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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159832/expression-and-localisation-of-rxfp3-in-human-spermatozoa-and-impact-of-insl7-on-sperm-functions
#1
S Heidari, A H Taromchi, R Nejatbakhsh, S Shokri
Insulin-like peptide 7 (INSL7) or relaxin-3 is a member of the insulin superfamily that is recently discovered. This hormone interacts with relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Although recent studies of INSL7 have focused on its function in the brain as a neuropeptide, spermatozoa may be a candidate target of INSL7 due to its detection in testes and contains binding sites. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the expression and localisation of RXFP3 on human spermatozoa and to assess the effect of INSL7 on human sperm motility...
November 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150171/similar-pro-nt-and-pro-rlx2-levels-after-preeclampsia-and-after-uncomplicated-pregnancy
#2
G A Gerbrand Zoet, B B Bas van Rijn, M Miriam Rehfeldt, A Arie Franx, A H E M Angela Maas
OBJECTIVE: Women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) after preeclampsia. Proneurotensin 1-117 (pro-NT) and prorelaxin 2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers for CVD risk in women. We assessed pro-NT and pro-RLX2 levels in women with and without a history of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: 339 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 327 women with an uncomplicated pregnancy underwent cardiovascular screening 10 years after delivery (the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales (PREVFEM) cohort)...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149730/divergence-of-insulin-superfamily-ligands-receptors-and-igf-binding-proteins-in-marine-versus-freshwater-stickleback-evidence-of-selection-in-known-and-novel-genes
#3
Tim Pellissier, Hend Al Nafea, Sara V Good
Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a teleost model for understanding genetic, physiological and morphological changes accompanying freshwater (FW) adaptation. There is growing evidence that the insulin superfamily plays important roles in traits involved in marine and FW adaptation. We performed a candidate gene analysis to look for evidence of selection on 33 insulin superfamily ligand-receptor genes and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (Igfbp's) in stickleback. Using genotype data from 11 marine and 10 FW populations, we calculated the number of SNPs per site in regulatory and intronic regions, the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in coding regions, Wright's fixation index (Fst), and performed t-tests to identify SNPs with divergent genotype frequencies between marine/FW versus Atlantic/Pacific populations...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133069/relaxin-2-connecting-peptide-pro-rlx2-levels-in-second-trimester-serum-samples-to-predict-preeclampsia
#4
Miriam Rehfeldt, Elizabeth Eklund, Joachim Struck, Andrea Sparwasser, Barbara O'Brien, Glenn E Palomaki, Josef Köhrle, Andreas Bergmann, Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, threatening fetal and maternal health. The aim of our study is to examine the association between preeclampsia and the connecting peptide of the pregnancy hormone relaxin (pro-RLX2) as a potential new biochemical marker. STUDY DESIGN: This is a nested case/control study derived from the cohort of pregnancies delivering at Women & Infants Hospital. Cases were identified at a clinic or by hospital codes, and individually confirmed by record review...
November 7, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101299/relaxin-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-arterial-pressure-in-adult-female-mice
#5
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella, Chrishan S Samuel, Kate M Denton
Relaxin is increasingly being recognized as a potent vasodilatory and anti-fibrotic hormone. Given that relaxin is present in the circulation during luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, when arterial pressure is lowest in women, relaxin may contribute to the relative cardiovascular protection observed in premenopausal women as compared to age-matched men and post-menopausal women. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of relaxin to the normal regulation of arterial pressure in adult female and male mice and during pregnancy...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080701/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-anabolic-drug-targets-in-osteoporosis
#6
REVIEW
Natalie Diepenhorst, Patricia Rueda, Anna E Cook, Philippe Pastoureau, Massimo Sabatini, Christopher J Langmead
Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disorder characterised by imbalance between bone building (anabolism) and resorption (catabolism). Most therapeutics target inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, but more recent attention in early drug discovery has focussed on anabolic targets in osteoblasts or their precursors. Two marketed agents that display anabolic properties, strontium ranelate and teriparatide, mediate their actions via the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing and parathyroid hormone-1 receptors, respectively...
October 25, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060928/serum-relaxin-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-marker-in-patients-with-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#7
Xiaojing Guo, Yujie Liu, Xia Huang, Yun Wang, Jin Qu, Yingpin Lv
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Relaxin is a short circulating peptide hormone. The aim of this study was to understand the role of relaxin in progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to assess its diagnostic and prognostic significance. METHODS: A total of 124 patients with EOC, 46 patients with benign ovarian diseases, and 50 healthy controls were recruited. Serum levels of relaxin were determined by ELISA method. The relationship between serum relaxin level and each of the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using the χ2 test...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054501/transcriptomic-discovery-and-comparative-analysis-of-neuropeptide-precursors-in-sea-cucumbers-holothuroidea
#8
Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Arada Chaiyamoon, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Ruchanok Tinikul, Yotsawan Tinikul, Tanes Poomtong, Maurice R Elphick, Scott F Cummins, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptides synthesized and released by neuronal cells play important roles in the regulation of many processes, e.g. growth, feeding, reproduction, and behavior. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing technologies have helped to facilitate the identification of multiple neuropeptide genes in a variety of taxa, including arthropods, molluscs and echinoderms. In this study, we extend these studies to Holothuria scabra, a sea cucumber species that is widely cultured for human consumption. In silico analysis of H...
October 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051074/pairing-ultrasonography-with-endocrinology-to-elucidate-underlying-mechanisms-of-successful-pregnancy-in-the-northern-fur-seal-callorhinus-ursinus
#9
Michelle R Shero, Don R Bergfelt, J Ward Testa, Gregg P Adams
Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046312/relaxin-mediated-renal-vasodilation-in-the-rat-is-associated-with-falls-in-glomerular-blood-pressure
#10
Aihua Deng, Kirk P Conrad, Chris Baylis
Relaxin (RLX) is a pleiotropic peptide hormone with marked renal vasodilatory actions which are physiologically important during pregnancy. RLX also has potent antifibrotic actions and is being tested therapeutically in various fibrotic diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since renal vasodilation may expose the glomerulus to increased blood pressure (PGC), which exacerbates progression of CKD, we assessed the glomerular hemodynamic actions of RLX when administered acutely (75 min; 0.89 µg/100g body weight/hr, iv) and chronically (1...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992627/h3-relaxin-protects-against-myocardial-injury-in-experimental-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-by-inhibiting-myocardial-apoptosis-fibrosis-and-inflammation
#11
Xiaohui Zhang, Liya Pan, Kelaier Yang, Yu Fu, Yue Liu, Jinyu Chi, Xin Zhang, Siting Hong, Xiao Ma, Xinhua Yin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Apoptosis, fibrosis and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are involved in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Human recombinant relaxin-3 (H3 relaxin) is a novel bioactive peptide that inhibits cardiac injury; however, whether H3 relaxin prevents cardiac injury in rats with DCM and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. METHODS: To investigate the effect of H3 relaxin on DCM, we performed a study using H3 relaxin treatment in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (DM)...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990566/-some-insulins-to-orchestrate-growth
#12
Emilie Boone, Laura Boulan, Ditte S Andersen, Nuria Romero, Pierre Léopold, Julien Colombani
Body size is an intrinsic property of living organisms that is intimately linked to the developmental program to produce fit individuals with proper proportions. Final size is the result of both genetic determinants and sophisticated mechanisms adapting size to available resources. Even though organs grow according to autonomous programs, some coordination mechanisms ensure that the different body parts adjust their growth with the rest of the body. In Drosophila, Dilp8, a hormone of the Insulin/Relaxin family is a key player in this inter-organs coordination and is required together with its receptor Lgr3 to limit developmental variability...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988628/challenges-in-the-design-of-insulin-and-relaxin-insulin-like-peptide-mimetics
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Ross A D Bathgate
Peptidomimetics are designed to overcome the poor pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics associated with the native peptide or protein on which they are based. The design of peptidomimetics starts from developing structure-activity relationships of the native ligand-target pair that identify the key residues that are responsible for the biological effect of the native peptide or protein. Then minimization of the structure and introduction of constraints are applied to create the core active site that can interact with the target with high affinity and selectivity...
September 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987540/serelaxin-inhibits-differentiation-and-fibrotic-behaviors-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-by-suppressing-alk-5-smad2-3-signaling-pathway
#14
Xue-Ping Wu, Hai-Jie Wang, Yong-Li Wang, Hao-Ran Shen, Yu-Zhen Tan
Serelaxin, a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, is currently regarded as a novel drug for treatment of acute heart failure. However, whether therapeutic effects of serelaxin are achieved by inhibiting cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate effects of serelaxin on inhibiting cardiac fibrosis. Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were isolated from the hearts of adult rats. Effects of serelaxin on differentiation of CFs towards myofibroblasts (MFs) and their fibrotic behaviors after inducion with TGF-β1 were examined...
October 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986276/expression-and-localization-of-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-4-in-human-spermatozoa-and-impact-of-insulin-like-peptide-5-on-sperm-functions
#15
Imaneh Shamayeli Yeganeh, Amir Hossein Taromchi, Fatemeh Fadaei Fathabadi, Reza Nejatbakhsh, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Saeed Shokri
Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily peptide that interacts with the relaxin family peptide receptor 4 (RXFP4). Numerous recent studies have focused on the functional effects of INSL5 on fat and glucose metabolism. Although there is no evidence that the human sperm may be a candidate target of INSL5, it has been detected in mice testis and sperm. Therefore, the present study sought to analyze the localization and expression of RXFP4 on human sperm and determine the efficiency of INSL5 in human sperm...
October 4, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978531/effects-of-serelaxin-on-renal-microcirculation-in-rats-under-control-and-high-angiotensin-environments
#16
Weijian Shao, Carla B Rosales, Camila Gonzalez, Minolfa C Prieto, L Gabriel Navar
Serelaxin is a novel recombinant human relaxin-2 that has been investigated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its effects on renal function, especially on the renal microcirculation remain incompletely characterized. Our immunoexpression studies localized RXFP1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of afferent arterioles and on principal cells of collecting ducts. Clearance experiments were performed in male and female normotensive rats and Ang II infused male rats...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942152/relaxin-alleviates-tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-via-inhibition-of-stat3-dependent-autophagy
#17
Yue Yuan, Yun Zhang, Xuejie Han, Yanyan Li, Xinbo Zhao, Li Sheng, Yue Li
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological feature common to a variety of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and heart failure. Emerging data has indicted that autophagy is involved in fibrotic synthesis. Relaxin as a pleiotropic hormone can attenuate cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, however the exact molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this work, we evaluated whether the antifibrotic effect of relaxin relies on regulating autophagy in primary cardiac fibroblasts (CFs)...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937886/effectiveness-of-biology-based-methods-for-inhibiting-orthodontic-tooth-movement-a-systematic-review
#18
M Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, R M Yañez-Vico, E Solano-Reina, J C Palma-Fernandez, A Iglesias-Linares
INTRODUCTION: Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913296/effect-of-relaxin-expressing-adenovirus-on-scar-remodeling-a-preliminary-study
#19
Bok Ki Jung, Won Jai Lee, Eunhye Kang, Hyo Min Ahn, Yong Oock Kim, Dong Kyun Rah, Chae-Ok Yun, In Sik Yun
BACKGROUND: Relaxin is a transforming growth factor β1 antagonist. To determine the effects of relaxin on scar reduction, we investigated the scar remodeling process by injecting relaxin-expressing adenoviruses using a pig scar model. METHODS: Scars with full thickness were generated on the backs of Yorkshire pigs. Scars were divided into two groups (relaxin [RLX] and Control). Adenoviruses were injected into the RLX (expressing relaxin) and Control (not expressing relaxin) groups...
March 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895644/relaxin-inhibits-cardiac-fibrosis-in-diabetic-rats-roles-of-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE
#20
Ping Wang, Meng Li, Lei Dong, Hui Chen, Wei Su, Yu-Peng Wang
Relaxin (Rlx) is known to antagonize diabetic cardiac fibrosis. However, its mechanism is poorly understood. Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) plays a crucial role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study explored the involvement of PKCδ in Rlx's capacity of suppressing cardiac fibrosis in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 2 DM of 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was induced by a high-fat diet and the injection of streptozocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg). Fourteen-week-old rats with DM and rats in control group which were pre-treated for 1 week with human recombinant relaxin (rhRlx, 30 μg/kg...
September 11, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
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