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A W Alemu, D Vyas, G Manafiazar, J A Basarab, K A Beauchemin
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Wei Liu, Zhoulin Tan, Hai Liu, Zhiqin Zeng, Shuanghui Luo, Huimin Yang, Lufeng Zheng, Tao Xi, Yingying Xing
BACKGROUND: Gram-positive enhancer matrix particles (GEM) produced by Lactococcus lactis can enhance vaccine-induced immune response. However, the mechanism under which this adjuvant mounts the efficacy of orally administered vaccines remains unexplored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a prophylactic mice model to investigate the mechanism of GEM-adjuvanted vaccination. Helicobacter pylori urease-specific antibody response was monitored and detected in murine serum by ELISA...
August 14, 2017: Helicobacter
Leigha Senter, David M O'Malley, Floor J Backes, Larry J Copeland, Jeffery M Fowler, Ritu Salani, David E Cohn
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the impact of embedding genetic counseling services in gynecologic oncology on clinician referral and patient uptake of cancer genetics services. METHODS: Data were reviewed for a total of 737 newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer patients seen in gynecologic oncology at a large academic medical center including 401 from 11/2011-7/2014 (a time when cancer genetics services were provided as an off-site consultation). These data were compared to data from 8/2014-9/2016 (n=336), when the model changed to the genetics embedded model (GEM), incorporating a cancer genetic counselor on-site in the gynecologic oncology clinic...
August 8, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
Haijie Han, Jinhui Wang, Tingting Chen, Lichen Yin, Qiao Jin, Jian Ji
Development of gemcitabine (GEM) nanocarriers as theranostic agents for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy has received extensive attention in recent years. A novel enzyme-sensitive albumin-based GEM delivery nanoplatform was developed in this research by simple conjugation of GEM to human serum albumin (HSA) via cathepsin B cleavable peptide GFLG and then complexing with near-infrared (NIR) dye IR780, forming a HSA-GEM/IR780 complex. The successful preparation of HSA-GEM/IR780 complex was confirmed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra and fluorescent emission spectra...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hui Tian, Hisashi Shimakoshi, Kenji Imamura, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Yoshio Hisaeda
Photocatalytic syntheses of gem-difluoroolefins were performed using the B12-TiO2 hybrid catalyst during the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond reduction of α-trifluoromethyl styrenes with C-F bond cleavage at room temperature under nitrogen. The gem-difluoroolefins were used as synthetic precursors for fluorinated cyclopropanes.
August 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Chuan Zhu, Shengjin Song, Lu Zhou, Ding-Xing Wang, Chao Feng, Teck-Peng Loh
An unprecedented Rh-catalyzed C2-difluoroalkylation of indole derivatives with 2,2-difluorovinyl arenesulfonates has been reported. This reaction provides a rare instance of catalytic difluoroalkylation through hydroarylation of gem-difluoroalkenes. The sulfonate group works as a chelating ligand, thus stabilizing the rhodacycle intermediate, leading to the uncommon transformation.
August 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Varun Kushwah, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Chander Parkash Dora, David Mallinson, Dimitrios A Lamprou, Ramesh C Gupta, Sanyog Jain
PURPOSE: The present study reports a novel conjugate of gemcitabine (GEM) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and thereof nanoparticles (GEM-BSA NPs) to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy by altering physicochemical properties, improving cellular uptake and stability of GEM. METHODS: The synthesized GEM-BSA conjugate was extensively characterized by NMR, FTIR, MALDI-TOF and elemental analysis. Conjugation mediated changes in structural conformation and physicochemical properties were analysed by fluorescence, Raman and CD spectroscopy, DSC and contact angle analysis...
August 9, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Tadao Ito, Katsuya Deguchi, Kazuhiro Yoshii, Mariko Kashii
A 73-year-old woman diagnosed with unresectable pancreatic cancer received weekly gemcitabine(GEM)plus albuminbound paclitaxel(nab-PTX)therapy. Four months after nab-PTX therapy was initiated, she presented with a rapidly decreasing vision in her left eye at an ophthalmology clinic. On admission, her visual acuity was decreased, and optical coherence tomography(OCT)revealed a cystoid macular edema(CME)only in her left eye. She discontinued the nab-PTX therapy immediately. Her visual acuity improved on follow-up 6 months later...
July 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
C Benjamin Naman, Jehad Almaliti, Lorene Armstrong, Eduardo J Caro-Díaz, Marsha L Pierce, Evgenia Glukhov, Amanda Fenner, Carmenza Spadafora, Hosana M Debonsi, Pieter C Dorrestein, Thomas F Murray, William H Gerwick
A recent untargeted metabolomics investigation into the chemical profile of 10 organic extracts from cf. Symploca spp. revealed several interesting chemical leads for further natural product drug discovery. Subsequent target-directed isolation efforts with one of these, a Panamanian marine cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp., yielded a phenethylamide metabolite that terminates in a relatively rare gem-dichlorovinylidene moiety, caracolamide A (1), along with a known isotactic polymethoxy-1-alkene (2). Detailed NMR and HRESIMS analyses were used to determine the structures of these molecules, and compound 1 was confirmed by a three-step synthesis...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Marietta Seifert, Gayatri K Rane, Steffen Oswald, Siegfried B Menzel, Thomas Gemming
RuAl thin films possess a high potential as a high temperature stable metallization for surface acoustic wave devices. During the annealing process of the Ru-Al films, Al 2 O 3 is formed at the surface of the films even under high vacuum conditions, so that the composition of a deposited Ru 50 Al 50 film is shifted to a Ru-rich alloy. To compensate for this effect, the Al content is systematically increased during the deposition of the Ru-Al films. Three Al-rich alloys-Ru 45 Al 55 , Ru 40 Al 60 and Ru 33 Al 67 -were analyzed concerning their behavior after high temperature treatment under high vacuum and air conditions in comparison to the initial Ru 50 Al 50 sample...
March 10, 2017: Materials
Marietta Seifert, Erik Brachmann, Gayatri K Rane, Siegfried B Menzel, Thomas Gemming
High temperature surface acoustic wave sensors based on radio frequency identification technology require adequate antennas of high efficiency and thermal stability for the signal transmission. Platinum is well known and frequently used as a material of choice for high temperature and harsh environment applications because of the high melting point and its chemical stability. Therefore, one way to realize high temperature stable antennas is the combination of a Pt metallization on an Al 2 O 3 substrate. As a cost-effective technique, the Pt film is deposited via electrochemical deposition...
January 11, 2017: Materials
Qiang Sun, Bay Tran, Liangliang Cai, Honghong Ma, Xin Yu, Chunxue Yuan, Meike Stöhr, Wei Xu
The on-surface activation of carbon-halogen groups represents an efficient route to produce radicals for constructing various hydrocarbons and carbon nanostructures. To our knowledge, the so far employed halide precursors have only one halogen attached to a carbon atom. It is thus of particular interest to study the effect of attaching more than one halogen atom to a carbon atom to produce multiple unpaired electrons. Here, by introducing an alkenyl gem-dibromide, we have successfully fabricated cumulene products on Au(111) by dehalogenative homocoupling reactions...
August 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Guodong Li, Milad Yarali, Alexandr Cocemasov, Stefan Baunack, Denis L Nika, Vladimir M Fomin, Shivkant Singh, Thomas Gemming, Feng Zhu, Anastassios Mavrokefalos, Oliver G Schmidt
Silicon, although widely used in modern electronic devices, has not yet been implemented in thermoelectric applications mainly due to its high thermal conductivity, κ, which leads to an extremely low thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency (figure of merit). Here, we present an approach to manage κ of Si thin-film-based nanoarchitectures through the formation of radial and planar Si/SiOx hybrid nanomembrane superlattices (HNMSLs). For the radial Si/SiOx HNMSLs with various numbers of windings (1, 2, and 5 windings), we observe a continuous reduction in κ with increasing number of windings...
August 9, 2017: ACS Nano
Karen L Kotloff, James A Platts-Mills, Dilruba Nasrin, Anna Roose, William C Blackwelder, Myron M Levine
The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) demonstrated that Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing heat stable toxin (ST) (either alone or in combination with heat labile toxin) are among the most important pathogens associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children younger than 5years of age living in developing countries. To inform the design of vaccines and other interventions, we reviewed published data and new results from GEMS characterizing the burden of Shigella and ST-ETEC infections...
July 29, 2017: Vaccine
Tang Li, Li Chen, Yihui Deng, Xinrong Liu, Xiaoyun Zhao, Yiwen Cui, Jia Shi, Rui Feng, Yanzhi Song
As an anti-tumor drug, gemcitabine (Gem) is commonly used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. However, there are several clinical drawbacks to using Gem, including its extremely short plasma half-life and side effects. To prolong its half-life and reduce its side effects, we synthesized a derivative of Gem using cholesterol (Chol). This derivative, called gemcitabine-cholesterol (Gem-Chol) was entrapped into liposomes by a thin-film dispersion method. The particle size of the Gem-Chol liposomes was 112...
August 1, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Marcus Rohnke, Stefanie Pfitzenreuter, Boris Mogwitz, Anja Henß, Jürgen Thomas, Dina Bieberstein, Thomas Gemming, Svenja K Otto, Seemun Ray, Matthias Schumacher, Michael Gelinsky, Volker Alt
Drug functionalization of biomaterials is a modern and popular approach in biomaterials research. Amongst others this concept is used for the functionalization of bone implants to locally stimulate the bone healing process. For example strontium ions (Sr(2+)) are administered in osteoporosis therapy to stimulate bone growth and have recently been integrated into bone cements. Based on results of different analytical experiments we developed a two-phase model for the transport of therapeutically active Sr(2+)-ions in bone in combination with Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics for the Sr(2+) release from bone cement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Koen Salvo, Michel Defrise
The 'simultaneous Maximum-Likelihood Attenuation Correction Factors' (sMLACF) algorithm presented here, is an iterative algorithm to calculate the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate of the activity 'λ' and the attenuation factors 'a' in time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET), and this from emission data only. Hence sMLACF is an alternative to the MLACF algorithm. sMLACF is derived using the generalized expectation-maximization (GEM) principle by introducing an appropriate set of complete data...
July 28, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Cui-Juan Wang, Sheng-Bin Shi, Jing Tian, Jun Xu, Zuo-Xing Niu
This study evaluated the lnc-RNAs as biomarker to predict efficacy of gemcitabine (GEM) based chemotherapy as the first-line treatment for locally advanced or advanced pancreatic cancer patients. We selected 62 patients with GEM based chemotherapy and divided two groups according to the PFS. We found that the expression of MALAT1, HOTTIP, and PVT1 in serum had a significant difference among the two groups. Furthermore, we estimated the PFS and response rate based on the expression levels of MALAT1, HOTTIP and PVT1...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
Steven Vernali, Weston T Waxweiler, Patrick M Dillon, Peter A Kanetsky, Irene Orlow, Li Luo, Klaus J Busam, Anne Kricker, Bruce K Armstrong, Hoda Anton-Culver, Stephen B Gruber, Richard P Gallagher, Roberto Zanetti, Stefano Rosso, Lidia Sacchetto, Terence Dwyer, Anne E Cust, David W Ollila, Colin B Begg, Marianne Berwick, Nancy E Thomas
Importance: We previously reported that survival is poorer from histopathologically amelanotic than pigmented melanoma because of more advanced stage at diagnosis. Identifying patients at risk of amelanotic melanoma might enable earlier diagnosis and improved survival; however, the phenotypic characteristics and underlying genetics associated with amelanotic melanoma are unknown. Objective: To determine whether phenotypic characteristics, carriage of MC1R variants, and history of amelanotic melanoma are associated with histopathologically amelanotic melanoma...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Sheng Zhong, Shuai Qie, Liu Yang, Qi Yan, Linna Ge, Zhongfeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal digestive system tumors. Most new cases are diagnosed based on metastasis or local aggression and are known as "advanced PC." Recently, studies investigating S-1 have indicated that it has a better clinical curative effect on PC. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1 monotherapy compared with S-1 combination regimens in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory PC. METHODS: Trials published between 1978 and 2016 were identified by an electronic search of public databases (Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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