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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912709/geographically-diverse-clusters-of-nontoxigenic-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-infection-germany-2016-2017
#1
Alexandra Dangel, Anja Berger, Regina Konrad, Heribert Bischoff, Andreas Sing
From 2016 through the middle of 2017, the German Consiliary Laboratory on Diphtheria noted an increase in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates submitted from cities in northern Germany. Many patients for whom epidemiologic data were available were homeless, alcohol or drug abusers, or both. After performing routine diagnostics and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we analyzed isolates of sequence type (ST) 8 and previously submitted isolates by whole-genome sequencing. Results were analyzed for phylogenetic relationship by core genome MLST (cg-MLST) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912686/diphtheria-outbreak-in-amerindian-communities-wonken-venezuela-2016-2017
#2
Adriana Lodeiro-Colatosti, Udo Reischl, Thomas Holzmann, Carlos E Hernández-Pereira, Alejandro Rísquez, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
In February 2017, a diphtheria outbreak occurred among Amerindians of the Pemón ethnic group in Wonken, Venezuela. A field investigation revealed ≈10 cases; clinical presentation did not include cutaneous or neurologic signs or symptoms. To prevent future outbreaks in Venezuela, Amerindian communities need better access to vaccination and healthcare.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910118/rct-of-centralized-vaccine-reminder-recall-for-adults
#3
Laura P Hurley, Brenda Beaty, Steven Lockhart, Dennis Gurfinkel, Kristin Breslin, Miriam Dickinson, Melanie D Whittington, Heather Roth, Allison Kempe
INTRODUCTION: A proven, but underutilized, method to increase current low vaccination rates is reminder/recall. Centralized reminder/recall using an Immunization Information System reduces the burden of an individual practice conducting reminder/recall. The objectives were to assess the effectiveness of centralized vaccine reminder/recall on improving adult vaccination rates using Colorado's Immunization Information System. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a pragmatic RCT...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910115/effectiveness-of-prenatal-tetanus-diphtheria-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-in-the-prevention-of-infant-pertussis-in-the-u-s
#4
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Anne M Butler, Leah J McGrath, Kim A Boggess, David J Weber, Dongmei Li, Michael G Hudgens, J Bradley Layton
INTRODUCTION: It is recommended that all pregnant women in the U.S. receive tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization to prevent infant pertussis. This study's objective was to examine the clinical effectiveness of prenatal Tdap, and whether effectiveness varies by gestational age at immunization. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study of pregnant women with deliveries in 2010-2014 and their infants was performed. Commercial insurance claims data were analyzed in 2016-2017 to identify Tdap receipt by the pregnant women, and hospitalizations and outpatient visits for pertussis in their infants until the infants reached 18 months of age...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907485/assessment-of-vaccine-wastage-rates-missed-opportunities-and-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-during-introduction-of-a-second-dose-of-measles-containing-vaccine-into-cambodia-s-national-immunization-program
#5
Aaron S Wallace, Kong Krey, John Hustedt, Eleanor Burnett, Narin Choun, Danni Daniels, Margaret L Watkins, Sann Chan Soeung, Richard Duncan
INTRODUCTION: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) can result in inadequate protection against disease. Although healthcare provider reluctance to open multi-dose, lyophilized vaccine vials (particularly the measles-containing vaccine [MCV]) for every eligible child due to concerns about wasting vaccine is a known reason for MOV, little is known about providers' related attitudes and practices. METHODS: In 100 randomly selected health facilities and 24 districts of Cambodia, we surveyed healthcare providers and their district supervisors regarding routine vaccine administration and wastage knowledge and practices, and child caregivers (five per facility) regarding MOV...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907484/patient-attitudes-toward-influenza-and-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-in-pregnancy
#6
Emmie R Strassberg, Michael Power, Jay Schulkin, Lauren M Stark, A Dhanya Mackeen, Katie L Murtough, Michael J Paglia
BACKGROUND: Routine influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women to prevent poor maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes is recommended practice; however, actual rates of influenza vaccine acceptance are typically well below the (Healthy People 2020, 2015) goal of 80%. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify barriers to accepting either vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From December 2014 to April 2015 women were given a questionnaire eliciting their experiences, attitudes and history of influenza and Tdap vaccination in pregnancy during their routine prenatal care appointments at a tertiary care center...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898770/mandatory-vaccinations-in-european-countries-undocumented-information-false-news-and-the-impact-on-vaccination-uptake-the-position-of-the-italian-pediatric-society
#7
Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Rocco Russo, Mauro Bozzola, Giovanni Corsello, Alberto Villani
BACKGROUND: High rates of vaccination coverage are important in preventing infectious diseases. Enforcing mandatory vaccinations is one of the strategies that some Countries adopted to protect the community when vaccination coverage is not satisfactory. In Italy, in 2017 vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella and varicella became compulsory in childhood. In order to contrast vaccination policies, anti-vaccination campaigns contribute to the spread of fake news...
June 14, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895052/tdap-vaccination-during-pregnancy-to-protect-newborns-from-pertussis-infection
#8
S Mazzilli, L Tavoschi, P L Lopalco
BACKGROUND: Nowadays whooping cough (pertussis) represents one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases in Western countries; even more, it is currently on rise. In many countries, the use of acellular pertussis adult vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap) is recommended for women during pregnancy to protect newborns in the first months of life, when they are too young to be vaccinated. In Italy, vaccination of women during the third trimester of pregnancy is included in the national immunization programme (PNPV 2017-2019), though up to now, this vaccination strategy has not been efficiently implemented...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887324/pertussis-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-older-australian-adults-following-a-cocooning-vaccination-program
#9
A Dyda, P McIntyre, S Karki, C R MacIntyre, A T Newall, E Banks, J Kaldor, B Liu
BACKGROUND: While recommendations to vaccinate adults against pertussis exist, information on uptake for adult tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine (Tdap) among older adults is limited. METHODS: We used data from the 45 and Up Study, a prospective cohort of adults aged ≥45 years who completed a questionnaire between 2012 and 2014 asking about pertussis vaccination. We evaluated Tdap uptake following a program providing free vaccine for adults in contact with young children between 2009 and 2012...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880243/effect-of-tdap-upon-antibody-response-to-meningococcal-polysaccharide-when-administered-before-with-or-after-the-quadrivalent-meningococcal-tt-conjugate-vaccine-coadministered-with-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-in-adult-hajj-pilgrims-a
#10
M Tashani, M Alfelali, O Barasheed, A S Alqahtani, L Heron, M Wong, H Rashid, H Findlow, R Borrow, R Booy
Hajj pilgrims are susceptible to several serious infections and are required to receive multiple vaccinations. Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines contain carrier proteins such as tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid or a mutant of diphtheria toxoid (CRM197). These carrier proteins may interact with other conjugate or combination vaccines containing tetanus or diphtheria on concurrent or sequential administration. We examined the immune interaction of separate and concomitant administration of a tetanus/diphtheria/acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine with a TT-conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV4) (coadministered with 13-valent pneumococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine [PCV13]) in adult Australian pilgrims before attending Hajj in 2015...
June 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875175/structural-and-immunological-characterization-of-e-coli-derived-recombinant-crm-197-protein-used-as-carrier-in-conjugate-vaccines
#11
Ravi P N Mishra, Ravishankar P Yadav, Christopher Jones, Salvatore Nocadello, George Minasov, Ludmilla A Shuvalova, Wayne F Anderson, Akshay Goel
It is established that the immunogenicity of polysaccharides is enhanced by coupling them to carrier proteins. CRM197- , a non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin is widely used carrier protein for conjugate vaccines. Conventionally, CRM197 is isolated --by fermentation of C. diphtheriae C7 (β197 ) cultures, which often suffers from low yield.  Recently, several recombinant approaches have been reported with robust processes and higher yields, which will improve the affordability of CRM197  based vaccines...
June 6, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873445/monolith-affinity-chromatography-for-the-rapid-quantification-of-a-single-chain-variable-fragment-immunotoxin
#12
Peter Satzer, Ralf Sommer, Paulsson Johanna, Agnes Rodler, Romana Zehetner, Klaus Hofstädter, Christoph Klade, Alois Jungbauer
We developed a novel analytical method for concentration determination of tandem single-chain antibody diphtheria toxin (immunotoxin). The method is based on polymethacrylate monoliths with Protein L ligands as the binding moiety. Different buffers were tested for elution of the Protein L bound immunotoxin and 4.5 M guanidinium hydrochloride performed best. We optimized the elution conditions and the method sequence resulting in a fast and robust method with a runtime below 10 min. Fast determination of immunotoxin is critical if any process decisions rely on this data...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873181/dosing-optimization-of-ccr4-immunotoxin-for-improved-depletion-of-ccr4-treg-in-non-human-primates
#13
Zhaohui Wang, Nathan J Louras, Alexandre G Lellouch, Shannon G Pratts, Huiping Zhang, Haoyu Wang, Christene A Huang, Curtis L Cetrulo, Joren C Madsen, David H Sachs, Zhirui Wang
Recently we have developed a diphtheria toxin-based recombinant anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for targeting CCR4+ tumors and Tregs. In this study, we further optimized the dosing schedule for improved CCR4+ Treg depletion. We have demonstrated that up to a 90% depletion was achieved and the depletion extended to approximately two weeks in the peripheral blood and more than 48 days in the lymph node at 25 μg/kg, BID for 8 consecutive days in cynomolgus monkeys. Expansion was observed including monocytes and NK cells...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871739/the-preventable-tragedy-of-diphtheria-in-the-21st-century
#14
EDITORIAL
L H Blumberg, M A Prieto, J V Diaz, M J Blanco, B Valle, C Pla, D N Durrheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870743/immunogenicity-of-diphtheria-toxoid-and-poly-i-c-loaded-cationic-liposomes-after-hollow-microneedle-mediated-intradermal-injection-in-mice
#15
Guangsheng Du, Mara Leone, Stefan Romeijn, Gideon Kersten, Wim Jiskoot, Joke A Bouwstra
In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of cationic liposomes loaded with diphtheria toxoid (DT) and poly(I:C) after hollow microneedle-mediated intradermal vaccination in mice. The following liposomal formulations were studied: DT loaded liposomes, a mixture of free DT and poly(I:C)-loaded liposomes, a mixture of DT-loaded liposomes and free poly(I:C), and liposomal formulations with DT and poly(I:C) either individually or co-encapsulated in the liposomes. Reference groups were DT solution adjuvanted with or without poly(I:C) (DT/poly(I:C))...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867941/langerin-cd8%C3%AE-dendritic-cells-drive-early-cd8-t-cell-activation-and-il-12-production-during-systemic-bacterial-infection
#16
Kelly A Prendergast, Naomi J Daniels, Troels R Petersen, Ian F Hermans, Joanna R Kirman
Bloodstream infections induce considerable morbidity, high mortality, and represent a significant burden of cost in health care; however, our understanding of the immune response to bacteremia is incomplete. Langerin+ CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs), residing in the marginal zone of the murine spleen, have the capacity to cross-prime CD8+ T cells and produce IL-12, both of which are important components of antimicrobial immunity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that this DC subset may be a key promoter of adaptive immune responses to blood-borne bacterial infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866795/safety-surveillance-of-diphtheria-and-tetanus-toxoids-and-acellular-pertussis-dtap-vaccines
#17
Pedro L Moro, Silvia Perez-Vilar, Paige Lewis, Marthe Bryant-Genevier, Hajime Kamiya, Maria Cano
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of currently licensed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in the United States by using data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting surveillance system. METHODS: We searched VAERS for US reports of DTaP vaccinations occurring from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2016, and received by March 17, 2017. We reviewed available medical records for all death reports and a random sample of reports classified as nondeath serious...
June 4, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865181/adverse-events-following-immunization-in-brazil-age-of-child-and-vaccine-associated-risk-analysis-using-logistic-regression
#18
Sílvia R C Lopes, João L R Perin, Taiane S Prass, Sandra Maria D Carvalho, Sérgio C Lessa, José G Dórea
Objective : Vaccines are effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases. However, adverse events following immunization (AEFI) can occur in susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian AEFI database and compare eight vaccines in order to profile risks of AEFIs related to the mandated pediatric schedule of immunization, considering the age and sex of the child, type of vaccine, and reported adverse events. Methods : We analyzed the Brazilian AEFI database integrating reports between 2005 and 2010 for children less than 10-years old immunized with eight mandated vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (TETRA); diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP); Bacillus Calmette⁻Guerin (BCG); oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV); hepatitis B (HB); and yellow fever (YF)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864142/endogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-are-essential-for-regeneration-after-acute-intestinal-injury-in-mice
#19
Rasmus Hytting-Andreasen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Pedersen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Jens Juul Holst, Hannelouise Kissow
OBJECTIVE: Mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy seen in the digestive tract, with symptoms including pain, diarrhoea, inflammation and ulcerations. Our aim was to investigate whether endogenous glucagon-like peptide -1 and -2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) are implicated in intestinal healing after chemotherapy-induced mucositis. DESIGN: We used a transgenic mouse model Tg(GCG.DTR)(Tg) expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor in the proglucagon-producing cells. Injections with diphtheria toxin ablated the GLP-1 and GLP-2 producing L-cells in Tg mice with no effect in wild-type (WT) mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863958/vaccination-knowledge-and-acceptability-among-pregnant-women-in-italy
#20
Alessia D'Alessandro, Francesco Napolitano, Antonio D'Ambrosio, Italo Francesco Angelillo
The aims of this survey were to ascertain pregnant women's level of knowledge and acceptability on the vaccinations and to identify their associations with several characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed from December 2017 through March 2018 in the geographic area of Naples, Italy. The study used two stages cluster sampling method for selection and recruitment of participants. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with pregnant women present at the Obstetrics outpatient clinic of the selected hospitals...
June 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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