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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821565/down-regulation-of-xiap-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-esophageal-cancer-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#1
Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Shao-Hua Fan, Zi-Feng Zhang, Lu Chen, Gao Yi, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
The study investigated the effects of XIAP gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer (EC) cells. Western blotting was used to select EC cell lines with XIAP overexpression. Selected EC9706 and KYSE30 cell lines were both divided into four groups: the blank control group, the negative control (NC) group (transfected with pBSHH1), the siRNA-enhanced group (transfected with pBSHH1-XIAP1-siRNA), and the siRNA-decreased group (transfected with pBSHH1-XIAP2-siRNA). Expressions of XIAP were measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting, cell survival and viability by MTT assay and colony formation assay, and cell apoptosis by flow cytometry, respectively...
August 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820634/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-effects-of-atm-atr-signaling-pathway-on-proliferation-apoptosis-and-radiosensitivity-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#2
Ming Wang, Gang Liu, Guo-Ping Shan, Bing-Bing Wang
AIM: The study investigated the ability of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/Rad3-related (ATR) signaling pathway to influence the proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NPC tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues were collected from 143 NPC patients. The NPC CNE2 cells were assigned into a control group, X-ray group, CGK-733 group, and X-ray+CGK-733 group. The mRNA levels of ATM and ATR were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the protein levels of ATM and ATR using western blotting...
August 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820311/clinical-radiobiology-of-proton-therapy-modeling-of-rbe
#3
B Jones
PURPOSE: To better estimate relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in therapeutic proton beams by using a modeled approach, in order to improve their clinical safety and effectiveness. INTRODUCTION: Concerns exist about the 1.1 RBE used in proton therapy, since it may lead to unintentional over- and under-dosage in patients and so lead to unexpected clinical outcomes. Late reacting normal tissues (with low α/β values), might be overdosed if RBE >1.1; very radiosensitive tumors (with high α/β), might be under-dosed if RBE <1...
August 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816044/action-of-gold-nanospikes-based-nanoradiosensitizers-cellular-internalization-radiotherapy-and-autophagy
#4
Ningning Ma, Peidang Liu, Nongyue He, Ning Gu, Fu-Gen Wu, Zhan Chen
A major challenge to achieve effective X-ray radiation therapy is to use a relatively low and safe radiation dose. Various radiosensitizers, which can significantly enhance the radiotherapeutic performance, have been developed. Gold-based nanomaterials, as a new type of nanoparticle-based radiosensitizers, have been extensively used in researches involving cancer radiotherapy. However, the cancer therapeutic effect using the gold nanoparticle-based radiotherapy is usually not significant because of the low cellular uptake efficiency and the autophagy-inducing ability of these gold nanomaterials...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810896/silencing-the-girdin-gene-enhances-radio-sensitivity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-suppression-of-glycolytic-metabolism
#5
Li Yu, Yifan Sun, Jingjing Li, Yan Wang, Yuxing Zhu, Yong Shi, Xiaojun Fan, Jianda Zhou, Ying Bao, Jie Xiao, Ke Cao, Peiguo Cao
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has been used increasingly to treat primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinically, the main cause of radiotherapy failure is cellular radioresistance, conferred via glycolytic metabolism. Our previous study demonstrated that Girdin is upregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. However, whether Girdin underlies the radio-sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. METHODS: A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence CCDC88A (encoding Girdin), and real-time PCR was performed to determine CCDC88A mRNA expression...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810655/microrna-590-3p-enhances-the-radioresistance-in-glioblastoma-cells-by-targeting-lrig1
#6
Long Chen, Wenhua Wang, Shengqiang Zhu, Xuegang Jin, Jian Wang, Jianfang Zhu, Youxin Zhou
microRNA (miR)-590 has been found to serve potential roles in cancer development; however, the expression and function of miR-590 in human gliomas remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-590 in human glioma tissues and radioresistant human glioblastoma cells (U251R), and to determine the effect and related molecular mechanism of miR-590-3p on the radiosensitivity of U251R cells in vitro. The results from reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that miR-590-3p was upregulated in human glioma tissues and radioresistant human glioblastoma cells, and that miR-590-3p expression was higher in high grade than in low grade gliomas...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810535/curcumin-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-renal-cancer-cells-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#7
Gang Li, Ziming Wang, Tie Chong, Jie Yang, Hongliang Li, Haiwen Chen
The radiation resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains the primary obstacle to improve patient survival. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the radiosensitivity of RCC cells. Human RCC cell (ACHN) was exposed to irradiation (IR) and/or curcumin treatment. Cell viability, DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis, were evaluated by MTT, immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry. Moreover, ACHN cells were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to IR and/or curcumin treatment...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810236/microrna-375-inhibits-growth-and-enhances-radiosensitivity-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-targeting-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor
#8
Bin Zhang, Ying Li, Daorong Hou, Quan Shi, Shuo Yang, Qihong Li
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key players in various human biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the roles of miR-375 in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect miR-375 expression in OSCC tissues and corresponding normal oral epithelial tissues and analyze the correlation of miR-375 expression with OSCC metastasis and patient's survival...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804730/breast-dose-reduction-with-organ-based-wide-angle-tube-current-modulated-ct
#9
Wanyi Fu, Gregory M Sturgeon, Greeshma Agasthya, William Paul Segars, Anuj J Kapadia, Ehsan Samei
This study aimed to estimate the organ dose reduction potential for organ-dose-based tube current modulated (ODM) thoracic computed tomography (CT) with a wide dose reduction arc. Twenty-one computational anthropomorphic phantoms (XCAT) were used to create a virtual patient population with clinical anatomic variations. The phantoms were created based on patient images with normal anatomy (age range: 27 to 66 years, weight range: 52.0 to 105.8 kg). For each phantom, two breast tissue compositions were simulated: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (glandular-to-adipose ratio)...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804729/organ-dose-variability-and-trends-in-tomosynthesis-and-radiography
#10
Jocelyn Hoye, Yakun Zhang, Greeshma Agasthya, Greg Sturgeon, Anuj Kapadia, W Paul Segars, Ehsan Samei
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between patient attributes and organ dose for a population of computational phantoms for 20 tomosynthesis and radiography protocols. Organ dose was estimated from 54 adult computational phantoms (age: 18 to 78 years, weight 52 to 117 kg) using a validated Monte-Carlo simulation (PENELOPE) of a system capable of performing tomosynthesis and radiography. The geometry and field of view for each exam were modeled to match clinical protocols. For each protocol, the energy deposited in each organ was estimated by the simulations, converted to dose units, and then normalized by exposure in air...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802167/induction-of-senescence-in-cancer-cells-by-5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-bioinformatics-and-experimental-insights-to-its-targets
#11
Jayarani F Putri, Nashi Widodo, Kazuichi Sakamoto, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa
5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) is a demethylating drug that causes genome-wide hypomethylation resulting in the expression of several tumor suppressor genes causing growth arrest of cancer cells. Cancer is well established as a multifactorial disease and requires multi-module therapeutics. Search for new drugs and their approval by FDA takes a long time. Keeping this in view, research on new functions of FDA-approved anticancer drugs is desired to expand the list of multi-module functioning drugs for cancer therapy...
August 2, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801308/egfr-mutations-compromise-hypoxia-associated-radiation-resistance-through-impaired-replication-fork-associated-dna-damage-repair
#12
Mohammad Saki, Haruhiko Makino, Prashanthi Javvadi, Nozomi Tomimatsu, Lianghao Ding, Jennifer E Clark, Elaine Gavin, Kenichi Takeda, Joel Andrews, Debabrata Saha, Michael D Story, Sandeep Burma, Chaitanya Nirodi
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has been implicated in hypoxia-associated resistance to radiation or chemotherapy. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) with activating L858R or ΔE746-E750 EGFR mutations exhibit elevated EGFR activity and downstream signaling. Here, relative to wild type (WT) EGFR, mutant (MT) EGFR expression significantly increases radiosensitivity in hypoxic cells. Gene expression profiling in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) revealed that MT-EGFR expression elevated transcripts related to cell cycle and replication in aerobic and hypoxic conditions and down-regulated RAD50, a critical component of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathways...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800285/cytogenetic-reconstruction-of-gamma-ray-doses-delivered-to-atomic-bomb-survivors-dealing-with-wide-distributions-of-photon-energies-and-contributions-from-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#13
Nori Nakamura, Yuko Hirai, Yoshiaki Kodama, Kanya Hamasaki, Harry M Cullings, Kismet A Cordova, Akio Awa
Retrospective estimation of the doses received by atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors by cytogenetic methods has been hindered by two factors: One is that the photon energies released from the bomb were widely distributed, and since the aberration yield varies depending on the energy, the use of monoenergetic (60)Co gamma radiation to construct a calibration curve may bias the estimate. The second problem is the increasing proportion of newly formed lymphocytes entering into the lymphocyte pool with increasing time intervals since the exposures...
August 11, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797855/exploring-genetic-attributions-underlying-radiotherapy-induced-fatigue-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#14
Sepehr Hashemi, Juan Luis Fernandez Martinez, Leorey Saligan, Stephen Sonis
CONTEXT: Despite numerous proposed mechanisms, no definitive pathophysiology underlying Radiotherapy-Induced Fatigue (RIF) has been established. However, the dysregulation of a set of 35 genes was recently validated to predict development of fatigue in prostate cancer patients (PCP's) receiving radiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To hypothesize novel pathways, and provide genetic targets for currently proposed pathways implicated in RIF development through analysis of the previously validated gene set...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797568/the-combination-of-a-966492-and-topotecan-for-effective-radiosensitization-on-glioblastoma-spheroids
#15
Fereshteh Koosha, Ali Neshasteh-Riz, Abbas Takavar, Nazila Eyvazzadeh, Zohreh Mazaheri, Samira Eynali, Mehdi Mousavi
Radiotherapy is one of the modalities in the treatment of glioblastoma patients, but glioma tumors are resistant to radiation and also chemotherapy drugs. Thus, researchers are investigating drugs which have radiosensitization capabilities in order to improve radiotherapy. PARP enzymes and topoisomerase I enzymes have a critical role in repairing DNA damage in tumor cells. Thus, inhibiting activity of these enzymes helps stop DNA damage repair and increase DSB lethal damages. In the current study, we investigated the combination of TPT as a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and A-966492 as a novel PARP inhibitor for further radiosensitization...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797171/novel-composite-drug-delivery-system-as-a-novel-radio-sensitizer-for-the-local-treatment-of-cervical-carcinoma
#16
Shan Xu, Yu Ying Tang, Yan Xin Yu, Qin Yun, Jing Pin Yang, Heng Zhang, Qiuxia Peng, Xiaoyang Sun, Ling Lin Yang, ShaoZhi Fu, Jing Bo Wu
In this study, we investigated in vivo radiosensitizing effects of a gel-based dual drug delivery system (DDS) (PECE/DDP + mPEG-PCL/PTX, or PDMP) in a cervical cancer model, and determined its possible mechanisms of action. A xenograft cervical cancer model was used to investigate the radio sensitization effect of PDMP. Mice underwent paclitaxel (PTX) + cisplatin (DDP), PECE, or PDMP treatment followed by single radiation doses ranging from 0 Gy to 20 Gy. Radio sensitization was analyzed by tumor regrowth delay (TGD)...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796730/squamous-cancers-of-the-rectum-demonstrate-poorer-survival-and-increased-need-for-salvage-surgery-compared-with-squamous-cancers-of-the-anus
#17
Audrey S Kulaylat, Christopher S Hollenbeak, David B Stewart
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795286/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies-for-patients-with-malignant-epidural-spinal-cord-compression
#18
REVIEW
Dilan A Patel, Jian L Campian
Malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is an oncologic emergency with the potential for devastating consequences for patients if not promptly diagnosed and treated. MESCC is diagnosed by imaging. MRI is by far the most sensitive test, preferably with gadolinium. Once the diagnosis of MESCC is suspected, patients with neurologic deficits should receive prompt administration of dexamethasone with a 10-mg IV loading dose followed by 4 mg every 6 h. Quick taper is recommended once the definitive treatment is established...
August 10, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791404/betulinic-acid-increases-radiosensitization-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-through-inducing-sp1-sumoylation-and-pten-expression
#19
Dao-Ying Yuan, Zhen Meng, Kai Xu, Qiao-Feng Li, Cheng Chen, Ke-Yi Li, Bin Zhang
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective non-surgical treatments for oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although BetA (Betulinic acid) can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism and whether it could induce radiosensitization in oral squamous cell carcinoma are not fully understood. In this study, we showed that BetA increased radiosensitization in CAL-27 and Tca-83 cells. Radiation-triggered Sp1 overexpression was responsible for radioresistance of OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma) cells...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791251/combining-oncolytic-adenovirus-with-radiation-a-paradigm-for-the-future-of-radiosensitization
#20
REVIEW
Sean M O'Cathail, Tzveta D Pokrovska, Timothy S Maughan, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour, Maria A Hawkins
Oncolytic viruses and radiotherapy represent two diverse areas of cancer therapy, utilizing quite different treatment modalities and with non-overlapping cytotoxicity profiles. It is, therefore, an intriguing possibility to consider that oncolytic ("cancer-killing") viruses may act as cancer-selective radiosensitizers, enhancing the therapeutic consequences of radiation treatment on tumors while exerting minimal effects on normal tissue. There is a solid mechanistic basis for this potential synergy, with many viruses having developed strategies to inhibit cellular DNA repair pathways in order to protect themselves, during genome replication, from unwanted interference by cell processes that are normally triggered by DNA damage...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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