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Upper respiratory infections

Maren Alchikh, Tim Conrad, Christian Hoppe, Xiaolin Ma, Eeva Broberg, Pasi Penttinen, Janine Reiche, Barbara Biere, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
OBJECTIVES: Hospital-based surveillance of influenza and acute respiratory infections relies on ICD-codes and hospital laboratory reports (Standard-of-Care). It is unclear how many cases are missed with either method, i.e. remain undiagnosed/coded as influenza and other respiratory virus infections. Various influenza-like illness (ILI) definitions co-exist with little guidance on how to use them. We are comparing the diagnostic accuracy of standard surveillance methods with a prospective quality management (QM-Program) at a Berlin children's hospital with the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Andreas Wollenberg, Michael D Howell, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Jonathan I Silverberg, Christopher Kell, Koustubh Ranade, Rachel Moate, René van der Merwe
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-13 has an important role in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis. Tralokinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that potently and specifically neutralizes IL-13. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tralokinumab in adults with moderate to severe AD. METHODS: In this phase 2b study (NCT02347176), 204 adults were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive subcutaneous tralokinumab 45 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg, or placebo, every 2 weeks for 12 weeks, with concomitant topical glucocorticoids...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hong Zhang, Chiajung Yeh, Zonglian Jin, Liwei Ding, Bryan Y Liu, Li Zhang, H Kathleen Dannelly
The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Jayendra R Gohil, Tushar S Agarwal
Pancytopenia secondary to levetiracetam administration is infrequent but possible. Here, we report a case of pancytopenia associated with levetiracetam in a 4-month-old infant. However, increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) has been reported frequently. It appears that URTI is a heralding side effect of pancytopenia and tip of the iceberg.
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Antonio Pizzulli, Serena Perna, Anja Bennewiz, Holger Roeblitz, Salvatore Tripodi, Jakob Florack, Petra Wagner, Stephanie Hofmaier, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: The impact of proper aspiration of nasal secretions during upper respiratory infection on the frequency and severity of symptoms of lower airways has never been investigated. The study was aimed at testing if cleaning the nasal cavities of children with recurrent wheezing using an automatic nasal aspirator improves the upper and lower respiratory symptoms during the cold season. METHODS: Parents of wheezing children (age 3-72 mo.) answered questionnaires and learned using a nebulizer equipped (cases) or not equipped (controls) with an automatic nasal aspirator (DuoBaby, OMRON, Japan)...
June 14, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Homaidan T Al-Homaidan, Issam E Barrimah
Objective: Physicians' knowledge of antibiotics, their attitudes, expectations, and practices regarding antibiotic prescription is fundamental for controlling the irrational antibiotic use. This study evaluates primary health care (PHC) physicians' knowledge, expectation, and practices regarding antibiotics use in upper respiratory tract infections. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in the Qassim region where 32 PHC centers were selected randomly. A total of 294 PHC physicians were surveyed...
May 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
Matthew S Davids, Michael Hallek, William Wierda, Andrew W Roberts, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Jeffrey A Jones, John F Gerecitano, Su Young Kim, Jalaja Potluri, Todd Busman, Andrea Best, Maria E Verdugo, Elisa Cerri, Monali Desai, Peter Hillmen, John F Seymour
PURPOSE: The oral BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including disease with high-risk genomic features such as chromosome 17p deletion (del[17p]) or progressive disease following B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the safety of 400mg daily venetoclax monotherapy in 350 patients with CLL using an integrated dataset from three phase-I/II studies...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Norihito Kaku, Kohji Hashiguchi, Yuki Iwanaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Takeshi Kitazaki, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Masaaki Fukuda, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
Although viruses are the major pathogen that causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and acute bronchitis, antibiotics have been prescribed. This was a prospective observational study in influenza epidemics that enrolled adult outpatients who visited a hospital with respiratory tract infection symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of FilmArray respiratory panel (RP). Fifty patients were enrolled. FilmArray RP detected the pathogens in 28 patients. The common pathogens were influenza virus (n = 14), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 6), and human rhinovirus (n = 6)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
D Cocking, J Cinatl, D A Boltz, X Peng, W Johnson, M Muzzio, O Syarkevych, G Kostyuk, A Goy, L Mueller, V I Margitich
With only a single class of antiviral drugs existing for treatment of influenza (neuraminidase inhibitors), the search for novel effective compounds is urgently needed. We evaluated a low molecular mass compound, enisamium iodide (FAV00A), against influenza virus infections in primary differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, and in ferrets. FAV00A (500 µg/ml) markedly inhibited influenza virus replication and reduced viral M-gene expression in NHBE cells. Treatment of ferrets with FAV00A (200 mg/kg once daily for 7 days) initiated 24 h after inoculation with 105 TCID50 of influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) virus resulted in a significant decrease in virus titers in the upper respiratory tract...
2018: Acta Virologica
Gaurav Pandey, Om P Pandey, Angela J Rogers, Mehmet E Ahsen, Gabriel E Hoffman, Benjamin A Raby, Scott T Weiss, Eric E Schadt, Supinda Bunyavanich
Asthma is a common, under-diagnosed disease affecting all ages. We sought to identify a nasal brush-based classifier of mild/moderate asthma. 190 subjects with mild/moderate asthma and controls underwent nasal brushing and RNA sequencing of nasal samples. A machine learning-based pipeline identified an asthma classifier consisting of 90 genes interpreted via an L2-regularized logistic regression classification model. This classifier performed with strong predictive value and sensitivity across eight test sets, including (1) a test set of independent asthmatic and control subjects profiled by RNA sequencing (positive and negative predictive values of 1...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Silva Alexandrino, Rita Santos, Cristina Melo, David Tomé, José Mesquita Bastos, Guy Postiaux
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Children up to 2 years old are at high risk of respiratory infections and nasal irrigation is often prescribed. Yet, to date there is no sufficient knowledge about its immediate effects on the nasopharynx and middle ear. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of a rhino-pharyngeal clearance intervention protocol on nasal obstruction and middle ear condition in children under 3 years of age with URTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in a day-care centre of Porto, including 44 children randomized to Intervention Group (IG) and Control Group (CG)...
June 8, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Mehnaz Aziz, Stephanie Janeczko, Maya Gupta
Feline relocation is used increasingly in animal welfare to decrease shelter euthanasia rates and increase positive outcomes. Concerns about infectious disease introduction and transmission are often expressed; however, little research has been conducted on even the baseline prevalence of infectious disease following relocation. This study, which collected data on 430 cats relocated through an established program over 7 months, evaluated the prevalence of upper respiratory infection (URI), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and dermatophytosis at one destination agency...
June 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kunping Li, Zhuoru He, Xinqiuyue Wang, Miguel Pineda, Runbao Chen, Haiqi Liu, Kaiting Ma, Huanjia Shen, Chunhui Wu, Ningtin Huang, Tianling Pan, Yun Liu, Jiao Guo
Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening conditions with high morbility and mortality, underscoring the urgent need for novel treatments. Leaves of the medicinal herb Microcos paniculata have been traditionally used for treating upper airway infections, by virtue of its content of flavonoids such as apigenin C-glycosides (ACGs). C-glycosides have been shown to exert strong anti-inflammatory properties, although their mechanism of action remains unknown...
June 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Harika Puttagunta, Saleh Alghsoon, Prudhvi Regula, Shruthimurthy Hassankrishnamurthy, Vamsi K Kota
BACKGROUND Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) serves as prophylaxis and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) caused by viruses of the Orthomyxovirus family. Here, we present a patient with URTI and negative rapid influenza diagnostic testing (RIDT), who developed rhabdomyolysis after being started on oseltamivir. CASE REPORT Our report describes a rare case of rhabdomyolysis after oseltamivir administration in a 53-year-old man with suspected influenza...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Demet Demirkol, Umay Kavgacı, Burcu Babaoğlu, Serhan Tanju, Banu Oflaz Sözmen, Suda Tekin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this case report is to discuss diagnostic workup and clinical management of cytomegalovirus reactivation in a critically ill immunocompetent pediatric patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old white boy who had no medical history presented with respiratory distress and fever. His Pediatric Risk of Mortality and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction scores were 20 and 11, respectively. Our preliminary diagnosis was multiple organ dysfunction secondary to sepsis...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Marcelo Low, Ronit Almog, Ran D Balicer, Nicky Liberman, Raul Raz, Avi Peretz, Orna Nitzan
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed at many of the visits to primary care clinics, often for conditions for which they provide no benefit, including viral respiratory tract infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate primary care visits due to infectious diseases, and to estimate antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic dispensing by pharmacies. METHODS: Diagnosis of infectious disease, antibiotic prescribing and dispensing data at the individual patient level were extracted for 2015 from Clalit Health Services' electronic medical records and linked to determine the condition for which the antimicrobial was prescribed...
June 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Germán E Piñas, Nicolás M Reinoso-Vizcaino, Nubia Y Yandar Barahona, Paulo R Cortes, Rosario Duran, Chandan Badapanda, Ankita Rathore, Dario R Bichara, Melina B Cian, Nadia B Olivero, Daniel R Perez, José Echenique
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen that usually colonizes the upper respiratory tract, but the invasion and survival mechanism in respiratory epithelial cells remains elusive. Previously, we described that acidic stress-induced lysis (ASIL) and intracellular survival are controlled by ComE through a yet unknown activation mechanism under acidic conditions, which is independent of the ComD histidine kinase that activates this response regulator for competence development at pH 7...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sean G Byars, Stephen C Stearns, Jacobus J Boomsma
Importance: Surgical removal of adenoids and tonsils to treat obstructed breathing or recurrent middle-ear infections remain common pediatric procedures; however, little is known about their long-term health consequences despite the fact that these lymphatic organs play important roles in the development and function of the immune system. Objective: To estimate long-term disease risks associated with adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, and adenotonsillectomy in childhood...
June 7, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Junping Sun, Yongjiu Xiao, Mingyue Zhang, Ting Ao, Shan Lang, Jianxin Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to characterize adenovirus-associated acute respiratory infection (ARI) and observe correlations between inflammatory markers and severity of human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV-7) infection, and to evaluate the potential of inflammatory markers to predict progression from upper-respiratory infection (URI) to adenovirus pneumonia (AdP). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 81 patients with adenovirus-associated ARI and confirmed HAdV-7 infection were enrolled. Cases were classified according to severity, as AdP and URI...
June 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Dimitrios Papanagnou, Danica Stone, Shruti Chandra, Phillip Watts, Anna Marie Chang, Judd E Hollander
Introduction Given the rapid expansion of telehealth (TH), there is an emerging need for trained professionals who can effectively deliver TH services. As there is no formal TH training program for residents, the Department of Emergency Medicine (DEM) at Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) developed a pilot training program for senior post-graduate-year three (PGY-3) residents that exposed them to TH practices. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of developing a resident-led, post-Emergency-Department (ED) visit TH follow-up program as an educational opportunity to 1) address patient satisfaction; and 2) expose senior residents to TH delivery...
April 5, 2018: Curēus
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