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Yu-Guo Yuan, Qiu-Ling Peng, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine (GEM) is widely used as an anticancer agent in several types of solid tumors. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess unique cytotoxic features and can induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of GEM and AgNPs can exert synergistic cytotoxic effects in the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. METHODS: We synthesized AgNPs using resveratrol as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized using various analytical techniques...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Rongrong Zhang, Yun Ru, Yiping Gao, Jinyin Li, Shilong Mao
PURPOSE: Cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GEM) is a standard regimen for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric prodrugs and construct nanoparticles (NPs) with layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. METHODS: Platinum (Pt) (IV) complex with a carboxyl group was conjugated to the amino group of chitosan (CH), resulting in a CH-Pt conjugation with positive charge. GEM with amino group was conjugated to the carboxyl group of hyaluronic acid (HA), resulting in a HA-GEM conjugation with negative charge...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Alfons Macaya, Roser Torra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Medicina Clínica
Anja Förster, Sibylle Gemming, Gotthard Seifert, David Tomanek
Using ab initio density functional theory calculations, we characterize changes in the electronic structure of MoS2 monolayers introduced by missing or additional adsorbed sulfur atoms. We furthermore identify the chemical and electronic function of substances that have been reported to reduce the adverse effect of sulfur vacancies in quenching photoluminescence and reducing electronic conductance. We find that thiol-group containing molecules adsorbed at vacancy sites may re-insert missing sulfur atoms. In presence of additional adsorbed sulfur atoms, thiols may form disulfides on the MoS2 surface to mitigate the adverse effect of defects...
September 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Ryoto Kojima, Koji Kubota, Hajime Ito
We have developed a novel approach for the stereodivergent hydrodefluorination of gem-difluoroalkenes using copper(i) catalysts to obtain stereodefined monofluoroalkenes. Both (Z)- and (E)-terminal monofluoroalkenes were obtained by the hydrodefluorination of gem-difluoroalkenes in the presence of copper(i) catalysts and diboron or hydrosilane, respectively, with high stereoselectivity. DFT calculations were conducted to elucidate the stereoselectivity.
September 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Nicolas Zeidan, Sabine Bognar, Sophia Lee, Mark Lautens
An efficient Pd(0)-catalyzed synthesis of 2-cyanoindoles from 2-gem-dihalovinylanilines is reported. Few methods have aimed to synthesize these scaffolds, which are found in many natural products and have high bioactivity. This protocol features a robust catalyst system utilizing Zn(TFA)2 to prolong the catalytic activity. Additionally, the amount of cyanide in the reaction phase is minimized by taking advantage of the solubility of Zn(CN)2 in a two-solvent mixture.
September 13, 2017: Organic Letters
Andrew Clark, Robert Black, Jacqueline Tate, Anna Roose, Karen Kotloff, Diana Lam, William Blackwelder, Umesh Parashar, Claudio Lanata, Gagandeep Kang, Christopher Troeger, James Platts-Mills, Ali Mokdad, Colin Sanderson, Laura Lamberti, Myron Levine, Mathuram Santosham, Duncan Steele
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoeal mortality in children but there is considerable disagreement about how many deaths occur each year. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared CHERG, GBD and WHO/CDC estimates of age under 5 years (U5) rotavirus deaths at the global, regional and national level using a standard year (2013) and standard list of 186 countries. The global estimates were 157,398 (CHERG), 122,322 (GBD) and 215,757 (WHO/CDC). The three groups used different methods: (i) to select data points for rotavirus-positive proportions; (ii) to extrapolate data points to individual countries; (iii) to account for rotavirus vaccine coverage; (iv) to convert rotavirus-positive proportions to rotavirus attributable fractions; and (v) to calculate uncertainty ranges...
2017: PloS One
Emmanuel Gabriel, Shipra Gandhi, Kristopher Attwood, Boris Kuvshinoff, Steven Hochwald, Renuka Iyer
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine with capecitabine (gem-cap) is an established regimen for advanced biliary cancer (ABC) supported by our previously reported phase II trial. Here, we provide our updated experience. METHODS: Single institution, retrospective study from 2005 to 2015 of ABC treated with gem-cap. RESULTS: A total of 372 patients with ABC were identified, of whom 227 (61.0%) were treated with chemotherapy. 153 patients (67.4%) received gem-cap, of which 129 (56...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Derek Grose, David McIntosh, Nigel Jamieson, Ross Carter, Euan Dickson, David Chang, Husam Marashi, Christina Wilson, Mohammed Alfayez, Ashleigh Kerr, Roisin O'Donoghue, Lea Haskins, Fraser Duthie, Colin J McKay, Janet Graham
BACKGROUND: Despite being relatively rare pancreatic cancer is one of the highest causes of death. Even within the potentially resectable group outcomes are poor. We present our initial experiences utilising a neoadjuvant approach to localised pancreatic cancer, evaluating survival, response rates and tolerability. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database. Patients from 2012 to 2015 referred to a busy regional Hepato-Pancreatic Biliary (HPB) MDT were included...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Wolfgang Jäger, Igor Moskalev, Peter Raven, Akihiro Goriki, Samir Bidnur, Peter C Black
Orthotopic mouse models of urothelial cancer are essential for testing novel therapies and molecular manipulations of cell lines in vivo. These models are either established by orthotopic inoculation of human (xenograft models) or murine tumor cells (syngeneic models) in immunocompromised or immune competent mice. Current techniques rely on inoculation by intravesical instillation or direct injection into the bladder wall. Alternative models include the induction of murine bladder tumors by chemical carcinogens (BBN) or genetic engineering (GEM)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xingxing Jian, Ningchuan Li, Qian Chen, Qiang Hua
Reconstruction and application of genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have facilitated metabolic engineering by providing a platform on which systematic computational analysis of metabolic networks can be performed. In this study, a GEM of Escherichia coli NZN111 was employed by the analysis of production and growth coupling (APGC) algorithm to identify genetic strategies for the overproduction of succinate. Through in silico simulation and reaction expression analysis, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC), encoded by gapA, pgk, tpiA, and ppc, respectively, were selected for experimental overexpression...
September 8, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Mónica Ballesteros, Nadia Montero, Antonio López-Pousa, Gerard Urrútia, Ivan Solà, Gabriel Rada, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Xavier Bonfill
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours. Currently, different pharmacological and surgical options are used to treat localised and metastatic GISTs, although this research field is broad and the body of evidence is scattered and expanding. Our objectives are to identify, describe and organise the current available evidence for GIST through an evidence mapping approach. METHODS: We followed the methodology of Global Evidence Mapping (GEM)...
September 7, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Lingheng Kong, Bingxian Liu, Xukai Zhou, Fen Wang, Xingwei Li
Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed mild benzylic α-fluoroalkenylation of 8-methylquinolines with gem-difluorostyrenes has been developed. This reaction occurred via C-H activation and C-F cleavage and is applicable to a wide range of substrates, leading to the synthesis of Z-alkenyl fluorides under mild and redox-neutral conditions with high regio- and stereoselectivity.
September 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Fawzia A Ibrahim, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Ibrahim F Abo-Elmagd
Gemifloxacin (GEM) is a broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic. The presence of GEM residuals in industrial and hospital wastewater has been associated with genotoxicity and antibiotic resistance. In this contribution, the photodegradation of GEM using titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs)/H2O2 as a catalyst was optimized to eliminate residual drug and its photodegradates with antibacterial activity. A half-factorial design was implemented, investigating the effects of pH, initial concentration, H2O2 concentration, TiO2NP loading, and irradiation time...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jingjing Li, Quentin Lefebvre, Haijun Yang, Yufen Zhao, Hua Fu
α-Amino acids are among the most common biologically active molecules in nature, and their functionalization has attracted much attention. In this communication, a novel, efficient and general visible-light photocatalytic decarboxylative monofluoroalkenylation of N-protected α-amino acids with gem-difluoroalkenes is reported, affording the corresponding α-amino monofluoroalkenes which might find applications in medical chemistry and materials science. The reaction proceeded at room temperature with high efficiency and tolerance of various functional groups...
September 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Cristina Lavini, Gem Kramer, Indra Pieters-den Bos, Otto Hoekstra, J Tim Marcus
PURPOSE: In this study we systematically investigated different Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE)-MRI protocols in the spine, with the goal of finding an optimal protocol that provides data suitable for quantitative pharmacokinetic modelling (PKM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 13 patients referred for MRI of the spine, DCE-MRI of the spine was performed with 2D and 3D MRI protocols on a 3T Philips Ingenuity MR system. A standard bolus of contrast agent (Dotarem - 0...
September 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Yuanpeng Zhang, Xiaoming Yu, Liting Hou, Jin Chen, Pengcheng Li, Xuwen Qiao, Qisheng Zheng, Jibo Hou
The A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) retains the adjuvant function of CT, without its toxic side effects, making the molecule a promising mucosal adjuvant. However, the methods required to obtain a pure product are both complicated and expensive, constricting its potential commercial applicability. Here, we fused the peptidoglycan binding domain (PA) to the C-terminus of CTA1, which enabled the fusion protein to be expressed by Bacillus subtilis, and secreted into the culture medium. CTA1 was then purified and displayed on GEM particles using a one step process, which resulted in the formation of CTA1-GEM complexes...
September 1, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Yang Fan, Qingjie Wang, Guimei Lin, Yanbin Shi, Zili Gu, Tingting Ding
In this study, novel prodrug-modified cationic liposome nanocomplexes (Combo NCs) were reported for gemcitabine (GEM) and docetaxel (DTX) co-delivery. This nanoplatform exhibited multiple favorable characteristics, such as a 'green' fabrication with a one-step chemical reaction, appropriate size (∼ 200 nm) and distribution (PDI < 0.2), low zeta potential (-31.1 mv), high drug-loading efficiency (9.3% GEM plus 3.1% DTX, wt%) and pH and enzymatic dual-stimulus-responsive release properties. Immunofluorescence and cellular uptake studies showed that Combo NCs efficiently targeted overexpressed CD44 in MDA-MB-231 carcinoma...
August 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Zhuangzhi Shi, Jiefeng Hu, Xiaowei Han, Yu Yuan
A copper-catalytic system has been established for the stereoselective hydrodefluorination of gem-difluoroalkenes via C-F bond activation to synthesize various thermodynamically less stable Z-fluoroalkenes. H2O is first used as a hydrogen source for the fluorine acceptor moiety. This mild catalytic system shows good functional group compatibility bearing substrates from aliphatic, aromatic and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes that can be served as a powerful synthetic tool for late-stage modification of complex compounds...
August 30, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Viktorija Glembockyte, Gonzalo Cosa
Here we report transient absorption studies on the ground state recovery dynamics of the single-molecule fluorophore Cy3B in the presence of four different photostabilizing agents, namely β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), Trolox (TX), n-propyl gallate (n-PG), and ascorbic acid (AA). These are triplet state quenchers that operate via photoinduced electron transfer (PeT). While quantitative gem-inate recombination was recorded following PeT for β-ME (~100%), for Trolox, n-propyl gallate, and ascorbic acid the extent of geminate recombination was >48 %, >27 % and >13 %, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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