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Augmented renal clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764549/-clinical-verification-of-vancomycin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#1
Haodi Lu, Lian Tang, Shengmin Xue, Zhiwei Zhuang, Jie Fang, Fuli Zhao, Erning Shang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value and to verify the clinical effect of JPKD-vancomycin for the trough concentration of vancomycin in patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC), and to provide a reference for clinical individualized drug therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. The clinical data of 48 adult patients with ARC using vancomycin and monitoring steady-state trough concentration of vancomycin admitted to Suzhou Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from July 2013 to July 2017 were collected...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733108/reliability-of-serum-creatinine-based-formulae-estimating-renal-function-in-non-critically-ill-surgery-patients-focus-on-augmented-renal-clearance
#2
Peter Declercq, Matthias Gijsen, Björn Meijers, Marie Schetz, Stefaan Nijs, André D'Hoore, Joost Wauters, Isabel Spriet
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Formulae estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are frequently used to guide drug dosing. The objectives of this prospective single-center study were to evaluate agreement between these equations and measured creatinine clearance (CrCl) in non-critically ill surgery patients with normal kidney function and augmented renal clearance (ARC, CrCl ≥ 130 mL/min/1.73 m²), to determine predictors for disagreement, define a GFR estimator cut-off value identifying ARC and determine the ARC prevalence and duration in non-critically ill surgical patients...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694249/olmesartan-combined-with-renal-denervation-reduces-blood-pressure-in-association-with-sympatho-inhibitory-and-aldosterone-reducing-effects-in-hypertensive-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Masaaki Nishihara, Ko Takesue, Yoshitaka Hirooka
BACKGROUND: Augmented sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HT) accompanied by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oxidative stress in the hypothalamus increases SNA in HT. Administration of an angiotensin ΙΙ receptor blocker (olmesartan; OLM) or renal denervation (RDN) exerts an antihypertensive effect in HT with CKD; however, the precise mechanisms of the combination therapy are not fully elucidated...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625388/crocin-reverses-unilateral-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-augmentation-of-oxidative-stress-and-toll-like-receptor-4-activity
#4
Hadeer O Abou-Hany, Hoda Atef, Eman Said, Hassan A Elkashef, Hatem A Salem
Renal Ischemia (RI) usually develops as a secondary manifestation of hypertension, various cardiovascular disorders and renal transplantation. It exerts hypoxic oxidative stress to kidneys, together with stimulation of several immune-mediated inflammatory cascades. Such events eventually damage renal tubules and glomeruli, driving acute kidney injury (AKI) and ultimately, renal failure. Crocin; the main bioactive constituent of Crocus sativus extract has been reported to demonstrate numerous pharmacological merits...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582860/covariate-determinants-of-effective-dosing-regimens-for-time-dependent-beta-lactam-antibiotics-for-critically-ill-patients
#5
Milan Kaska, Eduard Havel, Iva Selke-Krulichova, Petr Safranek, Jan Bezouska, Jirina Martinkova
AIMS: Critically ill patients undergoing aggressive fluid resuscitation and treated empirically with hydrosoluble time-dependent beta-lactam antibiotics are at risk for sub-therapeutic plasma concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two covariates - creatinine clearance (Clcr ) and cumulative fluid balance (CFB) on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) target attainment within a week of treatment with meropenem (ME) or piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TZB). METHODS: In this prospective observational pharmacokinetic (PK) study, 18 critically ill patients admitted to a surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were enrolled...
March 27, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551234/augmented-renal-clearance-much-more-is-better
#6
T M Tomasa Irriguible
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483225/at2r-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-ncc-na-cl-cotransporter-and-renal-k-excretion-depends-on-the-k-channel-kir4-1
#7
Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Xin-Peng Duan, Xiao-Tong Su, Ming-Xiao Wang, Dao-Hong Lin, Ruimin Gu, Wen-Hui Wang
AT2R (AngII [angiotensin II] type 2 receptor) is expressed in the distal nephrons. The aim of the present study is to examine whether AT2R regulates NCC (Na-Cl cotransporter) and Kir4.1 of the distal convoluted tubule. AngII inhibited the basolateral 40 pS K channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule treated with losartan but not with PD123319. AT2R agonist also inhibits the K channel, indicating that AT2R was involved in tonic regulation of Kir4.1. The infusion of PD123319 stimulated the expression of tNCC (total NCC) and pNCC (phosphorylated NCC; Thr53 ) by a time-dependent way with the peak at 4 days...
April 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463528/optimization-and-evaluation-of-piperacillin-tobramycin-combination-dosage-regimens-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-for-patients-with-altered-pharmacokinetics-via-the-hollow-fiber-infection-model-and-mechanism-based-modeling
#8
Rajbharan Yadav, Kate E Rogers, Phillip J Bergen, Jürgen B Bulitta, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, Steven C Wallis, David L Paterson, Roger L Nation, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts, Cornelia B Landersdorfer
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) in critically ill patients can result in suboptimal drug exposures and treatment failure. Combination dosage regimens accounting for ARC have never been optimized and evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by use of the hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). Using a P. aeruginosa isolate from a critically ill patient and static-concentration time-kill experiments (SCTKs), we studied clinically relevant piperacillin and tobramycin concentrations, alone and in combinations, against two inocula (105...
May 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441476/augmented-renal-clearance-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Idoia Bilbao-Meseguer, Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón, Helena Barrasa, Arantxazu Isla, María Ángeles Solinís
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, renal function in critically ill patients has been assessed to identify renal dysfunction, and dose adjustment is generally accepted in such a context. Nevertheless, augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a less well-studied phenomenon that could lead to faster elimination of drugs, resulting in subtherapeutic concentrations and poorer clinical outcomes when standard dosage guidelines are followed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to gather and summarise all the available evidence on ARC in critically ill patients, including its definition, underlying mechanisms, epidemiology, diagnosis and impact on both drug pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362162/is-augmented-renal-clearance-the-holy-grail-of-antibiotic-therapy-failure-in-ventilator-acquired-pneumonia
#10
EDITORIAL
Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Sandrine Marchand, Jeffrey Lipman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361255/prevalence-of-augmented-renal-clearance-and-performance-of-glomerular-filtration-estimates-in-indigenous-australian-patients-requiring-intensive-care-admission
#11
D Tsai, A A Udy, P C Stewart, S Gourley, N M Morick, J Lipman, J A Roberts
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) refers to the enhanced renal excretion of circulating solute commonly demonstrated in numerous critically ill subgroups. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of ARC in critically ill Indigenous Australian patients and explore the accuracy of commonly employed mathematical estimates of glomerular filtration. We completed a single-centre, prospective, observational study in the intensive care unit (ICU), Alice Springs Hospital, Central Australia. Participants were critically ill adult Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian patients with a urinary catheter in situ...
January 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344085/synthesis-secretion-function-metabolism-and-application-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-heart-failure
#12
REVIEW
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Fengqi Wang, Leiming Luo
As a family of hormones with pleiotropic effects, natriuretic peptide (NP) system includes atrial NP (ANP), B-type NP (BNP), C-type NP (CNP), dendroaspis NP and urodilatin, with NP receptor-A (guanylate cyclase-A), NP receptor-B (guanylate cyclase-B) and NP receptor-C (clearance receptor). These peptides are genetically distinct, but structurally and functionally related for regulating circulatory homeostasis in vertebrates. In humans, ANP and BNP are encoded by NP precursor A (NPPA) and NPPB genes on chromosome 1, whereas CNP is encoded by NPPC on chromosome 2...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310825/potassium-intake-modulates-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-ncc-activity-via-the-kir4-1-potassium-channel
#13
Ming-Xiao Wang, Catherina A Cuevas, Xiao-Tong Su, Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Dao-Hong Lin, James A McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Wen-Hui Wang, David H Ellison
Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice...
April 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228990/mannitol-and-the-blood-labyrinth-barrier
#14
Trung N Le, Brian W Blakley
BACKGROUND: Characterization of the blood labyrinth barrier (BLB) is extremely important to determine whether the BLB can be manipulated pharmacologically. However, experiments to investigate the BLB are technically difficult to perform. In this report, we demonstrated a unique method of controlling the BLB, and established the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in perilymph, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood with and without mannitol. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled animal research project...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209891/renal-response-to-anaphylaxis-in-anesthetized-rats-and-isolated-perfused-rat-kidneys-roles-of-nitric-oxide
#15
Kiyotaka Mukai, Yuhichi Kuda, Toshishige Shibamoto, Mamoru Tanida, Yasutaka Kurata, Hitoshi Yokoyama
We determined the renal responses to anaphylaxis and the effects of a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME, in anesthetized rats and isolated perfused rat kidneys. After the ovalbumin antigen injection, the sensitized rats showed transient and substantial decreases in mean blood pressure and renal blood flow and an increase in renal vascular resistance. Creatinine clearance, a measure of renal function, decreased to 53% baseline at 2 h after antigen. L-NAME pretreatment significantly enhanced the antigen-induced renal vasoconstriction and renal dysfunction...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180280/association-between-augmented-renal-clearance-antibiotic-exposure-and-clinical-outcome-in-critically-ill-septic-patients-receiving-high-doses-of-%C3%AE-lactams-administered-by-continuous-infusion-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Cédric Carrié, Laurent Petit, Nicolas d'Houdain, Noemie Sauvage, Vincent Cottenceau, Melanie Lafitte, Cecile Foumenteze, Quentin Hisz, Deborah Menu, Rachel Legeron, Dominique Breilh, Francois Sztark
This study assessed whether augmented renal clearance (ARC) impacts negatively on antibiotic concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients treated by high-dose β-lactams administered continuously. Over a 9-month period, all critically ill patients without renal impairment treated by one of the monitored β-lactams for a documented infection were eligible. During the first 3 days of antibiotic therapy, every patient underwent 24-h CLCr measurements and therapeutic drug monitoring. The main outcome was the rate of β-lactam underdosing, defined as a free drug concentration <4 × MIC of the known pathogen...
March 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169279/evaluation-of-intravenous-vancomycin-pharmacokinetic-parameters-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury
#17
Allison Oswalt, Anny-Claude Joseph, Adam Sima, Lisa Kurczewski
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is primarily cleared by renal elimination. Patients with acute brain injury often exhibit augmented renal clearance which has been associated with subtherapeutic vancomycin concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether population pharmacokinetics accurately predict vancomycin empiric dose frequency in patients with acute brain injury. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted following institutional review board approval at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124988/extracorporeal-elimination-of-butalbital-in-acute-aspirin-butalbital-caffeine-codeine-fiorinal-with-codeine-poisoning
#18
Janelle O Poyant, Robert Albright, Jeremy Clain, Govind Pandompatam, Erin F Barreto
BACKGROUND: Butalbital is a small molecule (approximately 220 Da), with 26% protein binding, a 0.8 L/kg volume of distribution, and is eliminated nearly 80% unchanged in the urine. Although hemodialysis has been used to treat overdoses of other barbiturates, the extracorporeal clearance of butalbital is unknown. The objective of this case is to describe the use of extracorporeal therapy to augment elimination of butalbital after an overdose of aspirin 325 mg-butalbital 50 mg-caffeine 40 mg with codeine 30 mg (Fiorinal with Codeine)...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097070/characterization-of-variables-for-potential-impact-on-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-in-thermal-or-inhalation-injury
#19
Katie Elder, David M Hill, William L Hickerson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin dosing in thermal or inhalation injury as they relate to percent total body surface area burn (TBSA) and days since injury (DSI). METHODS: This retrospective 3-year study included patients with thermal or inhalation injury receiving vancomycin. Patient demographics and course data were collected using the institution's electronic medical record. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study; 124 remained after exclusion...
October 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096171/considerations-for-effect-site-pharmacokinetics-to-estimate-drug-exposure-concentrations-of-antibiotics-in-the-lung
#20
REVIEW
Keith A Rodvold, William W Hope, Sara E Boyd
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and microdialysis have become the most reliable and relevant methods for measuring lung concentrations of antibiotics, with the majority of BAL studies involving either healthy adult subjects or patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. Emphasis on the amount of drug that reaches the site of infection is increasingly recognized as necessary to determine whether a dose selection will translate to good clinical outcomes in the treatment of patients with pneumonia. Observed concentrations and/or parameters of exposure (e...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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