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Relaxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319231/temporal-and-spatial-expression-of-insulin-like-peptide-insl5a-and-insl5b-paralog-genes-during-the-embryogenesis-of-danio-rerio
#1
Massimo Venditti, Aldo Donizetti, Marcella Fiengo, Chiara Fasano, Alessandra Santillo, Francesco Aniello, Sergio Minucci
Relaxin (RLN) and insulin (INSL)-like peptides are member of the INSL/RLN superfamily, which are encoded by seven genes in humans and can activate the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP 1-4. These peptides evolved from a common ancestor, RLN3-like gene. Two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in early vertebrate evolution, together with an additional WGD in the teleost lineage, caused an expansion of RLN genes set in the genome of Danio rerio. In particular, six RLN genes are present: a single copy of rln and insl3 genes, and two paralogs for the rln3 gene (rln3a and rln3b), and the insl5 gene (insl5a and insl5b)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314607/h3-relaxin-inhibits-the-collagen-synthesis-via-ros-and-p2x7r-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-under-high-glucose
#2
Xiaohui Zhang, Yu Fu, Hui Li, Li Shen, Qing Chang, Liya Pan, Siting Hong, Xinhua Yin
Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and P2X7R activation induced by high glucose increases NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Although H3 relaxin has been shown to inhibit cardiac fibrosis induced by isoproterenol, the mechanism has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrated that high glucose (HG) induced the collagen synthesis by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 secretion in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238349/the-roles-of-glycodelin-in-cancer-development-and-progression
#3
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Yanguo Liu, Xiuwen Wang
Glycodelin is a kind of glycoprotein expressed in secretory endometrium, pregnancy deciduas, and amniotic fluid originally, which is vital for the maintenance of normal human reproductive activities. Recent researches have reported that glycodelin is specifically expressed in various malignancies, including female-specific cancers such as endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer, and non-gender specific cancers including lung cancer, and colon cancer, and glycodelin expression correlates with the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229959/insulin-like-peptide-3-expressed-in-the-silkworm-possesses-intrinsic-disulfide-bonds-and-full-biological-activity
#4
Takatsugu Miyazaki, Masaaki Ishizaki, Hideo Dohra, Sungjo Park, Andre Terzic, Tatsuya Kato, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a member of the relaxin/insulin superfamily and is expressed in testicular Leydig cells. Essential for fetal testis descent, INSL3 has been implicated in testicular and sperm function in adult males via interaction with relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2). The INSL3 is typically prepared using chemical synthesis or overexpression in Escherichia coli followed by oxidative refolding and proteolysis. Here, we expressed and purified full-length porcine INSL3 (pINSL3) using a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221570/neohormones-in-milk
#5
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Neohormone systems evolved specifically to regulate those mammalian traits, such as internal fertilization, pregnancy and lactation, which have proved to be central to the success, environmental independence, and adaptability of mammals as a vertebrate group. Neohormones such as oxytocin or relaxin are not only involved in the regulation of mammary gland development and function, but are also significant components of milk itself. Particularly for the latter hormone, it has been shown for the pig that relaxin in the first milk is taken up by the gastrointestinal tract of the offspring, enters the neonatal circulation and can have specific physiological and epigenetic effects on target organs such as the female reproductive system...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205573/serum-relaxin-and-cervical-length-for-the-prediction-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth-in-second-trimester-symptomatic-women
#6
Athanasios Pantelis, Alexandros Sotiriadis, Kimon Chatzistamatiou, Georgios Pratilas, Konstantinos Dinas
OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether serum relaxin is associated with preterm birth in symptomatic women, either as a standalone test or in the context of a combined model. METHODS: This was a case-control study of women with singleton pregnancy, who presented between 24+0 and 26+6 weeks with threatened preterm labor and intact membranes. Cervical length, full blood count, C-reactive protein and maternal demographics were recorded at presentation. Blood samples were taken for relaxin and these parameters were compared between women who delivered <37 weeks (N=46) and women delivering at term (N=66)...
December 5, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180109/relaxin-induces-up-regulation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-in-rxfp1-expressing-cells-by-pi3k-akt-signaling
#7
Giulia Boccalini, Chiara Sassoli, Daniele Bani, Silvia Nistri
ADAM10 metalloprotease is required for activation of Notch-1, a transmembrane receptor regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, whose intracellular proteolytic fragment NICD mediates some key cardiovascular effects of the hormone relaxin (RLX). This study demonstrates the involvement of ADAM10 and PI3K/Akt signaling in mediating RLX-induced Notch-1 activation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes and NIH3T3 fibroblasts were incubated with human RLX-2 (17 nmol/l, 24 h) in presence or absence of the PI3K or Akt inhibitors wortmannin (WT, 100 nmol/l) and triciribine (TCN, 1 μmol/l)...
November 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173360/combined-assessment-of-relaxin-and-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-improves-diagnostic-value-in-patients-with-congestive-heart-failure
#8
Ling Han, Jingguang Luo, Shanshan Bai, Ye Jia, Xin Chen, Yan Zhao, Liwei Chen, Xiaogang Zhu, Ying Li, Yuanyuan Jiang, Xiaohong Li, Ming Yang, Dongxia Li, Xu Teng, Yongfen Qi
BACKGROUND: To improve the poor prognosis of congestive heart failure (CHF), early and accurate diagnosis is necessary. Relaxin is an endogenous cardiovascular peptide, and its plasma level is usually increased in patients with CHF. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of relaxin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with and without CHF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plasma level of relaxin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plasma level of BNP by fluorescence immunoassay...
November 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169762/low-dose-of-relaxin-protects-against-arrhythmias-and-adverse-left-ventricle-remodeling
#9
EDITORIAL
Attila Kiss, Bruno K Podesser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169754/chronic-lower-dose-relaxin-administration-protects-from-arrhythmia-in-experimental-myocardial-infarction-due-to-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-fibrotic-properties
#10
Thomas Beiert, Vincent Knappe, Vedat Tiyerili, Florian Stöckigt, Verena Effelsberg, Markus Linhart, Martin Steinmetz, Sabine Klein, Robert Schierwagen, Jonel Trebicka, Wilhelm Roell, Georg Nickenig, Jan W Schrickel, René P Andrié
BACKGROUND: The peptide hormone relaxin-2 (RLX) exerts beneficial effects during myocardial ischemia, but functional data on lower-dose RLX in myocardial infarction (MI) is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the impact of 75μg/kg/d RLX treatment on electrical vulnerability and left ventricular function in a mouse model of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Standardized cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall was performed in mice. A two week treatment period with vehicle or RLX via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps was started immediately after MI...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159832/expression-and-localisation-of-rxfp3-in-human-spermatozoa-and-impact-of-insl7-on-sperm-functions
#11
S Heidari, A H Taromchi, R Nejatbakhsh, S Shokri
Insulin-like peptide 7 (INSL7) or relaxin-3 is a member of the insulin superfamily that is recently discovered. This hormone interacts with relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Although recent studies of INSL7 have focused on its function in the brain as a neuropeptide, spermatozoa may be a candidate target of INSL7 due to its detection in testes and contains binding sites. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the expression and localisation of RXFP3 on human spermatozoa and to assess the effect of INSL7 on human sperm motility...
November 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150171/similar-pro-nt-and-pro-rlx2-levels-after-preeclampsia-and-after-uncomplicated-pregnancy
#12
G A Gerbrand Zoet, B B Bas van Rijn, M Miriam Rehfeldt, A Arie Franx, A H E M Angela Maas
OBJECTIVE: Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with and without a history of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: 339 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 327 women with an uncomplicated pregnancy underwent cardiovascular screening 10 years after delivery (the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales (PREVFEM) cohort)...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149730/divergence-of-insulin-superfamily-ligands-receptors-and-igf-binding-proteins-in-marine-versus-freshwater-stickleback-evidence-of-selection-in-known-and-novel-genes
#13
Tim Pellissier, Hend Al Nafea, Sara V Good
Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a teleost model for understanding genetic, physiological and morphological changes accompanying freshwater (FW) adaptation. There is growing evidence that the insulin superfamily plays important roles in traits involved in marine and FW adaptation. We performed a candidate gene analysis to look for evidence of selection on 33 insulin superfamily ligand-receptor genes and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (Igfbp's) in stickleback. Using genotype data from 11 marine and 10 FW populations, we calculated the number of SNPs per site in regulatory and intronic regions, the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in coding regions, Wright's fixation index (Fst), and performed t-tests to identify SNPs with divergent genotype frequencies between marine/FW versus Atlantic/Pacific populations...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133069/relaxin-2-connecting-peptide-pro-rlx2-levels-in-second-trimester-serum-samples-to-predict-preeclampsia
#14
Miriam Rehfeldt, Elizabeth Eklund, Joachim Struck, Andrea Sparwasser, Barbara O'Brien, Glenn E Palomaki, Josef Köhrle, Andreas Bergmann, Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, threatening fetal and maternal health. The aim of our study is to examine the association between preeclampsia and the connecting peptide of the pregnancy hormone relaxin (pro-RLX2) as a potential new biochemical marker. STUDY DESIGN: This is a nested case/control study derived from the cohort of pregnancies delivering at Women & Infants Hospital. Cases were identified at a clinic or by hospital codes, and individually confirmed by record review...
November 7, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101299/relaxin-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-arterial-pressure-in-adult-female-mice
#15
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella, Chrishan S Samuel, Kate M Denton
Relaxin is increasingly being recognized as a potent vasodilatory and anti-fibrotic hormone. Given that relaxin is present in the circulation during luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, when arterial pressure is lowest in women, relaxin may contribute to the relative cardiovascular protection observed in premenopausal women as compared to age-matched men and post-menopausal women. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of relaxin to the normal regulation of arterial pressure in adult female and male mice and during pregnancy...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080701/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-anabolic-drug-targets-in-osteoporosis
#16
REVIEW
Natalie Diepenhorst, Patricia Rueda, Anna E Cook, Philippe Pastoureau, Massimo Sabatini, Christopher J Langmead
Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disorder characterised by imbalance between bone building (anabolism) and resorption (catabolism). Most therapeutics target inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, but more recent attention in early drug discovery has focussed on anabolic targets in osteoblasts or their precursors. Two marketed agents that display anabolic properties, strontium ranelate and teriparatide, mediate their actions via the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing and parathyroid hormone-1 receptors, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060928/serum-relaxin-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-marker-in-patients-with-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#17
Xiaojing Guo, Yujie Liu, Xia Huang, Yun Wang, Jin Qu, Yingpin Lv
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Relaxin is a short circulating peptide hormone. The aim of this study was to understand the role of relaxin in progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to assess its diagnostic and prognostic significance. METHODS: A total of 124 patients with EOC, 46 patients with benign ovarian diseases, and 50 healthy controls were recruited. Serum levels of relaxin were determined by ELISA method. The relationship between serum relaxin level and each of the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using the χ2 test...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054501/transcriptomic-discovery-and-comparative-analysis-of-neuropeptide-precursors-in-sea-cucumbers-holothuroidea
#18
Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Arada Chaiyamoon, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Ruchanok Tinikul, Yotsawan Tinikul, Tanes Poomtong, Maurice R Elphick, Scott F Cummins, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptides synthesized and released by neuronal cells play important roles in the regulation of many processes, e.g. growth, feeding, reproduction, and behavior. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing technologies have helped to facilitate the identification of multiple neuropeptide genes in a variety of taxa, including arthropods, molluscs and echinoderms. In this study, we extend these studies to Holothuria scabra, a sea cucumber species that is widely cultured for human consumption. In silico analysis of H...
October 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051074/pairing-ultrasonography-with-endocrinology-to-elucidate-underlying-mechanisms-of-successful-pregnancy-in-the-northern-fur-seal-callorhinus-ursinus
#19
Michelle R Shero, Don R Bergfelt, J Ward Testa, Gregg P Adams
Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046312/relaxin-mediated-renal-vasodilation-in-the-rat-is-associated-with-falls-in-glomerular-blood-pressure
#20
Aihua Deng, Kirk P Conrad, Chris Baylis
Relaxin (RLX) is a pleiotropic peptide hormone with marked renal vasodilatory actions which are physiologically important during pregnancy. RLX also has potent antifibrotic actions and is being tested therapeutically in various fibrotic diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since renal vasodilation may expose the glomerulus to increased blood pressure (PGC), which exacerbates progression of CKD, we assessed the glomerular hemodynamic actions of RLX when administered acutely (75 min; 0.89 µg/100g body weight/hr, iv) and chronically (1...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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