Read by QxMD icon Read


Sherie Ma, Craig M Smith, Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach
Relaxin-3 is a member of a superfamily of structurally-related peptides that includes relaxin and insulin-like peptide hormones. Soon after the discovery of the relaxin-3 gene, relaxin-3 was identified as an abundant neuropeptide in brain with a distinctive topographical distribution within a small number of GABA neuron populations that is well conserved across species. Relaxin-3 is thought to exert its biological actions through a single class-A GPCR - relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Class-A comprises GPCRs for relaxin-3 and insulin-like peptide-5 and other peptides such as orexin and the monoamine transmitters...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Alexander I Agoulnik, Irina U Agoulnik, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan
Relaxin is a small heterodimeric peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin superfamily produced mainly in female and male reproductive organs. It has potent antifibrotic, vasodilatory, and angiogenic effects and regulates the normal function of various physiological systems. Preclinical studies and recent clinical trials have shown the promise of recombinant relaxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases. However, there are universal drawbacks of peptide-based pharmacology which apply to relaxin: a short half-life in vivo requires its continuous delivery, there are high costs of production, storage and treatment, as well as the possibility of immune response...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Gesine Lühken, Stefan Krebs, Sophie Rothammer, Julia Küpper, Boro Mioč, Ingolf Russ, Ivica Medugorac
BACKGROUND: The mode of inheritance of horn status in sheep is far more complex than a superficial analysis might suggest. Observations, which were mostly based on crossbreeding experiments, indicated that the allele that results in horns is dominant in males and recessive in females, and some authors even speculated about the involvement of more than two alleles. However, all recent genome-wide association analyses point towards a very strong effect of a single autosomal locus on ovine chromosome 10, which was narrowed down to a putatively causal insertion polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 gene (RXFP2)...
October 19, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Xu Yang, Vasily Gelfanov, Fa Liu, Richard DiMarchi
A new synthetic route to human relaxin-2 has been established through a sequential disulfide bond formation process in the absence of iodine. It is enabled by a combination of cysteine protection with penicillin G acylase-labile Phacm and a newly identified thiol activator bis(5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-2-pyrimidinyl disulfide. The long-standing challenges in relaxin B-chain assembly and its poor solubility have been solved by the insertion of two isoacyl dipeptide segments. The overall yield was 25% from the B chain and 5...
October 18, 2016: Organic Letters
Raktim Kumar Ghosh, Kinjal Banerjee, Ramyashree Tummala, Somedeb Ball, Keyvan Ravakhah, Anjan Gupta
Heart failure continues to be a widely prevalent disease across the world, affecting millions of Americans annually. Acute heart failure (AHF) has a substantial effect on rising health care costs and one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. The search for new drugs for symptom relief and to improve long term outcomes in heart failure has led to development of serelaxin, a recombinant human relaxin-2 hormone. Relaxin was discovered in pregnancy but eventually found to have a number of other physiological actions, not only in pregnancy, but also in non-pregnant women and men...
October 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Jorge Martínez Solano, Juan José Santos Mateo, Jesús Sánchez-Más, Juan Sánchez, Mari Carmen Asensio López, Domingo Pascual Figal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Crystal A West, Jennifer M Sasser, Chris Baylis
Pregnancy is characterized by avid renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion in the presence of decreased blood pressure. Decreased maternal blood pressure is a consequence of reduced systemic vascular tone which results from an increased production of vasodilators (nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and relaxin) and decreased vascular responsiveness to the potent vasoconstrictor (angiotensin II (Ang II)). The kidneys participate in this vasodilatory response resulting in marked increases in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during pregnancy...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Deguo Wang, Hongjun Zhu, Qing Yang, Yirun Sun
Relaxin is safe and efficient to use for treating acute heart failure. However, the electrophysiological and arrhythmogenic effects of relaxin in an experimental healing infarction model remain unknown. In this study, a rat model with myocardial infarction (MI) received relaxin (0.5mg/kg per day) or vehicle (sodium acetate) infusion via implantable mini-pumps for 2 weeks. Thereafter, hemodynamic measurement, electrophysiological study, histological examination, and immunofluorescence labeling were performed...
September 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ali Borazjani, Nathan Kow, Samantha Harris, Beri Ridgeway, Margot S Damaser
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare differences in expressions and relationships between key genes involved in extracellular matrix metabolism and tissue cellularity in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: A total of 80 biopsies (anterior cuff, posterior cuff, and/or leading edge) were obtained from 30 women: n = 10 premenopausal without POP (controls), n = 10 premenopausal with POP, and n = 10 postmenopausal with POP. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assess gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), collagen types I (COL1) and III (COL3), relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), matrix metallopeptidase 2, and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitors 2 and 3...
September 15, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Jose A Santiago-Font, Lorena M Amaral, Jessica L Faulkner, Tarek Ibrahim, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Mark W Cunningham, Babbette D LaMarca
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with limited therapeutic options. In healthy pregnancy, relaxin plays an important vasodilatory role to maintain vascular compliance; however, there is currently no preclinical evidence to support the use of relaxin during preeclampsia. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that recombinant human relaxin-2 (Serelaxin, Novartis, RLX) could reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and improve uterine artery resistance index (UARI) and nitric oxide bioavailability and/or decrease prepro-endothelin-1 (PPET-1), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) model of preeclampsia...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Aline R Nascimento, Carla Macheroni, Thais F G Lucas, Catarina Segreti Porto, Maria Fatima Magalhaes Lazari
FSH stimulates the proliferation of immature Sertoli cells through the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 and MEK/ERK1/2 pathways. Mature Sertoli cells stop proliferating and respond to FSH with stimulation of cAMP production. To gain insight into possible mechanisms involved in this switch as well as the impact of paracrine factors that stimulate cell proliferation, we analyzed the effects of FSH and relaxin on intracellular signaling pathways involved with proliferation and differentiation in Sertoli cells from 15-day-old rats, which are close to the transition between the two stages...
September 6, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Jia Mei Hong, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Mitchell K P Lai, Gavin S Dawe
Relaxin-3 has been proposed to modulate emotional-behavioural functions such as arousal and behavioural activation, appetite regulation, stress responses, anxiety, memory, sleep and circadian rhythm. The nucleus incertus (NI), in the midline tegmentum close to the fourth ventricle, projects widely throughout the brain and is the primary site of relaxin-3 neurons. Over recent years, a number of preclinical studies have explored the function of the NI and relaxin-3 signalling, including reports of mRNA or peptide expression changes in the NI in response to behavioural or pharmacological manipulations, effects of lesions or electrical or pharmacological manipulations of the NI, effects of central microinfusions of relaxin-3 or related agonist or antagonist ligands on physiology and behaviour, and the impact of relaxin-3 gene deletion or knockdown...
September 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Gerson Weiss, Sam Teichman, Dennis Stewart, David Nader, Susan Wood, Peter Breining, Elaine Unemori
BACKGROUND: Nonclinical studies indicate that the hormone relaxin is a good candidate for a safe cervical ripening agent that does not cause uterine contractions. METHODS: This Phase II study (conducted November 2, 2005-October 20, 2006) was a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial testing 24-h intravenous infusion of serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin) or placebo for cervical ripening in 72 healthy, primiparous women. Eligible subjects had a singleton pregnancy ≥40 weeks, were planned for elective induction, had vertex presentation of the fetus, intact membranes and a Bishop score at screening ≤4...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ali M Pitia, Kyoko Uchiyama, Hiroaki Sano, Masashi Kinukawa, Yoshiaki Minato, Hiroshi Sasada, Tetsuya Kohsaka
Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is essential for fetal testis descent, and has been implicated in the testicular and sperm functions in adult males; however, similar functions in domestic ruminants remain largely unknown. This study investigated the functional INSL3 hormone-receptor system in adult ruminant testes and spermatozoa, and explored its potential to diagnose the fertility of sires. Testes and spermatozoa were obtained from fertile bulls, rams and he-goats, whereas subfertile testes and spermatozoa were obtained only from bulls...
September 4, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
C H Leo, M Jelinic, H H Ng, S A Marshall, J Novak, M Tare, K P Conrad, L J Parry
The peptide hormone relaxin regulates the essential maternal hemodynamic adaptations in early pregnancy through direct actions on the renal and systemic vasculature. These vascular actions of relaxin occur mainly through endothelium-derived nitric oxide-mediated vasodilator pathways and improvements in arterial compliance in small resistance-size arteries. This work catalysed a plethora of studies which revealed quite heterogeneous responses across the different regions of the vasculature, and also uncovered nitric oxide-independent mechanisms of relaxin action...
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jacob S Jaszczak, Jacob B Wolpe, Rajan Bhandari, Rebecca G Jaszczak, Adrian Halme
Damage to Drosophila melanogaster imaginal discs activates a regeneration checkpoint that (1) extends larval development and (2) coordinates the regeneration of the damaged disc with the growth of undamaged discs. These two systemic responses to damage are both mediated by Dilp8, a member of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor/relaxin family of peptide hormones, which is released by regenerating imaginal discs. Growth coordination between regenerating and undamaged imaginal discs is dependent on Dilp8 activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the prothoracic gland (PG), which slows the growth of undamaged discs by limiting ecdysone synthesis...
October 2016: Genetics
Mette Hansen, Michael Kjaer
The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood. The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Firouzeh Dehghan, Rahman Soori, Parvin Dehghan, Khadijeh Gholami, Sekaran Muniandy, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Ashril Yusof
The changes in knee laxity and relaxin receptor expression at different phases of rodent estrous cycle are not known. Here, changes in the parameter were investigated in rats at different phases of the estrous cycle. Estrous cycle phases of intact female rats were determined by cytological examination of the vaginal smear. Following phase identification, blood was collected for serum hormone analyses. Knee passive range of motion (ROM) was determined by using a digital miniature goniometer. The animals were then sacrificed and patellar tendon, collateral ligaments and hamstring muscles were harvested for relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 and 2 (RXFP1/RXFP2) analyses...
2016: PloS One
Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Francis Chee Kuan Tan, Charles William Johannes, Brian William Dymock, Anders Poulsen, Deron Raymond Herr, Gavin Stewart Dawe
Relaxin-3 or insulin-like peptide 7 (INSL7) is the most recently discovered relaxin/insulin-like family peptide. Mature relaxin-3 consists of an A chain and a B chain held by disulphide bonds. According to structure activity relationship studies, the relaxin-3 B chain is more important in binding and activating the receptor. RXFP3 (also known as Relaxin-3 receptor 1, GPCR 135, somatostatin- and angiotensin- like peptide receptor or SALPR) was identified as the cognate receptor for relaxin-3 by expression profiles and binding studies...
October 2016: Peptides
Kelly P O'Sullivan, Sarah A Marshall, Scott Cullen, Tahnee Saunders, Natalie J Hannan, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura J Parry
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and fetal death, characterised by an imbalance of placental growth factors and hypertension at >20 weeks gestation. Impaired maternal systemic vascular adaptations and fetal growth restriction are features of both PE and pregnant relaxin-deficient (Rln-/-) mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these phenotypes in Rln-/- mice are associated with abnormal placental growth factor expression, increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), proteinuria and/or hypertension during pregnancy...
August 4, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"