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Fourth nerve palsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904218/early-onset-sixth-nerve-palsy-with-eccentric-fixation
#1
Kaajal D Nanda, Eve Lacey, Alki Liasis, Ken K Nischal
PURPOSE: To report four cases of early onset sixth-nerve palsy all of whom had eccentric fixation. METHODS: A retrospective case note review was undertaken of all cases presenting to the senior author's private and NHS practice with early onset sixth palsy between 2006 and 2012. As well as demographic information, details of ophthalmic, orthoptic, electrophysiological examinations, and radiological investigations that were extracted from the records. RESULTS: Four children with unilateral or asymmetric early onset sixth-nerve palsy were identified, of which three were congenital...
January 2017: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845325/ocular-causes-of-abnormal-head-position-strabismus-clinic-data
#2
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu, İrem Koç, Esra Vural, Jale Karakaya, Emin Cumhur Şener, Ali Şefik Sanaç
OBJECTIVES: To determine the most common ocular causes and types of abnormal head position (AHP) and describe their clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with AHP who had been followed in the strabismus unit were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features and orthoptic characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients including 61 women (37.4%) and 102 men (62.6%), with a mean age of 19.9±18.3 were recruited...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772000/stroke-risk-among-adult-patients-with-third-fourth-or-sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#3
Tyler Hyungtaek Rim, Jinu Han, Yoon Seong Choi, Taekjune Lee, Sung Soo Kim
PURPOSE: This study sought to determine whether isolated third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies (NPs) are associated with increased short- and long-term risk of a subsequent stroke. METHODS: This was a nationwide retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study. A cohort of patients with NP (n = 466) and a randomly selected, propensity-matched control cohort (n = 2281) were extracted from the Korean national insurance claim database. Subjects were tracked for 5 years total, subdivided into periods of 0-1 years, 1-3 years and 3-5 years...
August 3, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759288/neurological-imaging-in-acquired-cranial-nerve-palsy-ophthalmologists-vs-neurologists
#4
Tessa Klein Hesselink, Mari Gutter, Jan Roelof Polling
PURPOSE: Cranial nerve palsies often require neurological imaging by MRI. Guidelines on whether or not to utilize MRI have been absent or lack clarity. In daily practice, both neurologists and ophthalmologists treat patients with cranial nerve palsy and determine whether neuro-imaging is required. There appear to be differences in policy with respect to neuro-imaging. The question, which will be answered in this study, is the following: to what extent do differences in policy exist between ophthalmologists and neurologists regarding imaging by MRI of patients with acquired ocular cranial nerve palsy? METHOD: PubMed database was searched for literature on acquired cranial nerve palsy and MRI scanning performed by ophthalmologists and neurologists...
July 31, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743241/complete-ophthalmoplegia-complete-ptosis-and-dilated-pupil-due-to-internal-carotid-artery-dissection-as-the-first-manifestation-of-takayasu-arteritis
#5
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, D Withana, Sunethra Senanayake
BACKGROUND: Takayasu arteritis is a rare, chronic large vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its primary branches. As the disease progresses, the active inflammation of large vessels leads to dilation, narrowing and occlusion of the arteries. Arterial dissection is due to separation of the layers of the arterial wall resulting in a false lumen, where blood seeps into the vessel wall. Neurological sequelae of intracranial arterial dissection results from cerebral ischemia due to thromboembolism and hypo perfusion...
July 25, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706764/neuroradiological-endovascular-intervention-for-diplopia-in-a-case-of-aneurysmal-aberrant-regeneration-of-the-third-nerve
#6
Anupam C A Rao, Saumil A Shah, Benjamin W C Sim, Steven T H Yun, Neeranjali S Jain, Yashar Kalani, Ian C Francis
Aberrant regeneration of the third nerve occurs as a result of synkinetic 'miswiring' of the third nerve following its injury, such as in third cranial nerve palsy due to tumor, trauma, or aneurysm. The case presented is an elderly woman with new vertical diplopia, which led to a diagnosis of a third cranial nerve palsy, thought to be caused by a 5 mm blister aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery. However, neuro-ophthalmological evaluation diagnosed aberrant regeneration of the third nerve, with the cause of her new vertical diplopia being an ipsilateral fourth nerve palsy...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687220/one-vs-two-muscle-surgery-for-presumed-unilateral-fourth-nerve-palsy-associated-with-moderate-angle-hyperdeviations
#7
David L Nash, Sarah R Hatt, David A Leske, Laura May, Erick D Bothun, Brian G Mohney, Michael C Brodsky, Jonathan M Holmes
PURPOSE: To compare one-muscle versus two-muscle surgery for moderate-angle hyperdeviations due to presumed unilateral fourth nerve palsy. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review METHODS: 73 patients (5 to 86 years) underwent either one- or two-muscle surgery at our institution, for moderate hyperdeviation, due to presumed unilateral fourth nerve palsy, measuring 14 to 25 PD in straight ahead gaze at distance fixation. Six week and 1-year motor success was defined as zero vertical deviation or 1-4 PD undercorrection at distance, overcorrection as any reversal of hypertropia, and undercorrection as >4 PD...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681278/are-we-overlooking-masked-bilateral-congenital-superior-oblique-palsy-in-children-is-it-possible-to-diagnose-before-surgery
#8
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, Ali Sefik Sanac
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of children who had subsequent contralateral superior oblique underaction (SOUA) and inferior oblique overaction (IOOA) after unilateral inferior oblique weakening surgery and to identify suggestive clinical features for masked bilateral fourth nerve palsy. METHODS: The medical records of children who underwent unilateral inferior oblique tenotomy as a single procedure for unilateral superior oblique palsy were all reviewed...
July 5, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665866/intracranial-aneurysms-of-neuro-ophthalmologic-relevance
#9
Jonathan A Micieli, Nancy J Newman, Daniel L Barrow, Valérie Biousse
BACKGROUND: Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650218/bilateral-surgical-damage-of-the-central-tegmental-tract-resulting-in-bilateral-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-an-mri-case-report
#10
Silvia Lana, Chiara Ganazzoli, Girolamo Crisi
Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare trans-synaptic neuronal degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus caused by an injury to the dentato-rubro-olivary connection, also known as Guillain-Mollaret triangle. It leads to hypertrophy of the affected nucleus rather than atrophy and is characterized by hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. Unilateral and bilateral cases are described. We present a case of a 70-year-old patient affected by a tumor inside the fourth ventricle who suffered from diplopia and right seventh cranial nerve palsy...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574497/stepping-into-the-virtual-unknown-feasibility-study-of-a-virtual-reality-based-test-of-ocular-misalignment
#11
N Nesaratnam, P Thomas, A Vivian
IntroductionDissociated tests of strabismus provide valuable information for diagnosis and monitoring of ocular misalignment in patients with normal retinal correspondence. However, they are vulnerable to operator error and rely on a fixed head position. Virtual reality headsets obviate the need for head fixation, while providing other clear theoretical advantages, including complete control over the illumination and targets presented for the patient's interaction.PurposeWe compared the performance of a virtual reality-based test of ocular misalignment to that of the traditional Lees screen, to establish the feasibility of using virtual reality technology in ophthalmic settings in the future...
June 2, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474478/incomplete-cavernous-sinus-syndrome-as-the-initial-manifestation-of-a-previously-undetected-metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma
#12
María Machío Castelló, Diego Escobar Montatixe, Carlos Cenjor Español, José Miguel Villacampa Aubá, Julia Montoya Bordón, Rafael Carias Calix, Rafael Sáez Pinel
BACKGROUND: Cavernous sinus syndrome presents as unilateral ophthalmoplegia associated with sympathetic denervation, pain, paresthesias, and V1 and V2 distribution numbness. The etiology may be vascular, inflammatory, infectious, and, less commonly, neoplastic (metastatic). METHODS: We report a patient with incomplete cavernous sinus syndrome as the initial manifestation of previously undetected metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: A 59-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of left hemicranial headaches with ptosis and binocular diplopia...
May 5, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473604/recurrent-painful-ophthalmoplegic-neuropathy
#13
Cleo Huang, Maria Amasanti, Ben Lovell, Tim Young
Recurrent painful ophthalmologic neuropathy (RPON), previously termed ophthalmoplegic migraine, is characterised by repeated attacks of one or more ocular cranial nerve palsies with ipsilateral headache. Its cause remains unclear; it is currently thought to be neuropathic in origin, but there is debate in the literature. In documented cases, a third cranial nerve palsy is by far the most common. Here we present a case of RPON involveing the fourth and sixth cranial nervesonly. Thorough investigation, including MR scan of brain and lumbar puncture, found no alternative explanation...
August 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405168/the-black-evil-affecting-patients-with-diabetes-a-case-of-rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis-causing-garcin-syndrome
#14
Santhosh Narayanan, Geetha Panarkandy, Gomathy Subramaniam, Chandni Radhakrishnan, N K Thulaseedharan, Neeraj Manikath, Sreejith Ramaswamy, Suma Radhakrishnan, Danish Ekkalayil
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection affecting patients with diabetes. It is an angioinvasive disease often resistant to treatment with a debilitating course and high mortality. Here, we report a case of a 45 year old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to us with history of right-sided ptosis and facial palsy, and subsequently developed loss of vision and palatal palsy. She was in diabetic ketoacidosis. Nervous system examination revealed involvement of right second, third, fourth, sixth, seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves, suggestive of Garcin syndrome...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366647/adjustable-bilateral-superior-oblique-tendon-advancement-for-bilateral-fourth-nerve-palsy
#15
Bashar M Bata, David A Leske, Jonathan M Holmes
PURPOSE: Bilateral fourth nerve palsy may be symmetric or asymmetric with combined vertical and excylotropic deviations and so there may be an advantage to independent adjustment of vertical and torsional components. We report a surgical technique that allows such independent adjustment. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: Fifteen patients, aged 17-73 years, underwent adjustable bilateral superior oblique tendon advancements for bilateral fourth nerve palsy: 11 symmetric (≤2 prism diopters [pd] hyperdeviation in straight-ahead gaze) and 4 asymmetric...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210639/an-interesting-case-of-tolosa-hunt-syndrome-in-a-young-male
#16
Ghulam Murtaza, Nicholas Konowitz, Hannah Lu, Anadil Faqah, Aneesh Kuruvilla
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare disease with a limited number of cases reported in the literature. It typically presents with orbital pain associated with palsy of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve. We present an interesting case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in a young male who responded well to high-dose steroids and in a few days had significant improvement in his retro-orbital pain and ocular movements.
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138789/phrenic-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-parsonage-turner-syndrome-a-diagnosis-commonly-overlooked
#17
Tom McEnery, Ronan Walsh, Conor Burke, Aisling McGowan, John Faul, Liam Cormican
Neuralgic Amyotrophy (NA) or Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an idiopathic neuropathy commonly affecting the brachial plexus. Associated phrenic nerve involvement, though recognised, is thought to be very rare. We present a case series of four patients (all male, mean age 53) presenting with dyspnoea preceded by severe self-limiting upper limb and shoulder pain, with an elevated hemi-diaphragm on clinical examination and chest X-ray. Neurological examination of the upper limb at the time of presentation was normal...
January 30, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050074/isolated-fourth-cranial-nerve-palsy-due-to-pituitary-macroadenoma
#18
J Muthukrishnan, Khushboo Bharadwaj, Yashpal Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009406/the-frequency-and-causes-of-abnormal-head-position-based-on-an-ophthalmology-clinic-s-findings-is-it-overlooked
#19
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, Irem Koc, Meltem Kilic, Ali S Sanac
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of abnormal head position (AHP) and identify the underlying causes in patients who presented to an ophthalmology clinic due to any ophthalmologic complaint. METHODS: The medical records of patients who presented with any ophthalmologic symptoms during a 6-month period were prospectively evaluated. In all, 2,710 patients (1,492 female and 1,218 male) aged 6 months-91 years were included in the study. Each patient underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation...
June 26, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994363/bilateral-abducens-and-facial-nerve-palsies-as-a-localizing-sign-due-to-reduction-in-intracranial-pressure-after-fourth-ventriculoperitoneal-shunting
#20
Boby Varkey Maramattom, Dilip Panikar
A trapped fourth ventricle often requires fourth ventriculoperitoneal shunting (4VP). Complications of this procedure include shunt blockage, infection, shunt migration, and overdrainage. Cranial nerve palsies are very rare after 4VP shunting and have been described with over drainage and brainstem distortion. We present an unusual case of bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies after 4VP shunting after normalization of 4(th) ventricular parameters. Measurement of various brainstem angles presented us with a plausible hypothesis to explain the cranial nerve dysfunction...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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