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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340322/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-primary-and-booster-vaccination-with-2-investigational-formulations-of-diphtheria-tetanus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-antigens-in-a-hexavalent-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-combination-vaccine-in-comparison-with-the-licensed-infanrix-hexa
#1
Timo Vesikari, Luis Rivera, Tiina Korhonen, Anitta Ahonen, Brigitte Cheuvart, Marjan Hezareh, Winnie Janssens, Narcisa Mesaros
Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age...
March 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336571/regulation-of-alcohol-extinction-and-cue-induced-reinstatement-by-specific-projections-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-accumbens-and-basolateral-amygdala
#2
Colby R Keistler, Emma Hammarlund, Jacqueline M Barker, Colin W Bond, Ralph J DiLeone, Christopher Pittenger, Jane R Taylor
The ability to inhibit drinking is a significant challenge for recovering alcoholics, especially in the presence of alcohol-associated cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that the regulation of cue-guided alcohol seeking is mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, given the high interconnectivity between these structures, it is unclear how mPFC projections to each subcortical structure, as well as projections between BLA and NAc, mediate alcohol-seeking behaviors...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334511/elongated-and-shortened-peptidomimetic-inhibitors-of-the-proprotein-convertase-furin
#3
Kornelia Hardes, Teodora Ivanova, Bastian Thaa, Gerald M McInerney, Tove Irene Klokk, Kirsten Sandvig, Sebastian Künzel, Iris Lindberg, Torsten Steinmetzer
Novel elongated and shortened derivatives of the peptidomimetic furin inhibitor phenylacteyl-Arg-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide were synthesized. The most potent compounds, e.g., Nα(carbamidoyl)Arg-Arg-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide (Ki = 6.2 pM), contain additional basic residues at the N-terminus and inhibit furin in the low picomolar range. Furthermore, to decrease the molecular weight of this inhibitor type, compounds lacking the P5-moiety were prepared. The best inhibitors of this series, 5-(guanidino)-valeroyl-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide and its P3 tert...
March 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330901/azacitidine-mitigates-graft-versus-host-disease-via-differential-effects-on-the-proliferation-of-t-effectors-and-natural-regulatory-t-cells-in-vivo
#4
Matthew L Cooper, Jaebok Choi, Darja Karpova, Kiran Vij, Julie Ritchey, Mark A Schroeder, John F DiPersio
Azacitidine (AzaC) mitigates graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in both murine preclinical transplant models and in human clinical trials while maintaining a robust graft-versus-leukemia effect. Previous studies have failed to investigate the role of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the mitigation of GvHD by AzaC, instead focusing on the generation of suppressive Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) through the in vivo conversion of alloreactive donor T effectors (Teffs; CD4(+)CD25(-)FOXP3(-)) and the direct antiproliferative effects of AzaC on allogeneic T cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330333/extraction-and-bioactive-profile-of-the-compounds-produced-by-rhodococcus-sp-vld-10
#5
Bokka Yellamanda, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Alapati Kavitha, Dorigondla Kumar Reddy, Yenamandra Venkateswarlu
A potent actinobacterial strain isolated from the marine samples of Bheemunipatnam beach, Visakhapatnam, India, was identified as Rhodococcus sp. VLD-10 using the conventional and genomic (16S rRNA) approaches. Bioactive compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the strain were elucidated by cultivating the strain VLD-10 in a modified yeast extract-malt extract-lactose broth followed by subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Extraction, purification, and structural confirmation of five compounds, viz...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324209/molecular-cloning-structural-modeling-and-the-production-of-soluble-triple-mutated-diphtheria-toxoid-k51e-g52e-e148k-co-expressed-with-molecular-chaperones-in-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#6
Naphatsamon Uthailak, Pornpimol Mahamad, Pamorn Chittavanich, Somchai Yanarojana, Wassana Wijagkanalan, Jean Petre, Watanalai Panbangred
CRM197 is a diphtheria toxin (DT) mutant (G52E) which has been used as a carrier protein for conjugate vaccines. However, it still possesses cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. The goal of this project was to produce a non-toxic and soluble CRM197EK through introduction of triple amino acid substitutions (K51E/G52E/E148K) in Escherichia coli. The expression of CRM197EKTrxHis was optimized and co-expressed with different molecular chaperones. The soluble CRM197EKTrxHis was produced at a high concentration (97...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323959/insulin-and-glucagon-partners-for-life
#7
Jens Juul Holst, William Holland, Jesper Gromada, Young Lee, Roger H Unger, Hai Yan, Kyle W Sloop, Timothy J Kieffer, Nicolas Damond, Pedro L Herrera
In August 2016, several leaders in glucagon biology gathered for the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Hagedorn Workshop in Oxford, England. A key point of discussion focused around the need for basal insulin to allow for the therapeutic benefit of glucagon blockade in the treatment of diabetes. Among the most enlightening experimental results presented were findings from studies where glucagon receptor-deficient mice were administered streptozotocin to destroy pancreatic beta cells or had undergone diphtheria toxin-induced beta cell ablation...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321218/the-induction-and-maintenance-of-transplant-tolerance-engages-both-regulatory-and-anergic-cd4-t-cells
#8
Alix Besançon, Marije Baas, Tania Goncalves, Fabrice Valette, Herman Waldmann, Lucienne Chatenoud, Sylvaine You
Therapeutic tolerance to self-antigens or foreign antigens is thought to depend on constant vigilance by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous work using a pancreatic islet allograft model and a short pulse of CD3 antibody therapy has shown that CD8(+) T cells become anergic and use TGFβ and coinhibitory signaling as their contribution to the tolerance process. Here, we examine the role of CD4(+) T cells in tolerization by CD3 antibodies. We show that both Foxp3(+) Tregs and CD4(+) T cell anergy play a role in the induction of tolerance and its maintenance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306193/diphtheria-toxin-based-anti-human-cd19-immunotoxin-for-targeting-human-cd19-tumors
#9
Qian Zheng, Zhaohui Wang, Huiping Zhang, Qi Huang, Joren C Madsen, David H Sachs, Christene A Huang, Zhirui Wang
CD19 is expressed on normal and neoplastic B cells and is a promising target for immunotherapy. However, there is still an unmet need to further develop novel therapeutic drugs for the treatment of the refractory/relapsing human CD19(+) tumors. We have developed a diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CD19 immunotoxin for targeting human CD19(+) tumors. We have constructed three isoforms of the CD19 immunotoxin: monovalent, bivalent and foldback diabody. In vitro binding affinity and efficacy analysis demonstrated that the bivalent isoform had the highest binding affinity and in vitro efficacy...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301394/effects-on-the-anti-abo-titers-of-military-blood-donors-from-a-predeployment-vaccination-program
#10
Olle Berséus
BACKGROUND: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A-/B-antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies have been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. This boostering effect has been investigated for the new generation of vaccines...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301267/hypotonic-hyporesponsive-episodes-after-administration-of-hexavalent-dtp-based-combination-vaccine-a-description-of-12-cases
#11
Alessandro Vigo, Giulia Costagliola, Elisa Ferrero, Silvia Noce
Hypotonic-hyporesponsive (HHE) episodes are known and recognized phenomena, which typically occur within 48 hours of immunisation..Our aim is to describe 12 cases of HHE brought to the Center of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, with attention to the clinical features of the episode and their follow-up. Medical charts of infants visited between 2005-2015 were reviewed. Twelve infants showed a HHE using HHE using Brighton Collaboration Criteria. All infants received a Hexavalent diphtheria -tetanus -pertussis acellular component -hepatitis B-,inactivated poliovirus- Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine...
February 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289087/reoxidation-of-the-thiol-disulfide-oxidoreductase-mdba-by-a-bacterial-vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-in-the-biofilm-forming-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#12
Truc Thanh Luong, Melissa E Reardon-Robinson, Sara D Siegel, Hung Ton-That
Post-translocational protein folding in the Gram-positive biofilm-forming actinobacterium Actinomyces oris is mediated by a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase named MdbA, which catalyzes oxidative folding of nascent polypeptides transported by the Sec translocon. Reoxidation of MdbA involves a bacterial Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR)-like protein that contains four cysteine residues C93/C101 and C175/C178 with the latter forming a canonical CXXC thioredoxin-like motif; however, the mechanism of VKOR-mediated reoxidation of MdbA is not known...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284678/analysis-of-the-effects-of-individual-and-community-level-factors-on-childhood-immunization-in-malawi
#13
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Kun-Yang Chuang, Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between childhood immunization and individual- and community-level factors in low-income countries has received little attention. We compared the trends and the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the likelihood of a child being immunized between 2004 and 2010 in Malawi. METHODS: We used data from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and applied generalized estimating logistic regression equation to analyze data respectively on 2042 and 3496 children aged 12-23months...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282600/determination-of-free-polysaccharide-in-vi-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-typhoid-fever
#14
C Giannelli, E Cappelletti, R Di Benedetto, F Pippi, M Arcuri, V Di Cioccio, L B Martin, A Saul, F Micoli
Glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi capsular polysaccharide directed against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are licensed or in development against typhoid fever, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Quantification of free polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines is an important quality control for release, to monitor vaccine stability and to ensure appropriate immune response. However, we found that existing separation methods based on size are not appropriate as free Vi non-specifically binds to unconjugated and conjugated protein...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282218/immunotoxins-in-cancer-therapy-review-and-update
#15
Bahman Akbari, Safar Farajnia, Shiva Ahdi Khosroshahi, Fatemeh Safari, Mohammadreza Yousefi, Hassan Dariushnejad, Leila Rahbarnia
Immunotoxins are a novel class of cancer therapeutics that contains a cytotoxic agent fused to a targeting moiety. Various toxic agents from different sources are used in immunotoxin development, including bacterial, plant and human origin cytotoxic elements. Although bacterial and plant-derived toxins are highly toxic and commonly used in immunotoxins, their immunogenicity for human restricted their application in cancer therapy. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitations of bacterial toxins such as Pseudomonas and Diphtheria toxins, plant toxins such as ricin and gelonin, and some endogenous protein of human origin such as RNases and Granzymes...
March 1, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277900/influence-of-maternal-vaccination-against-diphtheria-tetanus-and-pertussis-on-the-avidity-of-infant-antibody-responses-to-a-pertussis-containing-vaccine-in-belgium
#16
Raïssa Nadège Caboré, Kirsten Maertens, Alexandre Dobly, Elke Leuridan, Pierre Van Damme, Kris Huygen
Maternal antibodies induced by vaccination during pregnancy cross the placental barrier and can close the susceptibility gap to pertussis in young infants up to the start of primary immunization. As not only the quantity but also the quality of circulating antibodies is important for protection, we assessed whether maternal immunization affects the avidity of infant vaccine-induced IgG antibodies, in the frame of a prospective clinical trial on pregnancy vaccination in Belgium. Infants born from Tdap (Boostrix®) vaccinated (N = 55) and unvaccinated (N = 26) mothers were immunized with a hexavalent pertussis containing vaccine (Infanrix Hexa®) at 8, 12 and 16 weeks, followed by a fourth dose at 15 months of age...
February 22, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277354/predictors-of-low-uptake-of-prenatal-tetanus-toxoid-reduced-diphtheria-toxoid-and-acellular-pertussis-immunization-in-privately-insured-women-in-the-united-states
#17
Anne M Butler, J Bradley Layton, Dongmei Li, Michael G Hudgens, Kim A Boggess, Leah J McGrath, David J Weber, Sylvia Becker-Dreps
OBJECTIVE: To examine the uptake of prenatal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization among pregnant women in the United States. METHODS: Using MarketScan data, we conducted a historical cohort study among pregnant women with employer-based commercial insurance in the United States who delivered between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. We examined temporal trends of uptake, predictors of uptake, and timing of Tdap immunization...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277099/cd169-is-a-marker-for-highly-pathogenic-phagocytes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Jeroen Fj Bogie, Ellen Boelen, Els Louagie, Peter Delputte, Dirk Elewaut, Jack van Horssen, Jerome Ja Hendriks, Niels Hellings
BACKGROUND: Phagocytes, such as macrophages and microglia, are key effector cells in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is widely accepted that they instigate and promote neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative events in MS. An increasing amount of studies indicate that Siglec-1, also known CD169, is a marker for activated phagocytes in inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we set out to define how CD169(+) phagocytes contribute to neuroinflammation in MS...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264806/multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-management-of-a-case-of-classical-respiratory-diphtheria-requiring-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-feeding
#19
Matthew James Haywood, Ananth Vijendren, Vikas Acharya, Rohinton Mulla, Miss Jaan Panesar
We present a case of a Caucasian woman aged 67 years referred with a 4-day history of sore throat, dysphagia, fever and nasal blockage. Examination revealed a swollen neck and pharyngeal pseudomembrane. A throat swab was positive on culture for Corynebacterium ulcerans, with toxin expression confirmed on PCR and Elek testing. A diagnosis of classical respiratory diphtheria was made, with subsequent confirmation of the patient's domesticated dog as the source of infection. The dog had recently been attacked by a wild badger and was being treated for an ear infection...
March 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264610/corynebacterium-species-causing-breast-abscesses-among-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-chennai-south-india
#20
Indira Poojary, Ann Kurian, Jayalekshmi V A, Debora Devapriya J, Thirunarayan M A
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium species other than Corynebacterium diphtheriae were mostly considered contaminants in the past, but there are reports of their association with wide variety of human infections lately. In this study, we look into Corynebacterium species isolated from breast abscess patients and assess their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and treatment outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pus samples from suspected breast abscess cases were examined from October 2014 to September 2015...
March 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
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