth promoting agents, we attempted to examine the synthetic hormones on the placental gene expression in the current study. Among the tested compounds, hexestrol induced the CRH mRNA and protein expression at 100nM in JEG-3 cells...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806429/cellular-localization-of-relaxin-like-gonad-stimulating-peptide-expression-in-asterias-rubens-new-insights-into-neurohormonal-control-of-spawning-in-starfish
#6
Ming Lin, Masatoshi Mita, Michaela Egertová, Cleidiane G Zampronio, Alexandra M Jones, Maurice R Elphick
Gamete maturation and spawning in starfish is triggered by a gonad-stimulating substance (GSS), which is present in extracts of the radial nerve cords. Purification of GSS from the starfish Patiria pectinifera identified GSS as a relaxin-like polypeptide, which is now known as relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP). Cells expressing RGP in the radial nerve cord of P. pectinifera have been visualized, but the presence of RGP-expressing cells in other parts of the starfish body has not been investigated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804215/simultaneously-targeting-myofibroblast-contractility-and-extracellular-matrix-cross-linking-as-a-therapeutic-concept-in-airway-fibrosis
#7
Yu-Chun Lin, Yon K Sung, Xinguo Jiang, Marc Peters-Golden, Mark R Nicolls
Fibrosis after solid organ transplantation is considered an irreversible process and remains the major cause of graft dysfunction and death with limited therapies. This remodeling is characterized by aberrant accumulation of contractile myofibroblasts that deposit excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) and increase tissue stiffness. However, studies demonstrate that a stiff ECM, itself, promotes fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation, stimulating further ECM production. This creates a positive feedback loop that perpetuates fibrosis...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791297/sex-specific-effects-of-chronic-administration-of-relaxin-3-on-food-intake-body-weight-and-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-rats
#8
Juliane Calvez, Camila de Ávila, Geneviève Guèvremont, Elena Timofeeva
This study examined the effects of chronic central administration of relaxin-3 (RLN3) on food intake, body weight and fat mass in intact and sterilized male and female rats as well as on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in intact male and female rats that received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of RLN3 (400 pmol/day) or vehicle during a 14-day period. The intact RLN3-injected rats displayed higher body weight than the vehicle-treated groups, and this increase was statistically significantly stronger in the female rats compared to the male rats...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774604/distribution-physiology-and-pharmacology-of-relaxin-3-rxfp3-systems-in-brain
#9
Sherie Ma, Craig M Smith, Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach
Relaxin-3 is a member of a superfamily of structurally-related peptides that includes relaxin and insulin-like peptide hormones. Soon after the discovery of the relaxin-3 gene, relaxin-3 was identified as an abundant neuropeptide in brain with a distinctive topographical distribution within a small number of GABA neuron populations that is well conserved across species. Relaxin-3 is thought to exert its biological actions through a single class-A GPCR - relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Class-A comprises GPCRs for relaxin-3 and insulin-like peptide-5 and other peptides such as orexin and the monoamine transmitters...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771940/synthetic-non-peptide-low-molecular-weight-agonists-of-the-relaxin-receptor-1
#10
REVIEW
Alexander I Agoulnik, Irina U Agoulnik, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan
Relaxin is a small heterodimeric peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin superfamily produced mainly in female and male reproductive organs. It has potent antifibrotic, vasodilatory and angiogenic effects and regulates the normal function of various physiological systems. Preclinical studies and recent clinical trials have shown the promise of recombinant relaxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases. However, there are the universal drawbacks of peptide-based pharmacology that apply to relaxin: a short half-life in vivo requires its continuous delivery, and there are high costs of production, storage and treatment, as well as the possibility of immune responses...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760516/the-1-78-kb-insertion-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-rxfp2-does-not-segregate-with-horn-status-in-sheep-breeds-with-variable-horn-status
#11
Gesine Lühken, Stefan Krebs, Sophie Rothammer, Julia Küpper, Boro Mioč, Ingolf Russ, Ivica Medugorac
BACKGROUND: The mode of inheritance of horn status in sheep is far more complex than a superficial analysis might suggest. Observations, which were mostly based on crossbreeding experiments, indicated that the allele that results in horns is dominant in males and recessive in females, and some authors even speculated about the involvement of more than two alleles. However, all recent genome-wide association analyses point towards a very strong effect of a single autosomal locus on ovine chromosome 10, which was narrowed down to a putatively causal insertion polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 gene (RXFP2)...
October 19, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754694/synthetic-route-to-human-relaxin-2-via-iodine-free-sequential-disulfide-bond-formation
#12
Xu Yang, Vasily Gelfanov, Fa Liu, Richard DiMarchi
A new synthetic route to human relaxin-2 has been established through a sequential disulfide bond formation process in the absence of iodine. It is enabled by a combination of cysteine protection with penicillin G acylase-labile Phacm and a newly identified thiol activator bis(5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-2-pyrimidinyl disulfide. The long-standing challenges in relaxin B-chain assembly and its poor solubility have been solved by the insertion of two isoacyl dipeptide segments. The overall yield was 25% from the B chain and 5...
October 18, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727514/serelaxin-in-acute-heart-failure-most-recent-update-on-clinical-and-preclinical-evidence
#13
Raktim Kumar Ghosh, Kinjal Banerjee, Ramyashree Tummala, Somedeb Ball, Keyvan Ravakhah, Anjan Gupta
Heart failure continues to be a widely prevalent disease across the world, affecting millions of Americans annually. Acute heart failure (AHF) has a substantial effect on rising health care costs and one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. The search for new drugs for symptom relief and to improve long term outcomes in heart failure has led to development of serelaxin, a recombinant human relaxin-2 hormone. Relaxin was discovered in pregnancy but eventually found to have a number of other physiological actions, not only in pregnancy, but also in non-pregnant women and men...
October 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726993/relaxin-concentrations-in-acute-heart-failure-patients-kinetics-and-clinical-determinants
#14
Jorge Martínez Solano, Juan José Santos Mateo, Jesús Sánchez-Más, Juan Sánchez, Mari Carmen Asensio López, Domingo Pascual Figal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707703/the-enigma-of-continual-plasma-volume-expansion-in-pregnancy-critical-role-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system
#15
REVIEW
Crystal A West, Jennifer M Sasser, Chris Baylis
Pregnancy is characterized by avid renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion in the presence of decreased blood pressure. Decreased maternal blood pressure is a consequence of reduced systemic vascular tone, which results from an increased production of vasodilators [nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and relaxin] and decreased vascular responsiveness to the potent vasoconstrictor (angiotensin II). The kidneys participate in this vasodilatory response, resulting in marked increases in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during pregnancy...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668534/effects-of-relaxin-on-cardiac-fibrosis-apoptosis-and-tachyarrhythmia-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#16
Deguo Wang, Hongjun Zhu, Qing Yang, Yirun Sun
Relaxin is safe and efficient to use for treating acute heart failure. However, the electrophysiological and arrhythmogenic effects of relaxin in an experimental healing infarction model remain unknown. In this study, a rat model with myocardial infarction (MI) received relaxin (0.5mg/kg per day) or vehicle (sodium acetate) infusion via implantable mini-pumps for 2 weeks. Thereafter, hemodynamic measurement, electrophysiological study, histological examination, and immunofluorescence labeling were performed...
September 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636223/transcriptional-regulation-of-connective-tissue-metabolism-genes-in-women-with-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#17
Ali Borazjani, Nathan Kow, Samantha Harris, Beri Ridgeway, Margot S Damaser
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare differences in expressions and relationships between key genes involved in extracellular matrix metabolism and tissue cellularity in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: A total of 80 biopsies (anterior cuff, posterior cuff, and/or leading edge) were obtained from 30 women: n = 10 premenopausal without POP (controls), n = 10 premenopausal with POP, and n = 10 postmenopausal with POP. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assess gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), collagen types I (COL1) and III (COL3), relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), matrix metallopeptidase 2, and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitors 2 and 3...
September 15, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629886/serelaxin-improves-the-pathophysiology-of-placental-ischemia-in-the-reduced-uterine-perfusion-pressure-rat-model-of-preeclampsia
#18
Jose A Santiago-Font, Lorena M Amaral, Jessica Faulkner, Tarek Ibrahim, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Mark W Cunningham, Babbette LaMarca
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that has limited therapeutic options. In healthy pregnancy, relaxin plays an important vasodilatory role to maintain vascular compliance; however, currently, there is no preclinical evidence to support the use of relaxin during preeclampsia. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that recombinant human relaxin-2 (Serelaxin, Novartis; RLX) could reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and improve uterine artery resistance index (UARI) and nitric oxide bioavailability, and/or decrease prepro-endothelin-1 (PPET-1), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), and TNF-α) in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of preeclampsia...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601715/crosstalk-between-fsh-and-relaxin-at-the-end-of-the-proliferative-stage-of-rat-sertoli-cells
#19
Aline R Nascimento, Carla Macheroni, Thais F G Lucas, Catarina Segreti Porto, Maria Fatima Magalhaes Lazari
FSH stimulates the proliferation of immature Sertoli cells through the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 and MEK/ERK1/2 pathways. Mature Sertoli cells stop proliferating and respond to FSH with stimulation of cAMP production. To gain insight into possible mechanisms involved in this switch as well as the impact of paracrine factors that stimulate cell proliferation, we analyzed the effects of FSH and relaxin on intracellular signaling pathways involved with proliferation and differentiation in Sertoli cells from 15-day-old rats, which are close to the transition between the two stages...
September 6, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597467/relaxin-the-brain-a-case-for-targeting-the-nucleus-incertus-network-and-relaxin-3-rxfp3-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Jia Mei Hong, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Mitchell K P Lai, Gavin S Dawe
Relaxin-3 has been proposed to modulate emotional-behavioural functions such as arousal and behavioural activation, appetite regulation, stress responses, anxiety, memory, sleep and circadian rhythm. The nucleus incertus (NI), in the midline tegmentum close to the fourth ventricle, projects widely throughout the brain and is the primary site of relaxin-3 neurons. Over recent years, a number of preclinical studies have explored the function of the NI and relaxin-3 signalling, including reports of mRNA or peptide expression changes in the NI in response to behavioural or pharmacological manipulations, effects of lesions or electrical or pharmacological manipulations of the NI, effects of central microinfusions of relaxin-3 or related agonist or antagonist ligands on physiology and behaviour, and the impact of relaxin-3 gene deletion or knockdown...
September 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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