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Joe James, Sheela Mathews, N K Thulaseedharan
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September 22, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Claudia M Espinosa, Gary S Marshall, Charles R Woods, Qianli Ma, Derek Ems, Irene Nsiah, Laura E Happe, Michael J Smith
Background: This study assessed the initiation of HPV vaccination in insured adolescent females in relation to physician visits and receipt of other vaccines routinely given at the same age. Methods: January 1, 2010, and September 31, 2015. Vaccination administration was determined by using Current Procedural Terminology codes. A missed opportunity was defined as the absence of an HPV vaccine at the following encounter types: visits with a 4-valent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) or tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine claim; well adolescent visits; or any encounter with a primary care provider (PCP)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Maria-Armineh Tossounian, Inge Van Molle, Khadija Wahni, Silke Jacques, Kris Gevaert, Frank Van Breusegem, Didier Vertommen, David Young, Leonardo Astolfi Rosado, Joris Messens
BACKGROUND: Glutathione transferases play an important role as detoxifying enzymes. In A. thaliana, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), provoked during biotic and abiotic stress, influence the activity of GSTU23. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of oxidative stress on the function and structure of GSTU23. METHODS: The impact of oxidation on the function of GSTU23 was studied using a glutathione transferase biochemical assay and mass spectrometry...
October 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alona Epshtein, Eleonor Rachi, Lina Sakhneny, Shani Mizrachi, Daria Baer, Limor Landsman
OBJECTIVE: The maintenance and expansion of β-cell mass rely on their proliferation, which reaches its peak in the neonatal stage. β-cell proliferation was found to rely on cells of the islet microenvironment. We hypothesized that pericytes, which are components of the islet vasculature, support neonatal β-cell proliferation. METHODS: To test our hypothesis, we combined in vivo and in vitro approaches. Briefly, we used a Diphtheria toxin-based transgenic mouse system to specifically deplete neonatal pancreatic pericytes in vivo...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Ashley Tippins, Andrew J Leidner, Mehreen Meghani, Aja Griffin, Louisa Helgenberger, Mawuli Nyaku, J Michael Underwood
BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage is typically measured as the proportion of individuals who have received recommended vaccine doses by the date of assessment. This approach does not provide information about receipt of vaccines by the recommended age, which is critical for ensuring optimal protection from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). OBJECTIVE: To assess vaccination timeliness in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and the projected impact of suboptimal vaccination in the event of an outbreak...
October 10, 2017: Vaccine
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Clare L Cutland, Lisa Jose, Niresha Govender, Frederick Wittke, Morounfolu Olugbosi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Sherryl Baker, Peter M Dull, Vas Narasimhan, Karen Slobod
Background: Maternal vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) might provide protection against invasive GBS disease in infants. We investigated the kinetics of transplacentally transferred GBS serotype-specific capsular antibodies in the infants and their immune response to diphtheria toxoid and pneumococcal vaccination. Methods: This phase 1b/2, observer-blind, single-center study (NCT01193920) enrolled infants born to women previously randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either GBS vaccine at dosages of 0...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tami H Skoff, Amy E Blain, James Watt, Karen Scherzinger, Melissa McMahon, Shelley M Zansky, Kathy Kudish, Paul R Cieslak, Melissa Lewis, Nong Shang, Stacey W Martin
Background: Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life; data on effectiveness of this strategy are currently limited. Methods: We conducted a case-control evaluation among pertussis cases <2 months old with cough onset between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2014 from 6 US Emerging Infection Program Network states...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ken Otsuji, Kazumasa Fukuda, Takeru Endo, Satoko Shimizu, Nobuya Harayama, Midori Ogawa, Akihiko Yamamoto, Kaoru Umeda, Toshiyuki Umata, Hiroyuki Seki, Masaaki Iwaki, Masayuki Kamochi, Mitsumasa Saito
Introduction.Corynebacterium ulcerans (C. ulcerans) is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes diphtheria-like symptoms in humans. Cases of C. ulcerans infection have been increasing in recent years, and C. ulcerans has been recognized as an emerging pathogen. Case presentation. Here we report a case of asphyxia death due to pseudomembrane caused by diphtheria toxin (DT)-producing C. ulcerans. This is, to our knowledge, the first fatal case of C. ulcerans infection in Japan. A strain of C. ulcerans was obtained from the patient's pet cat and was confirmed to be identical to the patient's isolate by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the DT gene, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by ribotyping...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
Ranee Seither, Kayla Calhoun, Erica J Street, Jenelle Mellerson, Cynthia L Knighton, Ashley Tippins, J Michael Underwood
State and local school vaccination requirements help protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). CDC reports vaccination coverage and exemption data for children attending kindergarten (kindergartners) collected by federally funded immunization programs in the United States.* The typical age range for kindergartners is 4-6 years. Although vaccination requirements vary by state (the District of Columbia [DC] is counted as a state in this report.), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that children in this age range have received, among other vaccinations, 5 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), and 2 doses of varicella vaccine (2)...
October 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Birgit Weinberger, Michael Keller, Christina Putzer, Daniel Breitenberger, Bernhard Koller, Simone Fiegl, María Moreno-Villanueva, Jürgen Bernhardt, Claudio Franceschi, Konstantinos Voutetakis, Efstathios S Gonos, Mikko Hurme, Ewa Sikora, Olivier Toussaint, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Tilman Grune, Nicolle Breusing, Alexander Bürkle, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein
Due to the successful implementation of vaccination strategies early-life morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease has been reduced dramatically. Vaccines against tetanus and diphtheria are among the most frequently used vaccines worldwide, but various studies in different European countries have shown that protection against tetanus and particularly against diphtheria is unsatisfactory in adults and older persons. In this study we analyzed tetanus- and diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations in 2100 adults of different age from 6 selected European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland) in order to investigate differences in the level of protection against tetanus and diphtheria across Europe...
October 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Nicolas A Menzies, Christian Suharlim, Fangli Geng, Zachary J Ward, Logan Brenzel, Stephen C Resch
BACKGROUND: Evidence on immunization costs is a critical input for cost-effectiveness analysis and budgeting, and can describe variation in site-level efficiency. The Expanded Program on Immunization Costing and Financing (EPIC) Project represents the largest investigation of immunization delivery costs, collecting empirical data on routine infant immunization in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda, and Zambia. METHODS: We developed a pooled dataset from individual EPIC country studies (316 sites)...
October 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
Vera Lúcia Gattás, Patrícia Emília Braga, Marcelo Eiji Koike, Maria Beatriz Lucchesi, Alexander Roberto Precioso
OBJECTIVE: to describe the safety profile of the heterologous serum produced by the Butantan Institute (BI) of São Paulo-SP, Brazil. METHODS: a descriptive study of adverse events (AEs) post-exposure to serum produced by the BI, encoded in the medical terminology of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), and spontaneously reported to BI from 2012 to 2015. RESULTS: 52 individuals reported AEs, mainly related to Bothrops antivenom (n=11), diphtheria antitoxin (n=9) and unspecified snakebite serum (n=9); a mean of 3...
July 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Shuchen Wang, Monica Tafalla, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain
The development of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine combinations culminated with hexavalent vaccines, the largest, most complex vaccine combinations in the immunization calendar. Hexavalent vaccines are used widely in Europe and are co-administered with multiple other recommended vaccines. Hib immunogenicity may reduce when combined with acellular pertussis antigens, or in some co-administrations. We reviewed the epidemiology of H. influenzae disease in Europe aiming to evaluate the current level of Hib control and indirectly assess the effectiveness against Hib of GSK's hexavalent vaccine in 10 countries where it is/has been used almost exclusively...
October 3, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Nuria Martínez-Sáez, Shuang Sun, Davide Oldrini, Pietro Sormanni, Omar Boutureira, Filippo Carboni, Ismael Compañón, Michael Deery, Michele Vendruscolo, Francisco Corzana, Roberto Adamo, Gonçalo J L Bernardes
Here we show that a four-membered oxygen ring - oxetane - can be readily grafted into native peptides and proteins through site-selective bis-alkylation of cysteine residues present as disulfides under mild and biocompatible conditions. The selective installation of the oxetane graft enhances stability and activity, as demonstrated for a range of biologically relevant cyclic peptides, including somatostatin, proteins and antibodies, such as a Fab arm of the antibody Herceptin® and a designed antibody DesAb-A against the human Amyloid- peptide...
October 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Pim P van Krieken, Andrea Dicker, Maria Eriksson, Pedro L Herrera, Ulf Ahlgren, Per-Olof Berggren, Erwin Ilegems
Functional beta cell mass is an essential biomarker for the diagnosis and staging of diabetes. It has however proven technically challenging to study this parameter during diabetes progression. Here we have detailed the kinetics of the rapid decline in functional beta cell mass in the RIP-DTR mouse, a model of hyperglycemia resulting from diphtheria toxin induced beta cell ablation. A novel combination of imaging modalities was employed to study the pattern of beta cell destruction. Optical projection tomography of the pancreas and longitudinal in vivo confocal microscopy of islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye allowed to investigate kinetics and tomographic location of beta cell mass decay in individual islets as well as at the entire islet population level...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Karlijn Van Damme, Natasja Peeters, Philippe G Jorens, Tine Boiy, Marjan Deplancke, Hilde Audiens, Marek Wojciechowski, Jozef De Dooy, Margreet Te Wierik, Erika Vlieghe
Sporadic cases of diphtheria are very rare throughout Europe. A 3-year-old incompletely vaccinated girl was admitted with pharyngotonsillitis caused by diphtheria. On day 9 of her illness, renal and cardiac failure with a third-degree AV-block occurred. Unfortunately, she died within 36 h of admission to intensive care, despite pacemaker placement, the administration of antibiotics and diphtheria antitoxin. The delayed antitoxin administration 7 days after admission to hospital was related to a lack of availability and knowledge of its availability in Europe and this is likely to have contributed to the unfavourable outcome...
September 29, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Carlo Signorelli, Anna Odone, Paola Cella, Stefania Iannazzo, Fortunato D'Ancona, Raniero Guerra
BACKGROUND: In Italy, national-level immunization polices are included in the National Immunization Prevention Plan (PNPV), whose latest edition - 2017-2019 PNPV - was finally approved in February 2017. Coverage rates are a key measure of immunization system performance; it can inform and support national and regional polices' implementation monitoring, as well as measure the impact of interventions aimed at increasing vaccine uptake. METHODS: We collected, analysed and critically interpreted 2000-2016 Italian national infant immunization coverage trends, by different vaccine, target population, and by Region...
July 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
C C Moor, W J Lie
A 54-year-old, Turkish, unvaccinated woman presented with chronic cough. Bronchoscopy revealed an ulcer-like abnormality in the trachea. Surprisingly, the culture showed growth of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. This is a rare pathogen that usually causes only local respiratory symptoms. At control bronchoscopy after antibiotic treatment the abnormalities were no longer seen.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Lisa Hentsch, Simon Guillaume-Gentil, Hervé Spechbach
Elderly people are high risk patients who need specific and tailored monitoring. Prevention is an important part in taking care of their well-being. The utility and efficacy of vaccination against influenza, diphtheria and tetanus are now indisputable for seniors, but coverage is still insufficient. This article will discuss the reasons for insufficient adherence, assuming that the general practitioner or another unit of the health care system has suggested a vaccination plan to the senior patient. With this goal in mind, we explored the various obstacles that may occur during the communication between physician and patient, be it due to old age (sensory loss), linked to cognitive decline or directly in relationship with the myths and beliefs surrounding vaccination, especially the vaccine against influenza...
September 27, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
Ewelina Atasayar, Ortrud Zimmermann, Cathrin Spröer, Peter Schumann, Uwe Groß
A Gram-positive bacterial strain, 99221/2016(T), was isolated from blood of a patient with bacteraemia at the Institute of Medical Microbiology, Göttingen, Germany. The strain was rod-shaped with a palisade arrangement of cells, non-spore-forming, non-lipophilic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. It grew well at 37 °C on Columbia blood agar and showed good growth under aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions. The colonies were white-cream, circular and convex with a shiny, smooth surface...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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