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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535440/management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-with-a-new-antibiotic-adjuvant-entity-ceftriaxone-sulbactam-disodium-edetate-a-novel-approach-to-spare-carbapenems
#1
Prachee Sathe, Sagar Maddani, Shilpa Kulkarni, Nita Munshi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most serious nosocomial infections in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to evaluate a new approach to spare the carbapenems for the management of patients diagnosed with VAP due to Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted on VAP patients presenting for treatment at tertiary care centre between May 2014 and March 2016. The case sheets of patients who have been treated for VAP with meropenem, antibiotic adjuvant entity (AAE) and colistin were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533245/clonal-dissemination-of-oxa-232-carbapenenase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-neonates
#2
Dandan Yin, Dong Dong, Ke Li, Lei Zhang, Jianliang Liang, Yang Yang, Nana Wu, Yiyan Bao, Chuanqing Wang, Fupin Hu
Five OXA-232 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from neonates, belonging to the pandemic clone ST15, and co-produced blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-1 genes. All isolates were resistant to ertapenem (MIC>32μg/mL) and meropenem (4-8μg/mL), susceptible or intermediate to impenem (1-2μg/mL). The blaOXA-232 was located on a ColE-type transformable plasmid of 6,141 bp. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of OXA-232 carbapenemase among clinical isolates in China.
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527651/clinical-efficacy-of-cycling-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#3
Hideto Teranishi, Yuhki Koga, Hisanori Nishio, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Shunsuke Kanno, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. METHODS: Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527649/antimicrobial-activity-of-fidaxomicin-against-clostridium-difficile-clinical-isolates-in-aichi-area-in-japan
#4
Yuka Yamagishi, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yoko Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Mao Hagihara, Kiyomitsu Katsumata, Hiroshige Mikamo
We evaluated the susceptibility of 100 Japanese Clostridium difficile isolates to fidaxomicin, a new macrocyclic antibiotic. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of fidaxomicin was 0.03-0.5 μg/mL, with a MIC for inhibition of 50% (MIC50) of 0.12 μg/mL, and for inhibition of 90% (MIC90) of 0.25 μg/mL. We also evaluated the susceptibilities of the same 100 C. difficile isolates to vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, meropenem, and ampicillin. Of all the antibiotics tested, fidaxomicin showed the most potent antimicrobial activity against this group of C...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512635/drug-susceptibility-of-33-reference-strains-of-slowly-growing-mycobacteria-to-19-antimicrobial-agents
#5
Hui Pang, Yi Jiang, Kanglin Wan
Objectives. Slowly growing mycobacteria (SGM) are prevalent worldwide and cause an extensive spectrum of diseases. Methods. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 33 reference strains of SGM to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using a modified microdilution method. Results. Cefmetazole (32/33) and azithromycin (32/33) exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, and dapsone (9/33) exhibited the lowest activity against the tested strains. Cefoxitin (30/33), cefoperazone (28/33), and cefepime (28/33) were effective against a high proportion of strains, and macrolides were also highly effective as well as offering the benefit of convenient oral administration to patients...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511383/study-on-mics-of-tigecycline-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#6
Vineeta Khare, Prashant Gupta, Fareya Haider, Rehana Begum
INTRODUCTION: Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. Those Enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511381/prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacterial-infection-and-identification-of-carbapenemase-producing-nfgnb-isolates-by-simple-phenotypic-tests
#7
Jane Esther, Diego Edwin, Uma
INTRODUCTION: Non-Fermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) are emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. In recent years, carbapenem resistance in NFGNB has increased due to a variety of drug resistance mechanisms, the most common being production of carbapenemases. AIM: To detect carbapenemase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production in NFGNBs by four phenotypic tests and to compare the various phenotypic methods for detection of carbapenemase and MBL production in nosocomial NFGNB isolates...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505263/substantial-impairment-of-voriconazole-clearance-by-high-dose-meropenem-in-a-patient-with-renal-failure
#8
Mazyar Mahmoudi, Thorsten Brenner, Gencay Hatiboglu, Jürgen Burhenne, Johanna Weiss, Markus A Weigand, Walter E Haefeli
A critically ill patient with multiple postoperative infections repeatedly required profound voriconazole dose reductions whenever high-dose meropenem was added. Subsequent in vitro assessment confirmed inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP3A4 by meropenem, suggesting that during meropenem narrow therapeutic index drugs metabolized by these CYPs will require close monitoring.
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490701/-adeabc-efflux-pump-and-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-against-carbapenem
#9
Qingya Dou, Mingxiang Zou, Jun Li, Haichen Wang, Yongmei Hu, Wen'en Liu
To investigate relationship between AdeABC efflux pump and resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii against carbapenem.
 Methods: Carbapenem-resistant strains were acquired from multistep selection resistance test by meropenem in vitro. The quantitation test for sensitivities of strains before and after induction was determined by the E-test, and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibition test was used to screen efflux pump. PCR, sequencing analysis, or real-time PCR was used to analyze the changes of regulatory genes adeR and adeS of the AdeABC efflux pump system, or expressions of adeA, adeB, adeR, and adeS in the strains before and after induction, respectively...
April 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489611/fdg-pet-ct-in-aortic-valve-bioprosthesis-infection
#10
Lucia Rampin, Alice Ferretti, Maria Cristina Marzola, Lolita Sasset, Sotirios Chondrogiannis, Anna Maria Cattelan, Domenico Rubello, Patrick M Colletti
A 62-year-old man presented with persistent fever, weakness, and retrosternal pain 3 years after aortic valve bioprosthesis (AVR). His white blood cell count was 11,000/μL and C-reactive protein was 13.6 mg/dL. Consecutive blood cultures isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis and capitis. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated small aortic valve prosthesis vegetation. F-FDG PET/CT revealed prominent AVR activity, SUVmax = 12.2. He was treated with daptomycin, meropenem, and gentamicin for 1 month and followed by daptomycin and carbapenem for 3 months...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489087/hydrolysis-of-cephalexin-and-meropenem-by-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-the-substrate-protonation-mechanism-is-drug-dependent
#11
Chandan Kumar Das, Nisanth N Nair
Emergence of antibiotic resistance due to New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) bacterial enzymes is of great concern due to their ability to hydrolyze a wide range of antibiotics. There are ongoing efforts to obtain the atomistic details of the hydrolysis mechanism in order to develop inhibitors for NDM-1. In particular, it remains elusive how drug molecules of different families of antibiotics are hydrolyzed by NDM-1 in an efficient manner. Here we report the detailed molecular mechanism of NDM-1 catalyzed hydrolysis of cephalexin, a cephalosporin family drug, and meropenem, a carbapenem family drug...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487993/acinetobacter%C3%A2-baumannii-quorum-sensing-signalling-molecule-induces-the-expression-of-drug-resistance-genes
#12
Yi Dou, Fei Song, Feng Guo, Zengding Zhou, Cailian Zhu, Jun Xiang, Jingning Huan
Quorum-sensing signalling molecules such as N‑acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) enable certain Gram‑negative bacteria to respond to environmental changes through behaviours, such as biofilm formation and flagellar movement. The present study aimed to identify Acinetobacter baumannii AHLs and assess their influence on antibiotic resistance. A clinical isolate of A. baumannii strain S (AbS) was collected from the wound of a burn patient and high‑performance liquid chromatography and tandem quadrupole or quadrupole time‑of‑flight high‑resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify AbS AHLs...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485312/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-efficacies-of-continuous-versus-intermittent-administration-of-meropenem-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study
#13
Hui-Ying Zhao, Jian Gu, Jie Lyu, Dan Liu, Yi-Tong Wang, Fang Liu, Feng-Xue Zhu, You-Zhong An
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic meropenem is commonly administered in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. We compared the pharmacokinetic, clinical, and bacteriological efficacies of continuous infusion of meropenem versus intermittent administration in such patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe sepsis or septic shock who received meropenem were randomly assigned to either the continuous (n = 25) or intermittent groups (n = 25)...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483953/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-from-us-hospitals-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-pacts-2012-2015
#14
Dee Shortridge, Mariana Castanheira, Michael A Pfaller, Robert K Flamm
The activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam was compared to the activity of 7 antimicrobials against 3,851 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from 32 US hospitals in the Program to Assess Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Susceptibility from 2012-2015. Ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator susceptibilities were determined using the CLSI broth microdilution method at a central monitoring laboratory. For ceftolozane-tazobactam, 97.0% of the isolates were susceptible. Susceptibilities of the other antibacterials tested were: amikacin, 96...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480928/differential-flap-dynamics-in-l-d-transpeptidase2-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics
#15
Zeynab Fakhar, Thavendran Govender, Glenn E M Maguire, Gyanu Lamichhane, Ross C Walker, Hendrik G Kruger, Bahareh Honarparvar
Despite the advances in tuberculosis treatment, TB is still one the most deadly infectious diseases and remains a major global health quandary. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the only known mycobacterium with a high content of 3→3 crosslinks in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which is negligible in most bacterial species. An Mtb lacking LdtMt2 leads to alteration of the colony morphology and loss of virulence which makes this enzyme an attractive target. Regardless of the vital role of LdtMt2 for cell wall survival, the impact of ligand binding on the dynamics of the β-hairpin flap is still unknown...
May 8, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478753/antibiotic-prescription-patterns-in-spanish-cystic-fibrosis-patients-results-from-a-national-multicenter-study
#16
Juan de Dios Caballero, Rosa Girón, Rosa Del Campo, Concepción Prados, María-Isabel Barrio, Antonio Salcedo, Rafael Cantón
OBJECTIVE: Information about antibiotic prescription patterns for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and, specifically, about inhaled treatment strategies for their management is lacking in Spain due to the absence of a national patient registry. In this study we present data about antibiotic prescription in the Spanish CF context that were obtained in a multicenter study, being inhaled treatment strategies the special focus of this work. METHODS: Twenty-four specialized CF units (12 adult, 12 pediatric) from 17 tertiary-care hospitals covering all Spanish Autonomous Communities provided sputa and clinical data from 15 consecutive patients...
May 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476242/evaluation-of-the-carbapenem-inactivation-method-cim-for-detecting-carbapenemase-activity-in-enterobacteria
#17
A Aguirre-Quiñonero, M E Cano, D Gamal, J Calvo, L Martínez-Martínez
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CIM test in the detection of carbapenemase activity in 124 strains of Enterobacteriaceae. METHODS: A panel of 124 previously characterized Enterobacteriaceae was tested: 77 strains producing the following carbapenemase families: KPC (n = 14), GES (n = 22), NDM (n = 19), VIM (n = 4), IMP (n = 4) and OXA-48 (n = 14) and 47 non-carbapenemase producers. For the CIM method, an active susceptibility meropenem disc was exposed to a bacterial suspension of a test strain; when a carbapenemase is produced, the antibiotic is inactivated allowing uninhibited growth of an indicator strain after overnight incubation...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470248/crystallographic-analyses-of-isoquinoline-complexes-reveal-a-new-mode-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibition
#18
Guo-Bo Li, Jürgen Brem, Robert Lesniak, Martine I Abboud, Christopher T Lohans, Ian J Clifton, Sheng-Yong Yang, Juan-Carlos Jiménez-Castellanos, Matthew B Avison, James Spencer, Michael A McDonough, Christopher J Schofield
Crystallographic analyses of the VIM-5 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) with isoquinoline inhibitors reveal non zinc ion binding modes. Comparison with other MBL-inhibitor structures directed addition of a zinc-binding thiol enabling identification of potent B1 MBL inhibitors. The inhibitors potentiate meropenem activity against clinical isolates harboring MBLs.
May 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469117/neonatal-sepsis-in-a-nigerian-private-tertiary-hospital-bacterial-isolates-risk-factors-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns
#19
Emmanuel Olushola Shobowale, Adaobi U Solarin, Charles John Elikwu, Kenneth Ikenna Onyedibe, Ibironke J Akinola, Abiodun A Faniran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group in spite of several attempts at mitigating its effects. This article determines the prevalence of neonatal sepsis and the pathogens responsible for sepsis as well as risk factors and outcome at the Babcock University Teaching Hospital. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of laboratory records of consecutive babies delivered within and outside our hospital suspected of having sepsis over a 1-year period...
April 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461077/multilocus-sequence-typing-and-molecular-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-a-burn-center
#20
Guangtao Huang, Yuan Peng, Yong Yang, Chengyong Tang, Yuexian Fu
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is one of the leading pathogens in hospital infections. To characterize the epidemiology of A. baumannii in a burn ward, we collected all A. baumannii isolates though 18 months. Antibiotic susceptibility and antibiotic resistant genes were tested. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was further used to molecularly subtype these isolates. These isolates showed a severe multidrug resistant phenotype with 85% resistance to imipenem and meropenem. Along with the resistant phenotype, antibiotic resistant genes were widely found among these isolates...
April 28, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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