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Papilledema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140815/neuroimaging-diagnostic-and-monitoring-approaches-in-ophthalmology
#1
Bart K Chwalisz, Marc A Bouffard, Sashank Prasad, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135814/neuro-ophthalmology-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-centre-in-india
#2
Rebika Dhiman, Digvijay Singh, Shiva P Gantayala, Vaitheeswaran L Ganesan, Pradeep Sharma, Rohit Saxena
BACKGROUND: Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, over a 1-year period were retrieved and evaluated...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120977/use-of-a-scan-ultrasound-and-optical-coherence-tomography-to-differentiate-papilledema-from-pseudopapilledema
#3
Roberto Saenz, Han Cheng, Thomas C Prager, Laura J Frishman, Rosa A Tang
SIGNIFICANCE: Differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema reflecting tilted/crowded optic discs or disc drusen is critical but can be challenging. Our study suggests that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retrobulbar optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by A-scan ultrasound provide useful information when differentiating the two conditions. PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of A-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in differentiating papilledema associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension from pseudopapilledema...
November 9, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118492/association-of-ocular-findings-and-outcome-in-cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#4
Samira Yadegari, Alireza Keshtkar Jafari, Elham Ashrafi
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially life-threatening underdiagnosed disease. Headache is a common but nonspecific finding in CVT. Other features such as ocular finding can assist to correct diagnosis, but their frequency in CVT has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ocular symptoms and signs in CVT and their association with outcome. METHODS: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and outcome data were collected and analyzed from patients referred to a tertiary hospital during 6 years...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114973/internal-jugular-vein-stenosis-induced-intracranial-hypertension-can-be-resolved-by-stenting
#5
Da Zhou, Ran Meng, Xuxiang Zhang, Linlin Guo, Sijie Li, Weijuan Wu, Jiangang Duan, Haiqing Song, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by abnormally elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable etiology. Recently, however, a subset of patients with presumed IIH have been found with isolated internal jugular vein (IJV) stenosis in the absence of intracranial abnormalities. METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients were screened from 46 patients suspected as IIH and were finally confirmed as isolated IJV stenosis. The stenotic IJV was corrected with stenting when a trans-stenotic mean pressure gradient (∆MPG) was equal or higher than 5...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110198/surgical-management-of-craniosynostosis-in-the-setting-of-a%C3%A2-ventricular-shunt-a-case-series-and-treatment-algorithm
#6
Michael S Golinko, Danielle N Atwood, Eylem Ocal
PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventricular shunt is a common treatment for hydrocephalus. Change in cranial morphology associated with a sutural fusion has been termed shunt-related or induced craniosynostosis (SRC) or craniocerebral disproportion (CCD). We present a series of patients with SRC who underwent cranial vault remodeling (CVR) and our treatment algorithm. METHODS: Thirteen patients were retrospectively reviewed who had SRC and CVR; 92% of patients had a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placed for largely intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity (69% of patients) at a mean age of 2...
November 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107469/diseases-of-the-retina-and-the-optic-nerve-associated-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#7
REVIEW
Marielle Mentek, Florent Aptel, Diane Godin-Ribuot, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Louis Pepin, Christophe Chiquet
Many associations between ocular disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been studied, such as nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, papilledema, retinal vein occlusion, eyelid hyperlaxity, lower-eyelid ectropion and recurrent corneal erosions. The objective of this review is to synthetize the possible vascular disorders of the retina and the optic nerve associated with sleep apnea patients and to discuss the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. Main mechanisms involved in the ocular complications of OSA are related to intermittent hypoxia, sympathetic system activation, oxidant stress, and deleterious effects of endothelin 1...
May 29, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100834/ophthalmic-findings-in-frank-ter-haar-syndrome-report-of-a-sibling-pair
#8
Ta C Chang, Mislen Bauer, Herminia S Puerta, Matthew B Greenberg, Kara M Cavuoto
Frank-ter Haar syndrome (FTHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormalities that affect the development of bone, heart, and eyes. We report a sibling pair with FTHS caused by a homozygous, novel mutation pLys133Glnfs*13 in the SH3PXD2B gene: one sibling had bilateral ocular hypertension and unilateral colobomas of iris, choroid and retina; the other, unilateral myelinated nerve fiber layer of the optic disk and papilledema due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Both children had refractive amblyopia and megalocornea...
October 31, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097019/secondary-intracranial-hypertension-in-pediatric-patients-with-leukemia
#9
Miguel Ángel Fernández-García, Verónica Cantarín-Extremera, Maitane Andión-Catalán, Anna Duat-Rodríguez, Saioa Jiménez-Echevarría, Ignacio Bermejo-Arnedo, Montesclaros Hortigüela-Saeta, Saray Rekarte-García, Lara Babín-López, David Ruano Domínguez
BACKGROUND: We investigated the clinical characteristics of a pediatric population with hemato-oncological disease and intracranial hypertension, analyze the therapeutic response and outcome, and compare its characteristics with respect to a control group with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with hemato-oncological disease and secondary intracranial hypertension in our center during the past five years. We compared these individuals with a historical cohort with idiopathic intracranial hypertension from our institution (control group)...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079403/a-window-to-the-brain-neuro-ophthalmology-for-the-primary-care-practitioner
#10
REVIEW
Sashank Prasad
Visual symptoms can be the presenting feature of a wide range of important neurological disease, including acute monocular visual loss, papilledema, visual field deficits, anisocoria, limitations of eye movements, and nystagmus. It is important for primary care clinicians to be to be able to direct appropriate initial diagnostic assessment, treatment, and referral for further evaluation of these conditions.
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078127/radiculopathy-as-unusual-presentation-of-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-a-case-report
#11
Osama Ragab, Azza Ghali, Ayman Al-Malt, Shereen Al-Ahwal
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of young obese females and characterized by headache, papilledema with raised intracranial pressure in the absence of known pathological cause. However, ophthalmoplegia is common presentation of IIH, limb weakness is rare and may led to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. CASE: We report female patient presented with acute onset of quadriparesis, headache and ophthalmoplegia, the fundus examination showed papilledema, the MRI brain showed no detectable abnormal finding...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044088/management-of-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-in-an-infant-with-bilateral-congenital-cataract-and-associated-comitant-sensory-esotropia
#12
Jyoti Himanshu Matalia, Sheetal Shirke, Hemant Anaspure, Pooja Ghalla, Minal Kekatpure
In this report, we describe the management of a child with bilateral cataract, nystagmus, and comitant sensory esotropia. Routine ultrasonography done before cataract surgery revealed bilateral disc edema confirmed as idiopathic intracranial hypertension by a pediatric neurologist. The primary intervention for cataract surgery was followed by nonresolving papilledema, despite maximum medical therapy. To salvage the optic nerve function in a nonverbal child, bilateral optic nerve sheath decompression was planned with simultaneous medial rectus recessions for the persistent esotropia with the satisfactory postoperative outcome...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036024/minimally-invasive-spring-assisted-correction-of-sagittal-suture-synostosis-technique-outcome-and-complications-in-83-cases
#13
Marie-Lise C van Veelen, Nathalie Kamst, Carolina Touw, Katya Mauff, Hansje Bredero, Leon van Adrichem, Sarah Versnel, Ruben Dammers, T H Rob de Jong, Vani Prasad, Irene M Mathijssen
BACKGROUND: This series describes the results of minimally invasive strip craniotomy with additional spring distraction. METHODS: Included are the first 83 consecutive patients who underwent this procedure (Jan 1, 2010-Jan 1, 2014). Outcome parameters were collected prospectively and included surgical parameters and complications, the occurrence of papilledema, skull growth, cephalic index and photographic scores RESULTS:: Duration of surgery was 63 min: 19% required blood transfusion and complications were minor...
October 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026691/accuracy-of-crescent-sign-on-ocular-ultrasound-in-diagnosing-papilledema
#14
Ananth Bhosale, Virna M Shah, Parag K Shah
AIM: To study the usefulness of orbital ultrasonography in the diagnosis of papilledema. METHODS: Fifty patients who were referred to the neurophthalmology clinic and clinically suspected to have papilledema were selected. Thorough, clinical examination with slitlamp biomicroscopy and visual acuity assessment was done. These patients underwent ultrasonography to demonstrate the crescent sign. The patients were further evaluated with the neurologist and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thus confirming the diagnosis of papilledema...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026668/fourth-ventricle-neurocysticercosis-rigid-endoscopic-management-description-of-direct-transcerebellar-approach
#15
A Ceja-Espinosa, J A Franco-Jiménez, A Sosa-Nájera, G A Gutiérrez-Aceves, M I Ruiz-Flores
BACKGROUND: Endoscopy has gained a crucial role in high specialty neurosurgery during the last decades. At present, there are well-defined flexible neuroendoscopic procedures to treat ventricular and subarachnoid space pathologies. Neurocysticercosis is recognized as a common cause of neurologic disease in developing countries and the United States. Surgical intervention, especially cerebrospinal fluid diversion, is the key for management of hydrocephalus. In 2002, a consensus suggested that ventricular forms should be treated with endoscopy as the first option...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018749/the-diagnostic-challenge-of-evaluating-papilledema-in-the-pediatric-patient
#16
REVIEW
Brandon McCafferty, Collin M McClelland, Michael S Lee
Pseudopapilledema is a fairly common finding in ophthalmic practice, and in many cases, the diagnosis is straightforward. However, an accurate diagnosis can challenge the most seasoned clinicians, and missing true papilledema can result in life-threatening or vision-threatening consequences. In this review, we describe the clinical findings and a diagnostic algorithm to distinguish pseudopapilledema and papilledema in the pediatric patients. We also describe the clinical evaluation once a diagnosis of papilledema has been established...
January 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017984/superficial-siderosis-associated-with-a-pineal-cavernous-malformation
#17
Takafumi Ogura, Atsushi Kambe, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuki Shinohara, Toshihide Ogawa, Masamichi Kurosaki
BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations in the pineal region are very rare and are difficult to anticipate from preoperative evaluation in patients with pineal apoplexy. We herein report the first case of a pineal cavernous malformation with superficial siderosis. Radiological findings were helpful in identifying the presence of the cavernous malformation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 47-year-old female presented with a 4-month history of progressive headache, nausea, and dizziness...
October 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992723/severe-cerebellar-hemorrhage-following-transverse-sinus-stenting-for-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#18
Pascale Lavoie, Marie-Ève Audet, Jean-Luc Gariepy, Martin Savard, Steve Verreault, Alain Gourdeau, Geneviève Milot, Sylvine Carrondo Cottin
We report a severe adverse event occurring in the course of a cohort study (ISRCTN13784335) aimed at measuring the efficacy and safety of venous stenting in the treatment of patients with medically refractory idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The patient was a 41-year-old woman who was not overweight, who presented with severe headache, grade 1 bilateral papilledema and transient tinnitus, refractory to medical treatment. Right transverse sinus stenting was successfully performed. Following surgery, the patient's state of consciousness decreased acutely with rapid and progressive loss of brainstem reflex...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991098/five-year-old-boy-with-behavioral-changes-and-papilledema
#19
Radha Ram, Jeremy Y Jones, Carrie A Mohila, Veeral S Shah
A 5-year-old boy had initial symptoms of behavioral changes, nausea, vomiting, headache, weight loss, and progressive vision failure. Brain MRI revealed abnormal signal intensity in both optic nerves, the optic chiasm, the right medial temporal lobe, and tissues surrounding the right supraclinoid internal carotid artery with associated leptomeningeal and spinal cord enhancement. After nondiagnostic dural and spinal arachnoid biopsies, a temporal lobe biopsy was diagnostic for a rare malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984521/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-120-day-clinical-radiological-and-manometric-outcomes-after-stent-insertion-into-the-dural-venous-sinus
#20
Hasan Asif, Claudia L Craven, Almas H Siddiqui, Syed N Shah, Samir A Matloob, Lewis Thorne, Fergus Robertson, Laurence D Watkins, Ahmed K Toma
OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is commonly associated with venous sinus stenosis. In recent years, transvenous dural venous sinus stent (DVSS) insertion has emerged as a potential therapy for resistant cases. However, there remains considerable uncertainty over the safety and efficacy of this procedure, in particular the incidence of intraprocedural and delayed complications and in the longevity of sinus patency, pressure gradient obliteration, and therapeutic clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine clinical, radiological, and manometric outcomes at 3-4 months after DVSS in this treated IIH cohort...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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