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HIV, addiction

K Closson, R McNeil, P McDougall, S Fernando, A B Collins, R Baltzer Turje, T Howard, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)-individuals with common experiences to the participant population (e.g. people who use drugs, people living with HIV [PLHIV]). However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the operationalization of PRA hiring and thus limited understanding regarding how affected communities can be meaningfully involved through low-barrier engagement in paid positions within community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Daniel P Riggins, Chinazo O Cunningham, Yuming Ning, Aaron D Fox
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) is an effective means of therapy, but patients with recent criminal justice involvement may need more support during BMT than other patients. We hypothesized that recently incarcerated BMT patients who initiated treatment in primary care would have poorer treatment outcomes than those who were not recently incarcerated. METHODS: We analyzed data from a multi-site cohort study of BMT integrated into HIV care...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
Naveen K Vaidya, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan S Perelson, Anil Kumar
Complications of HIV-1 infection in individuals who utilize drugs of abuse is a significant problem, because these drugs have been associated with higher virus replication and accelerated disease progression as well as severe neuropathogenesis. To gain further insight it is important to quantify the effects of drugs of abuse on HIV-1 infection dynamics. Here, we develop a mathematical model that incorporates experimentally observed effects of morphine on inducing HIV-1 co-receptor expression. For comparison we also considered viral dynamic models with cytolytic or noncytolytic effector cell responses...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Juliana Ferreira Barbosa, Sônia Maria de Figueiredo, Sandra Lyon, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is azooanthroponosis affecting both rural and peri-urban areas, and can also spread into urban areas. Although more than 90% of new cases are reported from six countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan, VL has emerged in many countries in the world, presenting new cases in new countries of occurrence. Thus, studies concerning epidemiological aspects in different world regions are very meaningful.In this purpose, this study aimed analyze 89 cases of VL, treated between June 2006 and June 2014 at Eduardo de Menezes Hospital (HEM), a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases situated in Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil...
September 21, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Taylor Wingo, Tanseli Nesil, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
BACKGROUND: Novelty-seeking behavior is related to the reward system in the brain and can predict the potential for addiction. Alcohol use is prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients and adversely affects antiretroviral medication. The difference in vulnerability to alcohol addiction between HIV-1-infected and noninfected populations has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to determine whether HIV-1 proteins alter the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on novelty-seeking behavior using the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat as the study model and to examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this behavior...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Nadia Fairbairn, Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Seonaid Nolan, Paul Nguyen, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is associated with a multitude of severe health consequences. While risk behaviors related to illicit drug use are commonly studied among people who inject drugs (PWID), the role of alcohol use has received substantially less attention in this population. We explored whether drug and sexual risk behaviors as well as experiences of violence were associated with hazardous alcohol use in a cohort of PWID. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using observational data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada...
September 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Farzaneh Zolala, Mina Mahdavian, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Karamouzian
BACKGROUND: Addiction is characterized differently among women and men, and they begin using drugs for different reasons and motives. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the gendered experiences and patterns of illicit drug use initiation in an Iranian context. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 29 participants (15 men and 14 women) took part in in-depth interviews conducted at a HIV triangulation clinic (for men and women) and drop-in-center for women in Kerman in 2011...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
N Elenga, M T Ggeorger-Sow, T Messiaen, I Lamaury, I Favre, M Nacher, G Beaucaire
The aim of this study was to investigate the mortality rate, risk factors and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in Guadeloupe from 1988 to 2009. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to describe the survival trends and the Cox proportional hazard model to identify predictors of deaths in HIV-infected patients. Mortality rate and causes of death were compared among patients whose HIV diagnosis was made in two different study periods. There were 672 deaths recorded. The exact cause of death was clearly identified for 202 patients (35%)...
September 18, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Maryam Foroughi, Saeedeh Moayedi-Nia, Alireza Shoghli, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Abbas Sedaghat, Mansoor Mohajeri, Seyed Noraldin Mousavinasab, Minoo Mohraz
OBJECTIVES: The existence of street and working children in Iran is undeniable. The precarious conditions of these children (including disrupted family, poverty, high prevalence of crime among relatives, family members and peers) cause social harm and high-risk behaviours, including drug addiction, selling sex or having sex with adolescents or peers. Here we explore the HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status of street and working children in Tehran. METHODS: One thousand street and labour children, aged 10-18 years, were recruited by using the time-location sampling method, and semistructured questionnaires were used to find demographic information and information on HIV/AIDS-related high-risk sexual behaviours...
September 6, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Diep Nguyen Bich, P Todd Korthuis, Trang Nguyen Thu, Hoa Van Dinh, Giang Le Minh
BACKGROUND: Integrated care models for HIV and substance use disorder (SUD) care are proposed as a strategy for closing gaps in the HIV care continuum and decreasing HIV transmission. We examined attitudes regarding integration of HIV and SUD treatment among HIV-infected patients with illicit drug and unhealthy alcohol use. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected patients receiving care at 5 HIV clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam, regarding substance use and attitudes toward HIV and SUD treatment integration...
October 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Carla Marienfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Kanna Hayashi, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Paul Nguyen, Cathy M Puskas, Silvia Guillemi, Julio S G Montaner, Michael-John Milloy
BACKGROUND: Crack cocaine use is known to contribute to poor adherence to antiretroviral medications; however, little is known about facilitators of or barriers to effective HIV treatment use among HIV-infected crack cocaine users. We sought to identify correlates of optimal pharmacy refill adherence for antiretroviral medications and plasma HIV RNA viral load (pVL) suppression among this population. METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada, were linked to comprehensive HIV clinical monitoring and pharmacy dispensation records...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kinna Thakarar, Jake R Morgan, Jessie M Gaeta, Carole Hohl, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
BACKGROUND: The importance of HIV viral suppression is widely known, however few studies have examined the effects of homelessness on HIV viral suppression. METHODS: The study included HIV-seropositive patients in a health care for the homeless program (HCH). Electronic medical record data for 138 patients were analyzed to compare demographic characteristics, health characteristics, and utilization by housing status. For the 95 individuals with available HIV viral loads, multivariable logistic analysis was performed to examine factors associated with incomplete viral suppression...
February 2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Naveed Zafar Janjua, Amanda Yu, Margot Kuo, Maria Alvarez, Darrel Cook, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: We characterized the twin epidemics of new and prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in British Columbia, Canada to inform prevention, care and treatment programs. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes individuals tested for HCV, HIV or reported as a case of HBV, HCV, HIV or active TB between 1990-2013 linked with data on their medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality. Prevalent infection was defined as being anti-HCV positive at first test...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Maxim Polonsky, Lyuba Azbel, Martin P Wegman, Jacob M Izenberg, Chethan Bachireddy, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Sergii Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice
INTRODUCTION: The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. METHODS: In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Frederick L Altice, Lyuba Azbel, Jack Stone, Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Pavlo Smyrnov, Sergii Dvoriak, Faye S Taxman, Nabila El-Bassel, Natasha K Martin, Robert Booth, Heino Stöver, Kate Dolan, Peter Vickerman
Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Mahmood Karimy, Ahmad Reza Abedi, Hamid Abredari, Mohammad Taher, Fatemeh Zarei, Zahra Rezaie Shahsavarloo
BACKGROUND: The horror of HIV/AIDS as a non-curable, grueling disease is a destructive issue for every country. Drug use, shared needles and unsafe sex are closely linked to the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Modification or changing unhealthy behavior through educational programs can lead to HIV prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of theory-based education intervention on HIV prevention transmission in drug addicts. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 69 male drug injecting users were entered in to the theory- based educational intervention...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Ting Lin, Chang-Hsun Chen, Pesus Chou
BACKGROUND: In 2003, a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus emerged among injection drug users in Taiwan. In response to the twin epidemics of HIV and intravenous drug addiction, the government implemented comprehensive harm reduction programs beginning in 2005. Collected data from relevant agencies were used to explore the impact of the harm reduction programs on HIV and illicit drug use. METHODS: This study divided 2002-2015 into three intervention phases and used the surveillance data and statistics on the HIV epidemic, drug abuse, and the intervention from relevant agencies to explore the correlations between different variables in different intervention periods and the combination effects of interventions on the HIV epidemic...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Roselma Lucchese, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Ivânia Vera, Aurélio Goulart Rodovalho, Vanessa Alves Guimarães, Gracielle Cristina Silva, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Priscilla Martins Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with lifetime HIV testing in non-injection drug users (NIDU). METHODS: cross-sectional study was conducted with 323 individuals in clinics for chemical dependency of the state of Goiás, Central-West region of Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with lifetime HIV testing. RESULTS: The frequency of HIV testing was 48.9% (95% CI: 43.5-54.3%)...
June 30, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kh Todadze, S Mosia
Injecting drug user size estimation studies carried out in 2009, 2012 and 2015 revealed growing trends of drug abuse in Georgia:estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) have been increased from 40000 and 45000 to 50000. Since Soviet period the most popular injective narcotics have been opioids: home-made opium, heroine, buprenorphine and home-made desomorphine ("Krokodile") replacing each other on the black market. Self-made desomorphine typically contains big amounts of different toxic substances and causes significant somatic disorders, especially skin, bone, blood infections, liver and kidney failure; is highly addictive, associates with frequent injections that enhance injecting-related harm, including the risk of HIV transmission, in comparison with typical opioids...
May 2016: Georgian Medical News
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