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Pre exposure prophylaxis hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080947/hiv-testing-intervention-development-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-developed-world
#1
Paul Flowers, Claudia Estcourt, Pam Sonnenberg, Fiona Burns
HIV testing is a 'gateway' technology, enabling access to treatment and HIV prevention. Biomedical approaches to prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention, require accurate and regular HIV test results. HIV testing also represents a powerful 'teachable moment' for behavioural prevention. An increasing range of HIV tests and the emergence of self-managed diagnostic technologies (e.g. self-testing) means there is now considerable diversification of when, where and how results are available to those who test...
January 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#2
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073964/single-dose-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oral-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-blood-saliva-and-rectal-tissue-a-sub-study-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#3
Julien Fonsart, Sentob Saragosti, Milad Taouk, Gilles Peytavin, Lane Bushman, Isabelle Charreau, Allan Hance, Lauriane Goldwirt, Stéphane Morel, Fabrizio Mammano, Bénédicte Loze, Catherine Capitant, François Clavel, Nadia Mahjoub, Laurence Meyer, Peter L Anderson, Constance Delaugerre, Jean-Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: In the ANRS IPERGAY pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, a single dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine was taken orally 2-24 h before sexual intercourse. A sub-study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir and emtricitabine in blood, saliva and rectal tissue following this initial oral intake. METHODS: Plasma, PBMC, saliva and rectal tissue sampling was performed over 24 h in 12 seronegative men before enrolment in the ANRS IPERGAY trial, following a single dose of 600 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/400 mg emtricitabine...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061753/treatment-efficacy-of-azithromycin-1%C3%A2-g-single-dose-versus-doxycycline-100%C3%A2-mg-twice-daily-for-7%C3%A2-days-for-the-treatment-of-rectal-chlamydia-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#4
Andrew Lau, Fabian Kong, Christopher K Fairley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Catriona Bradshaw, Mark Boyd, Janaki Amin, Peter Timms, Sepehr Tabrizi, David G Regan, David A Lewis, Anna McNulty, Jane S Hocking
BACKGROUND: Rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) with diagnosis rates continuing to rise. Current treatment guidelines recommend either azithromycin 1 g single dose or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. However, there are increasing concerns about treatment failure with azithromycin. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare treatment efficacy of azithromycin versus doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia in MSM...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060019/defining-the-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-care-continuum
#5
A S Nunn, L Brinkley-Rubinstein, C E Oldenburg, K H Mayer, M Mimiaga, R Patel, P A Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060011/topical-tenofovir-protects-against-vaginal-shiv-infection-in-macaques-co-infected-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-trichomonas-vaginalis
#6
Natalia Makarova, Tara Henning, Andrew Taylor, Chuong Dinh, Jonathan Lipscomb, Rachael Aubert, Debra Hanson, Christi Phillips, John Papp, James Mitchell, Janet Mcnicholl, Gerardo J Garcia-Lerma, Walid Heneine, Ellen Kersh, Charles Dobard
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), two prevalent sexual transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether co-infection with CT/TV reduces protection by vaginal TFV gel. METHODS: Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100% or 74% protection when applied either 30 minutes or 3 days before SHIV challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques co-infected with CT/TV and challenged twice-weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (2 menstrual cycles)...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058111/impacts-and-shortcomings-of-genetic-clustering-methods-for-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#7
Art F Y Poon
For infectious diseases, a genetic cluster is a group of closely related infections that is usually interpreted as representing a recent outbreak of transmission. Genetic clustering methods are becoming increasingly popular for molecular epidemiology, especially in the context of HIV where there is now considerable interest in applying these methods to prioritize groups for public health resources such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. To date, genetic clustering has generally been performed with ad hoc algorithms, only some of which have since been encoded and distributed as free software...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031062/maximizing-the-benefits-of-art-and-prep-in-resource-limited-settings
#8
G Akudibillah, A Pandey, J Medlock
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly being used as an HIV-prevention tool, administered to uninfected people with ongoing HIV exposure as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to infected people to reduce their infectiousness. We used a modelling approach to determine the optimal population-level combination of ART and PrEP allocations required in South Africa to maximize programme effectiveness for four outcome measures: new infections, infection-years, death and cost. We considered two different strategies for allocating treatment, one that selectively allocates drugs to sex workers and one that does not...
December 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025734/reaching-key-populations-prep-uptake-in-an-urban-health-care-system-in-the-bronx-new-york
#9
Cedric H Bien, Viraj V Patel, Oni J Blackstock, Uriel R Felsen
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been established as an effective HIV prevention tool, but real world studies are limited. To inform dissemination efforts, we sought to describe individuals prescribed PrEP in the largest health care system in the Bronx, New York, an urban region with a high burden of HIV. We used a clinical database and chart review to identify individuals prescribed PrEP between 2011 and 2015 (n = 108). A majority were Black and Hispanic, half were men who have sex with men, and nearly a third were cisgender women who have sex with men...
December 26, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004219/progress-and-challenges-in-ending-hiv-and-aids-in-australia
#10
Martin Holt
This review considers Australia's progress towards the elimination of HIV and AIDS, as specified in international targets. In particular, it considers the reaction to recent media reports that Australia has 'ended AIDS' and evaluates progress towards reducing HIV transmission. Recent surveillance data and research show significant improvements in HIV testing and treatment, but countervailing trends such as increased condomless sex between gay and other men who have sex with men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is being implemented at scale in some jurisdictions, with the hope that this will significantly alter the trajectory of Australia's HIV epidemic, which has been stable for the last five years (at around 1000-1100 infections per year)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003117/facebook-network-structure-and-awareness-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Aditya S Khanna, Phil Schumm, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. METHODS: The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266)...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999325/pharmacokinetics-of-the-antiviral-lectin-griffithsin-administered-by-different-routes-indicates-multiple-potential-uses
#12
Christopher Barton, J Calvin Kouokam, Harrell Hurst, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2). However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points...
December 17, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998575/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-a-tale-of-two-countries
#13
Tony Kirby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995366/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-condom-barriers-and-motivations-scale-cbms
#14
Sarit A Golub, Kristi E Gamarel
The Condom Barriers and Motivations Scale (CBMS) was developed to measure four distinct categories of barriers and motives to condom use, including: risk reduction motivations, pleasure reduction barriers, intimacy interference barriers, and partner pressure barriers. The CBMS is a 16-item scale with four items that correspond to each of these subscales. The CBMS was tested in two samples of gay and bisexual men. Results support the reliability and validity of the scale and its structure. Results also indicate that CBMS subscales are distinct from general measures of sexual wellbeing, personality factors, or relationship quality (i...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990587/willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-an-empirical-test-of-the-information-motivation-behavioral-skills-imb-model-among-high-risk-drug-users-in-treatment
#15
Roman Shrestha, Frederick L Altice, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Pramila Karki, Michael Copenhaver
Evidence from recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of HIV acquisition for those who are at considerable risk of acquiring HIV infection. With a rapid increase in the amount of research on the efficacy of PrEP for HIV prevention, complementary research on the willingness to use PrEP has grown, especially among MSM, but limited research has been focused among people who use drugs (PWUD). As part of the formative process, we utilized the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change to characterize and guide intervention development for promoting willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD...
December 19, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989271/beyond-the-90-90-90-refocusing-hiv-prevention-as-part-of-the-global-hiv-response
#16
Rachel Baggaley, Shona Dalal, Cheryl Johnson, Virginia Macdonald, Ioannis Mameletzis, Michelle Rodolph, Carmen Figueroa, Julia Samuelson, Annette Verster, Meg Doherty, Gottfried Hirnschall
INTRODUCTION: The remarkable expansion in availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past two decades has transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic condition. People with HIV infection now live long and healthy lives on treatment that is simpler, safer and cheaper. According to UNAIDS estimates, the global coverage of ART reached 46% in 2015, resulting in a 26% decrease in annual HIV-related deaths since 2010. Such success has positioned treatment access at the centre of the global HIV response as a way to prevent mortality, morbidity and HIV transmission through a "Treat All" approach...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970805/systematic-review-of-studies-estimating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#17
O Damm, S Scholz, W Greiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964776/-since-both-of-us-are-using-antiretrovirals-we-have-been-supportive-to-each-other-facilitators-and-barriers-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-heterosexual-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kisumu-kenya
#18
Rena C Patel, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Josephine Odoyo, Maria Pyra, Imeldah Wakhungu, Keerthana Anand, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
INTRODUCTION: Since 2015, the World Health Organization recommends pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for all persons at substantial risk for HIV, including HIV-uninfected partners in serodiscordant relationships in resource-limited settings. As PrEP moves from clinical trials to real-world use, understanding facilitators of and barriers to PrEP initiation and adherence is critical to successful PrEP implementation and rollout. METHODS: We conducted 44 in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (30 without HIV and 33 with HIV) enrolled in the Partners Demonstration Project in Kisumu, Kenya, between August and September 2014...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930740/facilitators-and-barriers-of-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-hiv-discordant-couples-in-kenya-qualitative-insights-from-a-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-implementation-study
#19
Rena C Patel, Josephine Odoyo, Keerthana Anand, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Imeldah Wakhungu, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization now recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for all HIV-infected individuals regardless of CD4 cell count or disease status. Understanding the facilitators and barriers to initiation of and adherence to ART is essential to successful scale-up of "universal" ART. METHODS: To investigate facilitators and barriers to ART initiation, we conducted 44 in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (33 participants with HIV and 30 without HIV) already enrolled in a prospective implementation study of oral antiretroviral-based prevention in Kisumu, Kenya between August and September 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930607/counseling-framework-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-on-the-integrated-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#20
Jennifer F Morton, Connie Celum, John Njoroge, Agnes Nakyanzi, Imeldah Wakhungu, Edna Tindimwebwa, Snaidah Ongachi, Eric Sedah, Emmanuel Okwero, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Jessica E Haberer, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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