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Funda Gumustas, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Yasemin Yulaf, Sebla Gokce, Osman Sabuncuoglu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to healthy children and adolescents in terms of state and trait empathy and emotion expression recognition skills. The goal was also to determine whether there are changes in emotion recognition and empathy measures in children with ADHD after methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. METHODS: The research sample consisted of outpatient drug-naive children and adolescents between the age of 8 and 14 years (n = 65) with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Bin Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang, Jian Hao, Chunhao Yang
A mild and efficient synthesis of N-substituted-2-fluoroindole derivatives was achieved via Buchwald-Hartwig couplings and a sequential, base-promoted intramolecular nucleophilic reaction-β-fluorine elimination. By employing easily obtained gem-difluorostyrenes and primary arylamines, the scope, advantages, and limitations of this reaction were well investigated. Furthermore, this strategy distinguishes itself by high modularity, operational simplicity, and a wide substrate scope, giving rise to a broad array of 2-fluoroindole derivatives in moderate to excellent yields...
March 23, 2017: Organic Letters
Ying Chen, Yong Liu, Yongchao Yao, Shiyong Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
With special confined water pools, reverse micelles (RMs) have shown potential for a wide range of applications. However, the inherent water-insolubility of RMs hinders their further application prospects, especially for applications related to biology. We recently reported the first successful transfer of RMs from organic media to an aqueous phase without changing the smart water pools by the hydrolysis of an arm-cleavable interfacial cross-linked reverse micelles. Herein, we employed another elaborate amphiphile 1 to construct new acrylamide-based cross-linked water-soluble nanoparticles (ACW-NPs) under much gentler conditions...
March 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Li Luo, Irene Orlow, Peter A Kanetsky, Nancy E Thomas, Shenying Fang, Jeffrey E Lee, Marianne Berwick, Ji-Hyun Lee
The prognostic improvement attributed to genetic markers over current prognostic system has not been well studied for melanoma. The goal of this study is to evaluate the added prognostic value of Vitamin D Pathway (VitD) SNPs to currently known clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, Breslow thickness, mitosis and ulceration (CDF). We utilized two large independent well-characterized melanoma studies: the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) and MD Anderson studies, and performed variable selection of VitD pathway SNPs and CDF using Random Survival Forest (RSF) method in addition to Cox proportional hazards models...
2017: PloS One
Anisha Veeren, Archana Bhaw-Luximon, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Dhanjay Jhurry
We report in this paper on the enhanced efficacy of a physical mixture of two single anti-cancer loaded nanomicelles against PANC-1 and BxPC-3. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-b-polycaprolactone) (PVP-b-PCL) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-b-poly(dioxanone-co-methyl dioxanone)) (PVP-b-P(DX-co-MeDX)) were synthesized and successfully loaded with various anti-cancer drugs - gemcitabine (GEM), doxorubicin.HCl (DOX.HCl), doxorubicin.NH2 (DOX), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel (PTX). Spherical micelles of size 160-477 nm were obtained as characterized by DLS while sizes determined by TEM were in the range 140-250 nm...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
George S Cembrowski, Qian Xu, Adam R Cembrowski, Junyi Mei, Hossein Sadrzadeh
BACKGROUND: Within- and/or between-instrument variation may falsely indicate patient trends or obscure real trends. We employ a methodology that transforms sequential intra-patient results into estimates of biologic and analytic variation. We previously derived realistic biologic variation (sb) of blood gas (BG) and hematology analytes. We extend this methodology to derive the imprecision of two GEM 4000 BG analyzers. METHODS: A laboratory data repository provided arterial BG, electrolyte and metabolite results generated by two GEM 4000s on ICU patients in 2012-2013...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Barbara Gworek, Wojciech Dmuchowski, Aneta H Baczewska, Paulina Brągoszewska, Olga Bemowska-Kałabun, Justyna Wrzosek-Jakubowska
The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Lu Wang, Tao Zhang, Wei Sun, Zeyu He, Chungu Xia, Yu Lan, Chao Liu
A deoxygenative gem-diborylation and gem-silylborylation of aldehydes and ketones is described. The key for the success of this transformation is the base-promoted C-O bond borylation or silylation of the generated α-oxyboronates. Experimental and theoretical studies exhibit that the C-O bond functionalization proceeds via an intramolecular five-membered transition-state (9-ts) boryl migration followed by a 1,2-metallate rearrangement with OBpin as a leaving group. The transformation occurs with an inversion on the carbon center...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Heidi Ledford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Nature
Miles A Miller
Personalized genome-scale metabolic models augment clinical hepatic steatosis data and motivate treatment based on glutathione repletion.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
Qiuming Liang, Kimberly M Osten, Datong Song
We report a gem-specific homo- and cross-dimerization of terminal alkynes catalyzed by a well-defined iron(II) complex containing Cp* and picolyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, and featuring a piano-stool structure. This catalytic system requires no additives and is compatible with a broad range of substrates, including those with polar functional groups such as NH and OH.
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Mathieu Fanuel, Sona Garajova, David Ropartz, Nicholas McGregor, Harry Brumer, Hélène Rogniaux, Jean-Guy Berrin
BACKGROUND: The enzymatic conversion of plant biomass has been recently revolutionized by the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) that catalyze oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These powerful enzymes are secreted by a large number of fungal saprotrophs and are important components of commercial enzyme cocktails used for industrial biomass conversion. Among the 33 AA9 LPMOs encoded by the genome of Podospora anserina, the PaLPMO9H enzyme catalyzes mixed C1/C4 oxidative cleavage of cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Pradipta Ghosh, Padmini Rangamani, Irina Kufareva
The canonical process of activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is well studied. Recently, a rapidly emerging paradigm has revealed the existence of a new, non-canonical set of cytosolic G protein modulators, guanine exchange modulators (GEMs). Among G proteins regulators, GEMs are uniquely capable of initiating pleiotropic signals: these bifunctional modulators can activate cAMP inhibitory (Gi) proteins and inhibit cAMP-stimulatory (Gs) proteins through a single short evolutionarily conserved module...
March 13, 2017: Cell Cycle
Yan Liang, Baocheng Tian, Jing Zhang, Keke Li, Lele Wang, Jingtian Han, Zimei Wu
Gemcitabine (GEM) and paclitaxel (PTX) are effective combination anticancer agents against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At the present time, a main challenge of combination treatment is the precision of control that will maximize the combined effects. Here, we report a novel method to load GEM (hydrophilic) and PTX (hydrophobic) into simplex tumor-targeted nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for accurate control of the ratio of the two drugs. We covalently preconjugated the dual drugs through a hydrolyzable ester linker to form drug conjugates...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Shuqin Ni, Lei Qiu, Guodong Zhang, Haiyan Zhou, Yong Han
PURPOSE: Radiation and chemotherapy are the most common course of treatment for B-cell lymphoma. Doxorubicin (DOX), gemcitabine (GEM), and vincristine (VCR) are the commonly used antilymphoma chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study is to construct a novel drug delivery system for the combination delivery of the three drugs on lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DOX-GEM prodrug was synthesized. Novel nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) containing DOX-GEM prodrug and VCR were prepared and used to treat B-cell lymphoma through in vivo treatment to a lymph cancer animal model...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Susanne R Youngren-Ortiz, David B Hill, Peter R Hoffmann, Kenneth R Morris, Edward G Barrett, M Gregory Forest, Mahavir B Chougule
BACKGROUND: Aerosol delivery of chemotherapeutic nanocarriers represents a promising alternative for lung cancer therapy. This study optimized gemcitabine (Gem)-loaded gelatin nanocarriers (GNCs) cross-linked with genipin (Gem-GNCs) to evaluate their potential for nebulized lung cancer treatment. METHODS: Gem-GNCs were prepared by two-step desolvation and optimized through Taguchi design and characterized for physicochemical properties. Particle size and morphology were confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Chih-Chung Tseng, Hannah Noordali, Monica Sani, Melanie Madhani, Denis M Grant, Michael P Frenneaux, Matteo Zanda, Iain R Greig
We designed and synthesized perhexiline analogues that have the same therapeutic profile as the parent cardiovascular drug but lacking its metabolic liability associated with CYP2D6 metabolism. Cycloalkyl perhexiline analogues 6a-j were found to be unsuitable for further development, as they retained a pharmacokinetic profile very similar to that shown by the parent compound. Multistep synthesis of perhexiline analogues incorporating fluorine atoms onto the cyclohexyl ring(s) provided a range of different fluoroperhexiline analogues...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Guillaume Ernouf, Jean-Louis Brayer, Benoît Folleas, Jean-Pierre Demoute, Christophe Meyer, Janine Cossy
A one-pot difluorocyclopropenation/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence applied to readily available propargyl glycolates was developed as a route toward functionalized alkylidene(gem-difluorocyclopropanes). This strategy conveniently avoids the isolation of the unstable 3,3-difluorocyclopropenylcarbinyl glycolates arising from the difluorocyclopropenation. The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement proceeds with high diastereoselectivity and chirality transfer to afford alkylidene(gem-difluorocyclopropanes) incorporating a quaternary stereocenter and a protected glycolic acid moiety, which are useful building blocks for the preparation of functionalized gem-difluorocyclopropanes...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Younbaek Lee, Byungjung Choi, Jongwon Lee, Minhyung Lee, Se-Gon Roh, Jeonghun Kim, Hyundo Choi, Yong-Jae Kim
This paper presents a novel flexible sliding thigh frame for a gait enhancing mechatronic system. With its two-layered unique structure, the frame is flexible in certain locations and directions, and stiff at certain other locations, so that it can fît well to the wearer's thigh and transmit the assisting torque without joint loading. The paper describes the basic mechanics of this 3D flexible frame and its stiffness characteristics. We implemented the 3D flexible frame on a gait enhancing mechatronic system and conducted experiments...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Allan J Canty, Alireza Ariafard, Nicole M Camasso, Andrew T Higgs, Brian F Yates, Melanie S Sanford
This report describes a computational study of C(sp(3))-OR bond formation from Pd(IV) complexes of general structure Pd(IV)(CH2CMe2-o-C6H4-C,C')(F)(OR)(bpy-N,N') (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Dissociation of (-)OR from the different octahedral Pd(IV) starting materials results in a common square-pyramidal Pd(IV) cation. An SN2-type attack by (-)OR ((-)OR = phenoxide, acetate, difluoroacetate, and nitrate) then leads to C(sp(3))-OR bond formation. In contrast, when (-)OR = triflate, concerted C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bond-forming reductive elimination takes place, and the calculations indicate this outcome is the result of thermodynamic rather than kinetic control...
March 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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