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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821808/repetition-suppression-to-objects-is-modulated-by-stimulus-specific-expectations
#1
Christian Utzerath, Elexa St John-Saaltink, Jan Buitelaar, Floris P de Lange
Repeated exposure to the same stimulus results in an attenuated brain response in cortical regions that are activated during the processing of that stimulus. This phenomenon, called repetition suppression (RS), has been shown to be modulated by expectation. Typically, this is achieved by varying the probability of stimulus repetitions (Prep) between blocks of an experiment, generating an abstract expectation that 'things will repeat'. Here, we examined whether stimulus-specific expectations also modulate RS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789959/emergency-department-blood-alcohol-level-associates-with-injury-factors-and-six-month-outcome-after-uncomplicated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
John K Yue, Laura B Ngwenya, Pavan S Upadhyayula, Hansen Deng, Ethan A Winkler, John F Burke, Young M Lee, Caitlin K Robinson, Adam R Ferguson, Hester F Lingsma, Maryse C Cnossen, Romain Pirracchio, Frederick K Korley, Mary J Vassar, Esther L Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Wayne A Gordon, Alex B Valadka, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey T Manley
The relationship between blood alcohol level (BAL) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains in need of improved characterization. Adult patients suffering mTBI without intracranial pathology on computed tomography (CT) from the prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot study with emergency department (ED) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 13-15 and recorded blood alcohol level (BAL) were extracted. BAL≥80-mg/dl was set as proxy for excessive use. Multivariable regression was performed for patients with six-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE; functional recovery) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Processing Speed Index Composite Score (WAIS-PSI; nonverbal processing speed), using BAL≥80-mg/dl and <80-mg/dl cohorts, adjusting for demographic/injury factors...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777970/identification-of-characteristics-and-frequent-scenarios-of-single-vehicle-rollover-crashes-during-pre-ballistic-phase-part-1-a-descriptive-study
#3
Taewung Kim, Dipan Bose, Jon Foster, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff R Crandall, Mark Clauser, Jason R Kerrigan
This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes...
August 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769776/affective-aspects-of-perceived-loss-of-control-and-potential-implications-for-brain-computer-interfaces
#4
Sebastian Grissmann, Thorsten O Zander, Josef Faller, Jonas Brönstrup, Augustin Kelava, Klaus Gramann, Peter Gerjets
Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) focus on detecting single aspects of user states (e.g., motor imagery) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to use these aspects as control input for external systems. This communication can be effective, but unaccounted mental processes can interfere with signals used for classification and thereby introduce changes in the signal properties which could potentially impede BCI classification performance. To improve BCI performance, we propose deploying an approach that potentially allows to describe different mental states that could influence BCI performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758543/inconsistencies-with-screening-for-traumatic-brain-injury-in-spinal-cord-injury-across-the-continuum-of-care
#5
Seema Sikka, Angela Vrooman, Librada Callender, David Salisbury, Monica Bennett, Rita Hamilton, Simon Driver
OBJECTIVE: Explore how traumatic brain injury (TBI) is screened among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients across the continuum of care. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review Setting: Emergency department, trauma, inpatient rehabilitation Participants: 325 patients with SCI from inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) between March 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014 were screened. 49 eligible subjects had traumatic SCI and received care in adjoining acute care (AC) hospital...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737304/investigation-and-diagnostic-formulation-in-patients-admitted-with-transient-loss-of-consciousness
#6
R Briggs, T Coughlan, J Doherty, D R Collins, D O'Neill, S P Kennelly
Several commonly completed tests have low diagnostic yield in the setting of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). We estimated the use and cost of inappropriate investigations in patients admitted with T-LOC and assessed if these patients were given a definitive diagnosis for their presentation. We identified 80 consecutive patients admitted with T-LOC to a university teaching hospital. Eighty-eight percent (70/80) had a computerized topography (CT) brain scan and 49% (34/70) of these scans were inappropriate based on standard guidelines...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729782/holding-strength-of-suture-an-experimental-study-using-porcine-kidney
#7
Ünsal Özkuvanci, Haluk Akpinar, Mert Ali Karadag, Muhammet İrfan Dönmez, Fatih Altunrende
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The search for the perfect suture is going on and has resulted in the introduction of many different suture types into the market. The purpose of this study is to investigate the holding strength (HS) of different sutures in the renal parenchyma in an experimental study on pig kidneys. METHODS: The HS that caused sliding of the suture was investigated in 5 adult porcine kidneys with 7 suture variants. HS-caused tearing of the kidney was investigated with 3 suture types on 5 kidneys...
July 2017: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728281/-a-cross-sectional-study-of-cataract-in-residents-with-type-2-diabetes-living-in-xinjing-town-shanghai
#8
B J Zhu, X R Zou, Y Xu, X L Bai, M Lu, Y Y Ma, L N Lu, J F Zhu, H D Zou, X Xu
Objective: To investigate the prevalence, subtypes and risk factors of cataract in type 2 diabetic individuals. Methods: Geographically defined cluster sampling method was used in this population-based, cross-sectional study. There were 7 756 type 2 diabetes individuals in Xinjing Town with a residential population of 88 864. The type 2 diabetic individuals were randomly selected from 20 basic sample units in Xinjing Town of Changning District from April to June 2016. All participants received visual acuity measurement and eye examination...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724102/impact-of-biochar-organic-and-inorganic-carbon-on-soil-co2-and-n2o-emissions
#9
Rivka B Fidel, David A Laird, Timothy B Parkin
Biochar has been shown to influence soil CO and NO emissions following application to soil, but the presence of carbonates in biochars has largely confounded efforts to differentiate among labile and recalcitrant C pools in biochar and establish their timeframe of influence. Understanding the mechanism, magnitude, and duration of biochar C pools' influence on C and N dynamics is imperative to successful implementation of biochar for C sequestration. Here we therefore aim to assess biochar organic and inorganic C pool impacts on CO and NO emissions from soil amended with two untreated biochars, inorganic carbon (as NaCO), acid (HCl) and bicarbonate (NaHCO) extracts of the biochars, and acid and bicarbonate/acid-washed biochars during a 140-d soil incubation...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722051/holographic-microscope-slide-in-a-spatio-temporal-imaging-modality-for-reliable-3d-cell-counting
#10
Biagio Mandracchia, Vittorio Bianco, Zhe Wang, Martina Mugnano, Alessia Bramanti, Melania Paturzo, Pietro Ferraro
In the current trend of miniaturization and simplification of imaging flow cytometry, Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) microfluidic devices represent an innovative and cost-effective solution. In this framework, we propose for the first time a novel platform based on the compactness of a holographic microscope slide (HMS) in combination with the new computational features of space-time digital holography (STDH) that uses a 1D linear sensor array (LSA) instead of 2D CCD or CMOS cameras to respond to real diagnostic needs...
August 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720183/g-loc-warning-algorithms-based-on-emg-features-of-the-gastrocnemius-muscle
#11
Sungho Kim, Taehwan Cho, Yongkyun Lee, Hyojin Koo, Booyong Choi, Dongsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is mainly caused by failure to sustain an oxygenated blood supply to the pilot's brain because of the sudden acceleration in the direction of the +Gz axis, and is considered a critical safety issue. The purpose of this study was to develop G-LOC warning algorithms based on monitoring electromyograms (EMG) of the gastrocnemius muscle on the calf. METHODS: EMG data was retrieved from a total of 67 pilots and pilot trainees of the Korean Air Force during high-G training on a human centrifugal simulator...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714097/a-randomized-comparative-pilot-trial-of-family-based-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-reducing-psychosocial-symptoms-disordered-eating-and-excess-weight-gain-in-at-risk-preadolescents-with-loss-of-control-eating
#12
Lauren B Shomaker, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Camden E Matherne, Rim D Mehari, Cara H Olsen, Shannon E Marwitz, Jennifer L Bakalar, Lisa M Ranzenhofer, Nichole R Kelly, Natasha A Schvey, Natasha L Burke, Omni Cassidy, Sheila M Brady, Laura J Dietz, Denise E Wilfley, Susan Z Yanovski, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVE: Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. METHOD: A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702735/is-the-extrastriate-body-area-part-of-the-dorsal-visuomotor-stream
#13
Marius Zimmermann, Rogier B Mars, Floris P de Lange, Ivan Toni, Lennart Verhagen
The extrastriate body area (EBA) processes visual information about body parts, and it is considered one among a series of category-specific perceptual modules distributed across the occipito-temporal cortex. However, recent evidence raises the possibility that EBA might also provide an interface between perception and action, linking the ventral and dorsal streams of visual information processing. Here, we assess anatomical evidence supporting this possibility. We localise EBA in individual subjects using a perceptual task and compare the characteristics of its functional and structural connectivity to those of two perceptual areas, the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and the fusiform body area (FBA), separately for each hemisphere...
July 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698531/microfluidic-platform-for-the-long-term-on-chip-cultivation-of-mammalian-cells-for-lab-on-a-chip-applications
#14
Frank Bunge, Sander van den Driesche, Michael J Vellekoop
Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) applications for the long-term analysis of mammalian cells are still very rare due to the lack of convenient cell cultivation devices. The difficulties are the integration of suitable supply structures, the need of expensive equipment like an incubator and sophisticated pumps as well as the choice of material. The presented device is made out of hard, but non-cytotoxic materials (silicon and glass) and contains two vertical arranged membranes out of hydrogel. The porous membranes are used to separate the culture chamber from two supply channels for gases and nutrients...
July 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695968/robotic-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-with-the-use-of-barbed-sutures
#15
Angelo Porreca, Antonio Salvaggio, Matteo Dandrea, Emanuele Cappa, Alessio Zuccala, Alessandro Del Rosso, Daniele D'Agostino
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the principal advantages of posterior muscolo-fascial reconstruction using knotless barbed sutures (BS) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of principal BS (Quill™ SRS Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc., Vancouver, Canada; V-Loc™ Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland; STRATAFIX™ Ethicon Inc., Somerville, New Jersey; Filbloc® Assut Europe S...
July 11, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692007/can-an-internal-locus-of-control-and-social-support-reduce-work-related-levels-of-stress-and-strain-a-comparative-study-between-spanish-owners-and-managers
#16
Antonio Ariza-Montes, Antonio L Leal-Rodríguez, Lucía Rodríguez-Félix, Gema Albort-Morant
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to assess the role played by both individual and contextual factors in reducing the manager's levels of stress and strain within the workplace setting. This article also highlights the manager's locus of control (LOC) as an internal factor and emphasizes the social support variable as a contextual factor. METHODS: We use a sample of 332 respondents belonging to Spanish manufacturing and services firms and a structural equation modeling technique (partial least squares path modeling)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683170/noradrenergic-modulation-of-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-japanese-quail
#17
Yasuko Tobari, Norio Kansaku, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. In Japanese quail, GnIH neurons express the noradrenergic receptor and receive noradrenergic innervation. Treatment with noradrenaline (NA) stimulates GnIH release from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. However, the effects of NA on hypothalamic GnIH gene expression have not been determined. We investigated noradrenergic regulation of GnIH gene expression in the brain of male quail using the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675709/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-asthma-attack-the-role-of-agency-beliefs-in-mediating-psychiatric-morbidity
#18
Ernest H Wagner, Mark Hoelterhoff, Man Cheung Chung
BACKGROUND: The link between serious illness and subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric comorbidity has been established. In populations with asthma, however, few studies have investigated this link, or what psychological mechanisms mediate it. Healthcare guidance for chronic conditions, and PTSD literature, highlight "agency beliefs" as a direction for investigation. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of PTSD following asthma attack, and investigate whether agency beliefs mediate PTSD and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this population...
August 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673852/effective-encapsulation-and-biological-activity-of-phosphorylated-chemotherapeutics-in-calcium-phosphosilicate-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Welley S Loc, Samuel S Linton, Zachary R Wilczynski, Gail L Matters, Christopher O McGovern, Thomas Abraham, Todd Fox, Christopher M Gigliotti, Xiaomeng Tang, Amra Tabakovic, Jo Ann Martin, Gary A Clawson, Jill P Smith, Peter J Butler, Mark Kester, James H Adair
Drug resistant cancers like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are difficult to treat, and nanoparticle drug delivery systems can overcome some of the limitations of conventional systemic chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that FdUMP and dFdCMP, the bioactive, phosphorylated metabolites of the chemotherapy drugs 5-FU and gemcitabine, can be encapsulated into calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs). The non-phosphorylated drug analogs were not well encapsulated by CPSNPs, suggesting the phosphate modification is essential for effective encapsulation...
July 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673505/the-first-sign-of-loss-of-consciousness
#20
Typ Whinnery, Estrella M Forster
The first clinically observable sign of an unconsciousness episode (UNCE) serves as the temporal sequence (kinetics) onset point for neurological events occurring during the loss of consciousness, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness phases of the UNCE. The initial neurologic signs of 212 individuals exposed to gradual (N=114) and rapid (N=98) onset +Gz acceleration stress, inducing the ischemic LOC phase in 83.3±18.6s and 8.89±1.52s; p<0.001 respectively, were determined. The duration of the unconscious phase (considered absolute incapacitation) was 10...
July 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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