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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634173/a-comparison-of-2-respiratory-devices-for-sputum-clearance-in-adults-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#1
Yasmin R Silva, Tracy A Greer, Lucy C Morgan, Frank Li, Claude S Farah
BACKGROUND: Airway clearance techniques are a vital part of routine care for patients with bronchiectasis. There is no clear superior modality. The Flutter combines oscillations (6-20Hz) and positive expiratory pressure; the Lung Flute combines positive expiratory pressure and low frequency acoustic waves (18-22Hz), to augment clearance. This project aimed to compare these devices. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover study of adult subjects with stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (expectorating >25 mL/d)...
June 20, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633147/tranexamic-acid-safely-reduced-blood-loss-in-hemi-and-total-hip-arthroplasty-for-acute-femoral-neck-fracture-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Chad D Watts, Matthew T Houdek, S Andrew Sems, William W Cross, Mark W Pagnano
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). DESIGN: Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients)...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631842/uk-consensus-statement-on-the-use-of-plerixafor-to-facilitate-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-collection-to-support-high-dose-chemoradiotherapy-for-patients-with-malignancy
#3
Kenneth W Douglas, Maria Gilleece, Patrick Hayden, Hannah Hunter, Peter R E Johnson, Charlotte Kallmeyer, Ram K Malladi, Shankara Paneesha, Rachel Pawson, Michael Quinn, Kavita Raj, Deborah Richardson, Stephen Robinson, Nigel Russell, John Snowden, Anna Sureda, Eleni Tholouli, Kirsty Thomson, Mike Watts, Keith M Wilson
Plerixafor is a CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR4) antagonist that mobilizes stem cells in the peripheral blood. It is indicated (in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [G-CSF]) to enhance the harvest of adequate quantities of cluster differentiation (CD) 34+ cells for autologous transplantation in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma whose cells mobilize poorly. Strategies for use include delayed re-mobilization after a failed mobilization attempt with G-CSF, and rescue or pre-emptive mobilization in patients in whom mobilization with G-CSF is likely to fail...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630310/group-augmentation-collective-action-and-territorial-boundary-patrols-by-male-chimpanzees
#4
Kevin E Langergraber, David P Watts, Linda Vigilant, John C Mitani
How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs? According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can produce it at low costs provide it to others as a byproduct. Several results from a 20-y study of one of the most striking examples of collective action in nonhuman animals, territorial boundary patrolling by male chimpanzees, are consistent with these ideas...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627300/reduced-effective-emotion-regulation-in-night-owls
#5
Alexandra L Watts, Ray Norbury
Previous research has demonstrated a clear link between late chronotype and depression. The vulnerability factors underpinning this link, however, are unclear. Here the relationship between two specific emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and chronotype was investigated using multiple regression. Two hundred and forty participants (age range 18-80, 189 females) completed validated self-report questionnaires assaying chronotype, neuroticism, depressive symptomatology, sleep quality, and emotion regulation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627014/review-article-paediatric-status-epilepticus-in-the-pre-hospital-setting-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Jeremy Furyk, Kerriane Watt, Theophilus I Emeto, Stuart Dalziel, Daniel Bodnar, Kate Riney, Franz E Babl
Paediatric status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency and a common critical condition confronting pre-hospital providers. Management in the pre-hospital environment is challenging but considered extremely important as a potentially modifiable factor on outcome. Recent data from multicentre clinical trials, quality observational studies and consensus documents have influenced management in this area, and is important to both pre-hospital providers and emergency physicians. The objective of this review was to: (i) present an overview of the available evidence relevant to pre-hospital care of paediatric SE; and (ii) assess the current pre-hospital practice guidelines in Australia and New Zealand...
June 18, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626072/5-ht-causes-splanchnic-venodilation
#7
Bridget Mahon Seitz, Hakan Orer, Teresa Krieger-Burke, Emma S Darios, Janice M Thompson, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytrypamine) causes relaxation of the isolated superior mesenteric vein (SMV), a splanchnic blood vessel, through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. As part of studies designed to identify the mechanism(s) through which chronic (>24 hours) infusion of 5-HT lowers blood pressure, we test the hypothesis that 5-HT causes an in vitro and in vivo splanchnic venodilation that is 5-HT7 receptor-dependent. In tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction, the portal vein (PV) and abdominal inferior vena cava (Ab IVC) relaxed to 5-HT and the 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT); relaxation was abolished by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623740/detection-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-influences-the-perceived-need-for-aggressive-lipid-management
#8
G B John Mancini, Milan Gupta, Michelle Tsigoulis, Christopher P Cannon, Jacques Genest, Kausik K Ray, Raul D Santos, Gerald F Watts, Paolo Raggi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Overt atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) warrants aggressive lipid lowering. Imaging for ambiguous symptoms suggesting ischemia or for clarification of CV risk in asymptomatic individuals often uncovers previously unknown ASCVD. Guidelines do not provide clear recommendations for aggressive lipid lowering in such cases. We explored physicians' perception, as influenced by tests that detect ASCVD, regarding appropriateness of getting to lipid goals and for theoretically accessing proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i)...
June 3, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622819/systematic-and-organizational-issues-implicated-in-post-hospitalization-suicides-of-medically-hospitalized-patients-a-study-of-root-cause-analysis-reports
#9
Natalie Riblet, Brian Shiner, Peter Mills, Brett Rusch, Robin Hemphill, Bradley V Watts
OBJECTIVE: Medical hospitalization is a high risk period for suicide. It is important to understand system-level factors that may be associated with suicide after a medical hospitalization. METHOD: Retrospective study of root-cause analysis (RCA) reports of suicide occurring within three months of Veterans Administration (VA) medical hospitalization, 2002-2015. We collected patient and system-level factors to characterize events. RESULTS: There were 96 RCA reports pertaining to suicide within three months of medical hospitalization...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621339/hepatokines-linking-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Ruth C R Meex, Matthew J Watt
Hepatic steatosis is an underlying feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most common form of liver disease and is present in up to ∼70% of individuals who are overweight. NAFLD is also associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and low levels of HDL, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hepatic steatosis is a strong predictor of the development of insulin resistance and often precedes the onset of other known mediators of insulin resistance. This sequence of events suggests that hepatic steatosis has a causal role in the development of insulin resistance in other tissues, such as skeletal muscle...
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620941/endothelial-mechanotransduction-proteins-and-vascular-function-are-altered-by-dietary-sucrose-supplementation-in-healthy-young-male-subjects
#11
Lasse Gliemann, Nicolai Rytter, Mads Lindskrog, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Lykke Sylow, Erik A Richter, Ylva Hellsten
Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616728/the-relationship-of-cancer-characteristics-and-patient-outcome-with-time-to-lung-cancer-diagnosis-after-an-abnormal-screening-ct
#12
Sushilkumar K Sonavane, Paul Pinsky, Jubal Watts, David S Gierada, Reginald Munden, Satinder P Singh, Hrudaya Nath
PURPOSE: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a reduction in lung cancer and all-cause mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening. The aim of our study was to examine the time to diagnosis (TTD) of lung cancer in the LDCT arm of the NLST and assess its relationship with cancer characteristics and survival. METHODS: The subjects (N = 462) with a positive baseline screen and subsequent lung cancer diagnosis within 3 years were evaluated by data and image review to confirm the baseline abnormality...
June 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615165/most-london-hospitals-and-clinics-exceed-air-pollution-limits
#13
Pauline Castres, David Dajnak, Melissa Lott, Nick Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615019/evaluation-of-community-provision-of-a-preventive-cardiovascular-programme-the-national-health-service-health-check-in-reaching-the-under-served-groups-by-primary-care-in-england-cross-sectional-observational-study
#14
Maria Woringer, Elizabeth Cecil, Hillary Watt, Kiara Chang, Fozia Hamid, Kamlesh Khunti, Elizabeth Dubois, Julie Evason, Azeem Majeed, Michael Soljak
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature mortality and a major contributor of health inequalities in England. Compared to more affluent and white counterparts, deprived people and ethnic minorities tend to die younger due to preventable CVD associated with lifestyle. In addition, deprived, ethnic minorities and younger people are less likely to be served by CVD prevention services. This study assessed the effectiveness of community-based outreach providers in delivering England's National Health Services (NHS) Health Check programme, a CVD preventive programme to under-served groups...
June 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614302/corrigendum-common-genetic-variation-drives-molecular-heterogeneity-in-human-ipscs
#15
Helena Kilpinen, Angela Goncalves, Andreas Leha, Vackar Afzal, Kaur Alasoo, Sofie Ashford, Sendu Bala, Dalila Bensaddek, Francesco Paolo Casale, Oliver J Culley, Petr Danecek, Adam Faulconbridge, Peter W Harrison, Annie Kathuria, Davis McCarthy, Shane A McCarthy, Ruta Meleckyte, Yasin Memari, Nathalie Moens, Filipa Soares, Alice Mann, Ian Streeter, Chukwuma A Agu, Alex Alderton, Rachel Nelson, Sarah Harper, Minal Patel, Alistair White, Sharad R Patel, Laura Clarke, Reena Halai, Christopher M Kirton, Anja Kolb-Kokocinski, Philip Beales, Ewan Birney, Davide Danovi, Angus I Lamond, Willem H Ouwehand, Ludovic Vallier, Fiona M Watt, Richard Durbin, Oliver Stegle, Daniel J Gaffney
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature22403.
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612008/hybrid-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-fractional-flow-reserve-versus-fractional-flow-reserve-in-the-real-world
#16
Kara Shuttleworth, Kristina Smith, Jonathan Watt, Jamie A L Smith, Stephen J Leslie
BACKGROUND: The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a novel method to assess the ischemic potential of coronary artery stenoses. Clinical trial data have shown that iFR has acceptable diagnostic agreement with fractional flow reserve (FFR), the reference standard for the functional assessment of coronary stenoses. This study compares iFR measurements with FFR measurements in a real world, single-center setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Instantaneous wave-free ratio and FFR were measured in 50 coronary artery lesions in 42 patients, with FFR ≤ 0...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611487/athermal-synchronization-of-laser-source-with-wdm-filter-in-a-silicon-photonics-platform
#17
Nanxi Li, Zhan Su, Purnawirman, E Salih Magden, Christopher V Poulton, Alfonso Ruocco, Neetesh Singh, Matthew J Byrd, Jonathan D B Bradley, Gerald Leake, Michael R Watts
In an optical interconnect circuit, microring resonators (MRRs) are commonly used in wavelength division multiplexing systems. To make the MRR and laser synchronized, the resonance wavelength of the MRR needs to be thermally controlled, and the power consumption becomes significant with a high-channel count. Here, we demonstrate an athermally synchronized rare-earth-doped laser and MRR. The laser comprises a Si3N4 based cavity covered with erbium-doped Al2O3 to provide gain. The low thermo-optic coefficient of Al2O3 and Si3N4 and the comparable thermal shift of the effective index in the laser and microring cross-sections enable lasing and resonance wavelength synchronization over a wide range of temperatures...
May 22, 2017: Applied Physics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611391/isothiocyanates-are-detected-in-human-synovial-fluid-following-broccoli-consumption-and-can-affect-the-tissues-of-the-knee-joint
#18
Rose Davidson, Sarah Gardner, Orla Jupp, Angela Bullough, Sue Butters, Laura Watts, Simon Donell, Maria Traka, Shikha Saha, Richard Mithen, Mandy Peffers, Peter Clegg, Yongping Bao, Aedin Cassidy, Ian Clark
Osteoarthritis is a major cause of disability and there is no current pharmaceutical treatment which can prevent the disease or slow its progression. Dietary advice or supplementation is clearly an attractive option since it has low toxicity and ease of implementation on a population level. We have previously demonstrated that sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate derived from its glucosinolate precursor which is found in broccoli, can prevent cartilage destruction in cells, in in vitro and in vivo models of osteoarthritis...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609686/mentors-and-mentees-intellectual-partnership-through-the-lens-of-the-transformative-learning-theory
#19
Margareth Santos Zanchetta, Annette Bailey, Olesya Kolisnyk, Lorena Baku, Jasna Schwind, Eunice Osino, Kateryna Aksenchuk-Metersky, Niyat Mehari, Oluwafunmbi Babalola, Joneet Christopher, Aafreen Hassan, Newton Leong, Mohamed Mohamed, Patrice Nemhbard-Wedderbrun, Ann Rodrigues, Rona Sales, Liana Salvador-Watts, Lira Santiago, Terry Sizto, Melissa Stevenson, Lina Yu
In this paper we report reflections about the scholarly mentoring experiences of undergraduate nursing students (mentees) and faculty members (mentors) involved in an intellectual partnership at a Canadian university. The paper specifically recounts the impacts of the transformative process experienced by 18 mentees and three mentors, based on their in-depth written critical reflections. In this collaborative initiative, the constructivist framework of Shor and Freire, and Mezirow's Transformative Learning Theory, served as foundations for all interactions between mentees and mentors, and guided the analysis and interpretation of their written self-reflections...
May 31, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609600/who-do-australian-general-practitioners-refer-to-physiotherapy
#20
Sarah Dennis, Ian Watts, Ying Pan, Helena Britt
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy plays an important role in the health of many Australians. The aims of this study were to assess changes in the rate of general practitioner (GP) referral to physiotherapists in Australia from 1998 to 2014, and to determine patient characteristics associated with increased likelihood of such referral. METHODS: Secondary analysis was undertaken of data from the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program using weighted encounter data years 1998-99 to 2014-15 inclusive...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
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