keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

diphtheria

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438679/discovery-of-novel-bacterial-toxins-by-genomics-and-computational-biology
#1
Andrew C Doxey, Michael J Mansfield, Cesare Montecucco
Hundreds and hundreds of bacterial protein toxins are presently known. Traditionally, toxin identification begins with pathological studies of bacterial infectious disease. Following identification and cultivation of a bacterial pathogen, the protein toxin is purified from the culture medium and its pathogenic activity is studied using the methods of biochemistry and structural biology, cell biology, tissue and organ biology, and appropriate animal models, supplemented by bioimaging techniques. The ongoing and explosive development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches have set in motion a revolution in many fields of biology, including microbiology...
February 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438562/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-revaccination-with-tetanus-diphtheria-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-tdap-in-adults-10-years-after-a-previous-dose
#2
Scott A Halperin, Catherine Donovan, Gary S Marshall, Vitali Pool, Michael D Decker, David R Johnson, David P Greenberg
Background: Reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended in many countries for boosting immunity in adolescents and adults. Although immunity to these antigens wanes with time, currently available Tdap products are not labeled for repeat administration in the United States. Methods: We performed an observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 1330 adults aged 18 to <65 years who received either the Tdap (n = 1002) or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) (n = 328) vaccine 8 to 12 years after a dose of Tdap vaccine administered previously...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435693/the-role-of-corynomycolic-acids-in-corynebacterium-host-interaction
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Burkovski
Within the Actinobacteria, the genera Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus form the so-called CMNR group, also designated as mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. Almost all members of this group are characterized by a mycolic acid layer, the mycomembrane, which covers the cell wall and is responsible for a high resistance of these bacteria against chemical and antibiotic stress. Furthermore, components of the mycomembrane are crucial for the interaction of bacteria with host cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mycolic acid synthesis and interaction with components of the immune system for the genus Corynebacterium with an emphasis on the pathogenic species Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium ulcerans as well as the biotechnology workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum...
February 12, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428176/the-impact-of-immunization-programs-on-10-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-italy-1900-2015
#4
Patrizio Pezzotti, Stefania Bellino, Francesca Prestinaci, Simone Iacchini, Francesca Lucaroni, Laura Camoni, Maria Maddalena Barbieri, Walter Ricciardi, Paola Stefanelli, Giovanni Rezza
BACKGROUND: Vaccination has determined a dramatic decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases over the last century. However, low perceived risk of the infectious threat and increased concern about vaccines' safety led to a reduction in vaccine coverage, with increased risk of disease outbreaks. METHODS: Annual surveillance data of nationally communicable infectious diseases in Italy between 1900 and 2015 were used to derive trends in morbidity and mortality rates before and after vaccine introduction, focusing particularly on the effect of vaccination programs...
February 7, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426663/assessing-the-reactogenicity-of-tdap-vaccine-administered-during-pregnancy-and-antibodies-to-bordetella-pertussis-antigens-in-maternal-and-cord-sera-of-thai-women
#5
Nasamon Wanlapakorn, Kirsten Maertens, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Donchida Srimuan, Narissara Suratannon, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Thao Mai Phuong Tran, Niel Hens, Pierre Van Damme, Camille Locht, Yong Poovorawan, Elke Leuridan
INTRODUCTION: Pregnant Thai women have low antibody titers against B. pertussis antigens, which coincide with an increasing incidence of pertussis among Thai infants. Thus, there exists a potential benefit of a booster dose of tetanus- diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine administered during pregnancy. Here, we report the vaccine reactogenicity profile and birth outcomes in Tdap-vaccinated pregnant women who have or have not had prior immunization with tetanus vaccine, and the IgG levels to B...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426661/national-immunization-strategies-targeting-migrants-in-six-european-countries
#6
Cristina Giambi, Martina Del Manso, Teresa Dalla Zuanna, Flavia Riccardo, Antonino Bella, Maria Grazia Caporali, Agoritsa Baka, Nuska Caks-Jager, Tanya Melillo, Ricardo Mexia, Goranka Petrović, Silvia Declich
Over the last three years an unprecedented flow of migrants arrived in Europe. There is evidence that vaccine preventable diseases have caused outbreaks in migrant holding centres. These outbreaks can be favored by a combination of factors including low immunization coverage, bad conditions that migrants face during their exhausting journey and overcrowding within holding facilities. In 2017, we conducted an online survey in Croatia, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Slovenia to explore the national immunization strategies targeting irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424799/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-hpv-16-18-as04-adjuvanted-vaccine-in-4-6-year-old-girls-results-to-month-12-from-a-randomized-trial
#7
Lan Lin, Mercedes Macias Parra, Victor Y Sierra, Albino Salas Cespedes, Maria Angelica Granados, Adriana Luque, Silvia Damaso, Maria Mercedes Castrejon Alba, Luis Romano-Mazzotti, Frank Struyf
BACKGROUND: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls aged <9 years. METHODS: This ongoing phase III, controlled, randomized, single-blind, multicenter study conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama (NCT01627561) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in 4-6-year-old girls...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416544/whole-cell-or-acellular-pertussis-primary-immunizations-in-infancy-determines-adolescent-cellular-immune-profiles
#8
Saskia van der Lee, Lotte H Hendrikx, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman
Introduction: Pertussis is re-emerging worldwide, despite effective immunization programs for infants and children. Epidemiological studies show a more limited duration of protection against clinical pertussis in adolescents primed with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines during infancy than those who have been primed with whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines. This study aimed to determine whether memory immune responses to aP, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccine antigens following booster vaccinations at 4 and 9 years of age differ between wP- versus aP-primed children...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410492/cellular-recovery-from-exposure-to-sub-optimal-concentrations-of-ab-toxins-that-inhibit-protein-synthesis
#9
Patrick Cherubin, Beatriz Quiñones, Ken Teter
Ricin, Shiga toxin, exotoxin A, and diphtheria toxin are AB-type protein toxins that act within the host cytosol and kill the host cell through pathways involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. It is thought that a single molecule of cytosolic toxin is sufficient to kill the host cell. Intoxication is therefore viewed as an irreversible process. Using flow cytometry and a fluorescent reporter system to monitor protein synthesis, we show a single molecule of cytosolic toxin is not sufficient for complete inhibition of protein synthesis or cell death...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408658/self-assembling-toxin-based-nanoparticles-as-self-delivered-antitumoral-drugs
#10
Laura Sánchez-García, Naroa Serna, Patricia Álamo, Rita Sala, María Virtudes Céspedes, Mònica Roldan, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Isolda Casanova, Ramón Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
Loading capacity and drug leakage from vehicles during circulation in blood is a major concern when developing nanoparticle-based cell-targeted cytotoxics. To circumvent this potential issue it would be convenient the engineering of drugs as self-delivered nanoscale entities, devoid of any heterologous carriers. In this context, we have here engineered potent protein toxins, namely segments of the diphtheria toxin and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin as self-assembling, self-delivered therapeutic materials targeted to CXCR4+ cancer stem cells...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408475/optimal-route-of-diphtheria-toxin-administration-to-eliminate-native-nephron-progenitor-cells-in-vivo-for-kidney-regeneration
#11
Shohei Fukunaga, Shuichiro Yamanaka, Toshinari Fujimoto, Susumu Tajiri, Taketo Uchiyama, Kei Matsumoto, Takafumi Ito, Kazuaki Tanabe, Takashi Yokoo
To address the lack of organs for transplantation, we previously developed a method for organ regeneration in which nephron progenitor cell (NPC) replacement is performed via the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) system. In transgenic mice with NPC-specific expression of DTR, NPCs were eliminated by DT and replaced with NPCs lacking the DTR with the ability to differentiate into nephrons. However, this method has only been verified in vitro. For applications to natural models, such as animal fetuses, it is necessary to determine the optimal administration route and dose of DT...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408190/seroepidemiology-of-diphtheria-and-pertussis-in-chongqing-china-serology-based-evidence-of-bordetella-pertussis-infection
#12
N Yao, Q Zeng, Q Wang
OBJECTIVES: In order to gain further insight into the seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infection and immunity against diphtheria in Chongqing, China, the concentrations of antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) were investigated in a healthy population. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: In total, 1080 healthy people were recruited into this study. Sera antibodies to DT and PT were measured quantitatively using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits...
February 1, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400082/administration-rates-of-the-tdap-vaccine-in-obstetric-patients
#13
Jamie Koerner, Alicia B Forinash, Abigail M Yancey, Jessica Brinkmeyer, Spencer Dingman, Collin Miller, Judy Thompson, Laura Bergin, Julia D López, Amy Ravin
BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for contracting pertussis because of not being fully vaccinated. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccinating all pregnant women with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) between 27 and 36 weeks to offer passive immunity to the infant to help protect them until they are able to receive the full pertussis series. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare compliance with the 2013 ACIP recommendation of vaccinating pregnant women with Tdap at 27 to 36 weeks' gestation in 2 obstetric clinics...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398056/association-of-health-insurance-status-and-vaccination-coverage-among-adolescents-13-17-years-of-age
#14
Peng-Jun Lu, David Yankey, Jenny Jeyarajah, Alissa O'Halloran, Benjamin Fredua, Laurie D Elam-Evans, Sarah Reagan-Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To assess selected vaccination coverage among adolescents by health insurance status and other access-to-care characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: The 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen data were used to assess vaccination coverage disparities among adolescents by health insurance status and other access-to-care variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and a predictive marginal modeling were conducted to evaluate associations between health insurance status and vaccination coverage...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393270/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a165b-restores-normal-glomerular-water-permeability-in-a-diphtheria-toxin-mouse-model-of-glomerular-injury
#15
Megan Stevens, Christopher R Neal, Andrew H J Salmon, David O Bates, Steven J Harper, Sebastian Oltean
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Genetic cell ablation using the human diphtheria toxin receptor (hDTR) is a new strategy used for analysing cellular function. Diphtheria toxin (DT) is a cytotoxic protein that leaves mouse cells relatively unaffected, but upon binding to hDTR it ultimately leads to cell death. We used a podocyte-specific hDTR expressing (Pod-DTR) mouse to assess the anti-permeability and cyto-protective effects of the splice isoform vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A165b). METHODS: The Pod-DTR mouse was crossed with a mouse that over-expressed VEGF-A165b specifically in the podocytes (Neph-VEGF-A165b)...
January 26, 2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392992/immunisation-rates-among-children-in-nuuk
#16
Nadja Albertsen, Ivalu Meincke Fencker, Heidi Egede Noasen, Michael Lynge Pedersen
The children immunisation programme in Greenland correlates to the one in Denmark with the addition of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccine and the immunisation against Hepatitis B (HBV). The immunisation rate among children in Greenland has been and is currently unknown and this study aims to estimate the immunisation rates among children in Nuuk from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016. We did an observational cross-sectional study based on a statistical extraction identifying all children in Nuuk eligible for an immunization in the children immunisation programme from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016 and a review of their medical records...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390149/cord-blood-anti-parasite-il-10-as-risk-marker-for-compromised-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-early-childhood
#17
Indu Malhotra, A Desiree LaBeaud, Nathan Morris, Maxim McKibben, Peter Mungai, Eric Muchiri, Christopher L King, Charles H King
Background: Antenatal exposure to parasites can affect infants' subsequent responses to vaccination. The present study investigated how maternal prenatal infections and newborns' anti-parasite cytokine profiles relate to IgG responses to standard vaccination during infancy. Methods: 450 Kenyan women were tested for parasitic infections during pregnancy. Their newborns' responses to malaria, schistosome, and filaria antigens were assessed in cord blood (CB) lymphocytes...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387135/vaccines-for-the-elderly-current-use-and-future-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Age-related changes of the immune system contribute to increased incidence and severity of infections in the elderly. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent infections and vaccination recommendations in most countries include specific guidelines for the elderly. Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is usually recommended for persons with underlying diseases and for the elderly with heterogeneous age limits between ≥ 50 years and ≥ 65 years. Some countries also recommend vaccination against herpes zoster...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378186/effect-of-ghrelin-on-the-motor-deficit-caused-by-the-ablation-of-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-cells-or-the-inhibition-of-striatal-dopamine-receptors
#19
Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Michiko Narita, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Shibasaki, Kenichi Tanaka, Hideki Tamura, Takashi Kawamura, Takashige Kondo, Akihiro Yamanaka, Minoru Narita
Ghrelin plays roles in a wide range of central functions by activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). This receptor has recently been found in the substantia nigra (SN) to control dopamine (DA)-related physiological functions. The dysregulation of DA neurons in the SN pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent depletion of striatal DA are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we further investigated the role of the SN-ghrelin system in motor function under the stereotaxic injection of AAV-CMV-FLEX-diphtheria toxin A (DTA) into the SN of dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre (DATSN::DTA) mice to expunge DA neurons of the SNc...
January 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374589/functional-activity-of-maternal-and-cord-antibodies-elicited-by-an-investigational-group-b-streptococcus-trivalent-glycoconjugate-vaccine-in-pregnant-women
#20
Monica Fabbrini, Fabio Rigat, Giovanna Tuscano, Emiliano Chiarot, Gilbert Donders, Roland Devlieger, Sara Filippini, Elisabetta Frigimelica, Pietro Forte, Frederick Wittke, Scott A Halperin, Karen Slobod, Guido Grandi, Immaculada Margarit
OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate functional activity of antibodies elicited by a maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) investigational vaccine composed of capsular polysaccharides Ia, Ib, and III conjugated to genetically detoxified Diphtheria toxin CRM197. The second objective was to investigate the relationship between serotype-specific IgG concentrations and functional activity in maternal and cord sera. METHODS: Maternal and cord sera collected at baseline and at delivery from vaccine and placebo recipients during a double-blind placebo-controlled Phase II study (www...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Infection
keyword
keyword
46363
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"