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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433704/pertussis-and-influenza-immunisation-during-pregnancy-a-landscape-review
#1
REVIEW
Bahaa Abu Raya, Kathryn M Edwards, David W Scheifele, Scott A Halperin
Immunisation during pregnancy is a relatively new strategy, and is currently limited to tetanus, pertussis, and influenza vaccines. None of these vaccines were developed specifically for use in pregnancy, but they provide an effective method of protecting mothers and young infants. In response to increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality among young infants, several countries have recommended universal tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis immunisation during pregnancy. Similarly, many countries recommend influenza immunisation during pregnancy to reduce the risk of disease for mother and infant...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431124/childhood-vaccinations-and-risk-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-in-children
#2
Signe Holst Søegaard, Klaus Rostgaard, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Marie Hargreave, Henrik Hjalgrim, Anders Hviid
Background: It has been proposed that childhood vaccinations protect against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children by modulation of future responses to common infections in childhood. However, the available studies provide inconsistent findings, and population-based cohort studies with longitudinal information on vaccinations are lacking. Methods: In a register-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008, followed up until age 15 years or 31 December 2009 ( n  = 1 225 404), we evaluated exposure to childhood vaccination and risk of childhood ALL, including information on ALL subtypes...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430750/elevated-immune-response-among-children-4-years-of-age-with-pronounced-local-adverse-events-after-the-fifth-dtap-vaccination
#3
Saskia van der Lee, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Lia G H de Rond, Kemal Öztürk, Anneke Westerhof, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hans C Rümke, Anne-Marie Buisman
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the more reactogenic whole-cell pertussis vaccines. This replacement in the primary immunization schedule of infants coincided with a significant increase in pronounced local adverse events (AEs) in 4 years old children shortly after the administration of a fifth diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated polio (DTaP-IPV) vaccine. The objective of this study was to investigate possible differences in vaccine antigen-specific immune responses between children with and without a pronounced local AE after the fifth DTaP-IPV vaccination...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430538/biophysical-comparison-of-diphtheria-and-tetanus-toxins-with-the-formaldehyde-detoxified-toxoids-the-main-components-of-diphtheria-and-tetanus-vaccines
#4
Husam Alsarraf, Emil Dedic, Morten J Bjerrum, Ole Østergaard, Max Per Kristensen, Jesper W Petersen, René Jørgensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429891/comparison-of-immunization-rates-of-adults-ages-65-years-and-older-managed-within-two-nurse-practitioner-owned-clinics-with-national-immunization-rates
#5
Wendy L Wright, Elise Morrell, Jennie Lee, Norma Graciela Cuellar, Patricia White
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adults ages ≥65 years are at increased risk for infectious diseases. Ensuring these individuals are fully vaccinated is imperative. The purpose of this study was to assess the immunization rates of adults ages ≥65 years managed by nurse practitioners (NPs) and compare the results with national immunization rates and Healthy People 2020 goals. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults ages ≥65 years was obtained from two NP-managed clinics...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429619/addressing-parental-health-in-pediatrics-physician-perceptions-of-relevance-and-responsibility
#6
Maya Venkataramani, Tina L Cheng, Barry S Solomon, Craig Evan Pollack
Pediatric guidelines recommend that providers address a range of parental health issues; however, adherence to these guidelines has been suboptimal. Drawing on a nationally-representative sample of children's primary care physicians, we examined whether providers view parental issues as relevant to child health and whether they believe it is their personal responsibility to address them. Issues included maternal depression, tobacco use, intimate partner violence, Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis) immunization, family planning, and health insurance...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429151/corynebacterium-species-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-asymptomatic-individuals-aged%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-65%C3%A2-years-in-germany
#7
Barbara Teutsch, Anja Berger, Durdica Marosevic, Katharina Schönberger, Thiên-Trí Lâm, Kerstin Hubert, Steffi Beer, Peter Wienert, Nikolaus Ackermann, Heike Claus, Maria Drayß, Kathrin Thiel, Mark van der Linden, Ulrich Vogel, Andreas Sing
PURPOSE: The prevalence of protective anti-diphtheria toxin antibodies decreases with age. Therefore, the elderly might serve as reservoir for potentially toxigenic Corynebacterium (C.) species (C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, and C. pseudotuberculosis). This study aimed to examine the colonization rate of the nasopharynx with corynebacteria of individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS: In the period from October 2012 to June 2013, nasal and throat swabs were taken from 714 asymptomatic subjects aged 65-106 years (average age 77...
April 20, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429116/dutch-national-immunization-schedule-compliance-and-associated-characteristics-for-the-primary-series
#8
Elsemieke D Scheepers, Alies van Lier, Ingrid H Drijfhout, Guy Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hester E de Melker, Mirjam J Knol
In the Netherlands, the recommended priming immunization schedule for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (DTaP-IPV) is at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. We evaluated the compliance with the recommended schedule, as well as its characteristics. We included all infants born between 2007 and 2012 who received minimally one DTaP-IPV vaccination (n = 1,061,578). Infants complied with the schedule if they received the first vaccination between 6 and 9 weeks of age, and the second and third vaccination 2-6 weeks after the first and second vaccination...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421248/indications-for-cellular-migration-from-the-central-nervous-system-to-its-draining-lymph-nodes-in-cd11c-gfp-bone-marrow-chimeras-following-eae
#9
Fridtjof Schiefenhövel, Kerstin Immig, Carolin Prodinger, Ingo Bechmann
The concept as to how the brain maintains its immune privilege has initially been based on observations that it is lacking classical lymph vessels and later, the absence of dendritic cells (DC). This view has been challenged by several groups demonstrating drainage/migration of injected tracers and cells into cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and the presence of brain antigens in CLNs in the course of various brain pathologies. Using CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (tg) mice, we have shown the existence of CD11c(+) cells, a main DC marker, within the brain parenchyma...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406517/biochemical-studies-of-inositol-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-involved-in-mycothiol-biosynthesis-in-corynebacterium-diphtheria
#10
Yuchuan Guo, Lizhen Wang, Jiatong Guo, Guofeng Gu, Zhongwu Guo
Mycothiol (MSH) is the predominant low molecular weight thiol produced by actinomycetes, and it plays a pivotal role in the bacterial detoxication process. 1L-myo-Inositol-1-phosphate (1L-Ins-1-P) α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GlcNAc-T), known as MshA, is the only glycosyltransferase involved in MSH biosynthesis. In this work, the MshA from Corynebacterium diphtheria, named as CdMshA, was expressed, purified, and studied in detail. Its enzymatic activity to transfer GlcNAc to 1L-Ins-1-P was confirmed by the isolation and rigorous characterization of its reaction product 3-phospho-1-d-myo-inositol-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside...
April 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405523/histidine-decarboxylase-hdc-expressing-granulocytic-myeloid-cells-induce-and-recruit-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-murine-colon-cancer
#11
Xiaowei Chen, Yoshihiro Takemoto, Huan Deng, Moritz Middelhoff, Richard A Friedman, Timothy H Chu, Michael J Churchill, Yan Ma, Karan K Nagar, Yagnesh H Tailor, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Timothy C Wang
The colorectal tumor microenvironment contains a diverse population of myeloid cells that are recruited and converted to immunosuppressive cells, thus facilitating tumor escape from immunoediting. We have identified a genetically and functionally distinct subset of dynamic bone marrow myeloid cells that are characterized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression. Lineage tracing in Hdc-CreERT2;R26-LSL-tdTomato mice revealed that in homeostasis, there is a strong bias by HDC(+) myeloid cells toward the CD11b(+)Ly6G(hi) granulocytic lineage, which was accelerated during azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced colonic carcinogenesis...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404574/parasitic-infections-in-pregnancy-decrease-placental-transfer-of-anti-pneumococcal-antibodies
#12
Noah D McKittrick, David M Vu, Indu Malhotra, Charles H King, Francis Mutuku, A Desiree LaBeaud
Many factors can influence maternal placental antibody transfer to the fetus, which confers important immune protection to the newborn infant. However, little is known about the effect of maternal parasitic infection on placental antibody transfer. To investigate this, we selected, from a parent study of 576 pregnant Kenyan women, four groups of women with term deliveries (≥37 weeks), including uninfected women (N=30) and women with solo infections of malaria (N=30), hookworm (N=30), or schistosomiasis (N=10)...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403055/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-administered-to-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-between-8-weeks-and-2-years-of-age-a-phase-iii-open-controlled-study
#13
Sodiomon B Sirima, Alfred Tiono, Zakaria Gansané, Mohamadou Siribié, Angèle Zongo, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Nancy François, Ana Strezova, Kurt Dobbelaere, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were evaluated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), who are at increased risk for infections. METHODS: In this phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in Burkina Faso (NCT01175083), children with SCD (S) or without SCD (NS) were assigned to 6 groups (N = 300): children 8-11 weeks of age (<6 months; <6S and <6NS groups) received 3 primary doses and a booster dose of PHiD-CV coadministered with routine childhood vaccines; children 7-11 months of age (7-11S and 7-11NS groups) received 2 primary doses and a booster dose of PHiD-CV; children 12-23 months of age (12-23S and 12-23NS groups) received 2 catch-up doses of PHiD-CV...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399054/pneumococcal-immune-response-in-infants-whose-mothers-received-tdap-vaccination-during-pregnancy
#14
Kirsten Maertens, Polly Burbidge, Pierre Van Damme, David Goldblatt, Elke Leuridan
BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization with a tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine may blunt infant pneumococcal immune responses after a primary series of vaccines. METHODS: As part of a prospective controlled cohort trial of Tdap (Boostrix®, GSK Biologicals) vaccination in pregnancy, infants born to vaccinated mothers and controls were immunized at 8 and 16 weeks and 12 months of age with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar13®, Pfizer)...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397983/high-yield-production-of-recombinant-crm197-a-non-toxic-mutant-of-diphtheria-toxin-in-the-periplasm-of-escherichia-coli
#15
Philippe Goffina, Marianne Dewerchin, Philippe De Rop, Normand Blais, Philippe Dehottay
A high cell density fed-batch process was developed for production of recombinant CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin widely used as a carrier in polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. Fully soluble recombinant CRM197 was obtained in high yields and with an authentic N-terminus, by targeting the protein to the periplasm of Escherichia coli using the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)-dependent signal sequence of FlgI. Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize the set-points of key process parameters (pH and feed rate at induction)...
April 11, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397465/variation-of-housekeeping-genes-in-clinical-isolates-and-vaccine-strains-of-bordetella-pertussis
#16
Masoumeh Fathi, Faezeh Haghighi, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Ebrahim Abbasi, Seyed Saeed Eshraghi, Sedighe Ghourchian, Hojjat Zeraati, Mehdi Yaseri, Masoumeh Douraghi, Fazel Shokri
BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis causes serious contagious infections, primarily in childhood. A whole-cell vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP), has been used to protect against pertussis in children in Iran, but the pertussis cases have been increasing during recent years. We determined the allelic variation level of housekeeping genes in isolates recovered from pertussis patients and vaccine strains used in national vaccination program. METHODS: Five clinical isolates, 2 vaccine strains and a Tohama I strain were studied through multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of housekeeping genes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394852/peripheral-inflammatory-pain-sensitisation-is-independent-of-mast-cell-activation-in-male-mice
#17
Douglas M Lopes, Franziska Denk, Kim I Chisholm, Tesha Suddason, Camille Durrieux, Matthew Thakur, Clive Gentry, Stephen B McMahon
The immune and sensory systems are known for their close proximity and interaction. Indeed, in a variety of pain states a myriad of different immune cells are activated and recruited, playing a key role in neuronal sensitisation. During inflammatory pain it is thought that mast cells (MC) are one of the immune cell types involved in this process, but so far the evidence outlining their direct effect on neuronal cells remains unclear. To clarify whether MC are involved in inflammatory pain states, we used a transgenic mouse line (Mctp5CreiDTR) in which MC could be depleted in an inducible manner by administration of diphtheria toxin...
April 5, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392142/memory-b-cell-response-to-a-pcv-13-booster-in-3-5year-old-children-primed-with-either-pcv-7-or-pcv-13
#18
Johannes Trück, Amber Thompson, Begonia Morales-Aza, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Merryn Voysey, Ed Clarke, Matthew D Snape, Dominic F Kelly, Adam Finn, Andrew J Pollard
Pneumococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines provide direct protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae through the induction of persistent anti-polysaccharide antibodies, and by priming for a rapid secondary antibody response. Memory B cells (BMEM) generated during an initial immune response are responsible for both the more rapid and quantitatively greater secondary antibody response and are also thought to contribute to the ongoing production of plasma cells providing long-term antibody persistence...
April 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390848/-the-advent-of-a-newborn-specialty-19th-century-pediatrics
#19
Jean-Jacques Baudon
Pediatrics began under the most unfavorable conditions that are difficult to imagine nowadays. Children at the start of the 19th century were considered as negligible. The death rate was tremendous, increased by the work of children in factories as soon as 6 years of age in textile industries. In upper classes, infants were fed by a wet nurse, far from their parents and death rate was high as well. The emergence of pediatrics was the result of work carried out in adult medicine in the first half of the 19th century: clinical anatomic method, knowledge of contagious diseases even before the discovery of bacteria, birth of bacteriology...
April 5, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385925/neutrophil-myeloperoxidase-diminishes-the-toxic-effects-and-mortality-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#20
Laurent L Reber, Caitlin M Gillis, Philipp Starkl, Friederike Jönsson, Riccardo Sibilano, Thomas Marichal, Nicolas Gaudenzio, Marion Bérard, Stephan Rogalla, Christopher H Contag, Pierre Bruhns, Stephen J Galli
Neutrophils have crucial antimicrobial functions but are also thought to contribute to tissue injury upon exposure to bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To study the role of neutrophils in LPS-induced endotoxemia, we developed a new mouse model, PMN(DTR) mice, in which injection of diphtheria toxin induces selective neutrophil ablation. Using this model, we found, surprisingly, that neutrophils serve to protect the host from LPS-induced lethal inflammation. This protective role was observed in conventional and germ-free animal facilities, indicating that it does not depend on a particular microbiological environment...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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