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Shu Min Tang, Rachel Y T Chan, Shi Bin Lin, Shi Song Rong, Henry H W Lau, Winnie W Y Lau, Wilson W K Yip, Li Jia Chen, Simon T C Ko, Jason C S Yam
This systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the risk of development of concomitant strabismus due to refractive errors. Eligible studies published from 1946 to April 1, 2016 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE that evaluated any kinds of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia) as an independent factor for concomitant exotropia and concomitant esotropia. Totally 5065 published records were retrieved for screening, 157 of them eligible for detailed evaluation. Finally 7 population-based studies involving 23,541 study subjects met our criteria for meta-analysis...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xi Wang, Bingjie Chen, Longqian Liu
PURPOSE: To report a patient with cyclic esotropia with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio after surgical correction of intermittent exotropia who was found to have bilateral anomalous medial rectus muscle insertion sites. METHOD: A 5-year-old girl developed intermittent esotropia on alternating days after undergoing bilateral lateral rectus recessions for correction of intermittent exotropia. Alternate prism and cover measurement of ocular alignment and binocular function was assessed on consecutive days...
September 15, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Ju-Yeun Lee, Sungsoon Hwang, Shin Yeop Oh, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
The aim of this study was to determine whether objective ocular torsion in intermittent exotropia (IXT) changes after recession surgery, and to evaluate the relationship between change in ocular torsion and clinical parameters in IXT. Sixty patients between 3 and 14 years of age underwent lateral rectus (LR) recession for IXT. Digital fundus photographs were obtained from both eyes of each subject and the disc-foveal angle (ocular torsion) was calculated using image software. We compared the preoperative and postoperative amount of ocular torsion, and analyzed the correlation between the difference in ocular torsion (DOC) and clinical parameters including age, duration of strabismus, stereoacuity, amount of preoperative exodeviation, and mean dose response...
2016: PloS One
John R Economides, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
The superior colliculus is a major brainstem structure for the production of saccadic eye movements. Electrical stimulation at any given point in the motor map generates saccades of defined amplitude and direction. It is unknown how this saccade map is affected by strabismus. Three macaques were raised with exotropia, an outwards ocular deviation, by detaching the medial rectus tendon in each eye at age one month. The animals were able to make saccades to targets with either eye and appeared to alternate fixation freely...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Gregory Tsoucalas, Markos Sgantzos
The eminent Greek physician Paul of Aegina, native of the Saronic island Aegina and pupil of the Alexandrian School, understood both exotropia and endotropia, his designation for esotropia and proposed therapeutic measures for their treatment during baby or toddler age. He had introduced an innovative method for the newborns to have a straight vision, "the congenital strabismus of the newborns must be treated with the placement of a facial mask (with 2 open holes in the middle axes of the eyes), so that the babies could only see in a straight line", combined with a small oil lamp to assure a direct eye alignment...
September 2016: Strabismus
Chu-Hsuan Huang, Ai-Hou Wang, Fung-Rong Hu, Tzu-Hsun Tsai
PURPOSE: To investigate whether sensory input or motor signal of the extraocular muscle is the main activator of suppression in human intermittent exotropia (X(T)). METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Ten subjects with X(T) and 10 control participants were enrolled. The divergence range between both eyes when binocular vision was maintained was measured by using stereotests with a self-written computer program mimicking a troposcope. The break point, defined as the deviation angle at which stereopsis broke during eye deviation, was compared between the experimental and control groups by using a t test...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hyun Beom Song, Hee Kyung Yang, Rong-Min Baek, Jeong-Min Hwang, Namju Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Sukwha Kim
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) or bilateral FOA on ocular aspects of plagiocephaly. A retrospective review of ocular findings in 16 patients with plagiocephaly was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 patients who underwent bilateral FOA (bFOA) and 4 patients who underwent unilateral FOA (uFOA), and ocular findings were compared. One-half of patients showed strabismus in both groups, and all had exotropia. Hypertropia was found only on the same side of the plagiocephaly in 17% of the bFOA group and 25% of the uFOA group...
April 26, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
H Zhu, S Xu, Z H Leng, Z J Fu, Y H Xiao, H Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of Chinese version of Quality-of-life assessment Questionnaires for Intermittent Exotropia (CIXTQ). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The original English version of the IXTQ was translated into Chinese. The final Chinese version of the IXTQ (CIXTQ) consists of 3 parts: the 12-item child CIXTQ (for children ≥5 and<8 years old and ≥8 and<18 years old, respectively, to assess their health quality of life (HRQoL)), the 12-item proxy CIXTQ (for parents to assess children's HRQoL), and the 17-item parent CIXTQ (containing functional, psychosocial, and surgery subscales; for parents to assess their HRQoL)...
August 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
L X Feng, J Y Yao, L Chen, Y Tang, F Hou
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the application of disparity discriminating accuracy test in evaluating the stereopsis of postoperative intermittent exotropia. METHODS: Patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent surgery during July 2011 to June 2013 were followed up. The stereoacuity was examined by Titmus Stereotest, Randot Stereotest and Frisby Stereotest. Twenty adult cases whose stereoacuity reached normal were chosen as experimental group. Twenty healthy adults were selected as normal control group...
August 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
L J Hou, X M Wu, R Zhuo, F Zhang, F Lyu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) in surgical design for residual horizontal strabismus patients. METHODS: This article was a retrospective case series analysis. Total 20 residual strabismus patients (13 with residual exotropia and 7 with residual esotropia) in Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from Jan 2009 to Jan 2011 were studied. Routine strabismus examinations were completed preoperatively...
August 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
L H Wang
In this paper, some typical excessive medical problems in the treatment of common eye diseases in children were listed as follows: unnecessary examinations carried out for children with little or no corresponding complaints; prescription for spectacles for physiological hyperopia or astigmatism in children; over-diagnosis, over-or nonstandard-treatment for amblyopia; strabismus surgeries performed in children with esotropia but without full optical correction of hyperopic refractive error, in children with monocular strabismus and amblyopia but without standard cover therapy, in children with intermittent exotropia but without optical correction of myopic refractive errors and myopic anisometropia, and without evaluation of their fusional control ability; exaggerated the harm of myopia and the curative effect of Orthokeratology contact lenses without considering the patient's compliance; cataract surgery performed in infants with partial opacity of the lens that has little effect on the vision...
August 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Kevin E Houston, Eleftherios I Pachalis, Danielle C Angueira, P Matthew Bronstad, Anna M Barrett, Mary Alexis Iaccarino
Visual impairments are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and negatively affect quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old woman with a severe TBI who was evaluated by the inpatient optometry and vision rehabilitation service with findings of complete right homonymous hemianopia and right cranial nerve III palsy with 30-degree right exotropia (eye turn out) and complete right ptosis (eyelid will not open). The 30-degree exotropia advantageously generated 30 degrees of right visual field expansion when the right ptosis was treated with a magnetic levator prosthesis, which restores eyelid opening...
August 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Pinar Bingol Kiziltunc, Huban Atilla, Feyza Çalış, Cem Alay
PURPOSE: Surgery for strabismus associated with neurological impairment is assumed to have unsatisfactory results in comparison with other strabismus cases. The aim of this study is to compare the surgical success rates of infantile esotropia (IE) and strabismus associated with neurological impairment. METHODS: The records of 103 patients that received operations for IE and strabismus associated with neurological impairment between January 1994 and May 2014 were reviewed retrospectively...
September 2016: Strabismus
Onder Ayyildiz, Osman Melih Ceylan, Fatih Mehmet Mutlu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Emmanuelle Chalifoux, Maan Alkharashi, Rosanne Superstein, Melissa Louis, Claire Blais, Shamim Sabzevari, Michael Flanders
OBJECTIVES: This study had 3 objectives: (i) to characterize clinical profiles of adults with consecutive exotropia (CXT), intermittent exotropia (IXT), and sensory exotropia (SXT); (ii) to correlate immediate postoperative target angles with successful long-term ocular alignment; and (iii) to compare the efficacy of adjustable versus nonadjustable medial rectus resection ± advancement. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, and interventional cohort study...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
F Koç, N Sefi-Yurdakul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Eye
M Gräf, B Lorenz
The major goal of extraocular muscle surgery for nystagmus is to reduce the abnormal head turn (AHT) which is caused by an eccentric null zone of the nystagmus. Shifting the null zone to the primary gaze position will eliminate the AHT. The Kestenbaum procedure consists of bilateral recession of the yoke muscles opposite to the AHT, combined with bilateral resection or plication of their antagonists. The Anderson procedure is confined to bilateral recession of the yoke muscles and is therefore less invasive...
August 10, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Angela M Chen, Jonathan M Holmes, Danielle L Chandler, Reena A Patel, Michael E Gray, S Ayse Erzurum, David K Wallace, Raymond T Kraker, Allison A Jensen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of overminus spectacles in improving control of childhood intermittent exotropia (IXT). DESIGN: Randomized, clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 58 children aged 3 to <7 years with IXT. Eligibility criteria included a distance control score of 2 or worse (mean of 3 measures during a single examination) on a scale of 0 (exophoria) to 5 (constant exotropia) and spherical equivalent refractive error between -6...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Qian Li, Junxing Bai, Junran Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Longqian Liu
Neural imaging studies have found the connection between strabismus and brain cortex. However, the pathological mechanisms of intermittent exotropia are still not fully understood. In the present study, changes of binocular fusion related cortices in intermittent exotropia were investigated with blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activated cortices induced by fusion stimulus were found to be distributed in several regions such as bilateral middle occipital gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and so on...
2016: PloS One
Fiona Lee Min Chew, Bhambi Uellyn Gesite-de Leon, Boon Long Quah
AIM: To assess strabismus control and motor ocular alignment for basic exotropia surgery at 5y follow-up. METHODS: The medical records of 80 consecutive patients aged less than 17 years of age, who underwent surgery for basic exotropia by a single surgeon between years 2000 to 2009 and completed a minimum of 5y follow-up post-operatively were reviewed. Pre- and post-operative characteristics were documented at 1wk, 6mo, 1, 3 and 5y follow-up. Subjects at 5-year follow-up were assigned to the success group if they had a post-operative angle of deviation within 10 prism diopters of exotropia or within 5 prism diopters of esotropia for distance on prism cover test, and had moderate to good strabismus control...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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