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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#1
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716722/dynamics-of-proliferative-and-quiescent-stem-cells-in-liver-homeostasis-and-injury
#2
Wanlu Cao, Kan Chen, Michiel Bolkestein, Yuebang Yin, Monique M A Verstegen, Marcel J C Bijvelds, Wenshi Wang, Nesrin Tuysuz, Derk Ten Berge, Dave Sprengers, Herold J Metselaar, Luc J W van der Laan, Jaap Kwekkeboom, Ron Smits, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult liver stem cells are usually maintained in a quiescent/slow cycling state. However, a proliferative population, marked by leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), was recently identified as an important liver stem cell population. We aimed to investigate the dynamics and functions of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in healthy and injured livers. METHODS: We studied LGR5-positive stem cells using diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice...
July 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711373/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-toxigenic-clinical-isolate-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-strain-b-d-16-78-from-malaysia
#3
Kar-Wai Hong, A W Asmah Hani, C A Nurul Aina Murni, R R Pusparani, Chee Kheong Chong, Khebir Verasahib, Wan Noraini W Yusoff, Noorliza M Noordin, Kok Keng Tee, Wai-Fong Yin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Kok-Gan Chan
In this study, we report the comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain B-D-16-78 that was isolated from a clinical specimen in 2016. The complete genome of C. diphtheriae strain B-D-16-78 was sequenced using PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology and consists of a 2,474,151-bp circular chromosome with an average GC content of 53.56%. The core genome of C. diphtheriae was also deduced from a total of 74 strains with complete or draft genome sequences and the core genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic relationship among strains that shared the same MLST allelic profile...
July 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710002/diphtheria-toxoid-and-n-trimethyl-chitosan-layer-by-layer-coated-ph-sensitive-microneedles-induce-potent-immune-responses-upon-dermal-vaccination-in-mice
#4
Pim Schipper, Koen van der Maaden, Vincent Groeneveld, Mitchel Ruigrok, Stefan Romeijn, Sven Uleman, Cees Oomens, Gideon Kersten, Wim Jiskoot, Joke Bouwstra
Dermal immunization using antigen-coated microneedle arrays is a promising vaccination strategy. However, reduction of microneedle sharpness and the available surface area for antigen coating is a limiting factor. To overcome these obstacles, a layer-by-layer coating approach can be applied onto pH-sensitive microneedles. Following this approach, pH-sensitive microneedle arrays (positively charged at coating pH5.8 and nearly uncharged at pH7.4) were alternatingly coated with negatively charged diphtheria toxoid (DT) and N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC), a cationic adjuvant...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709637/tubulointerstitial-fibrosis-can-sensitize-the-kidney-to-subsequent-glomerular-injury
#5
Beom Jin Lim, Jae Won Yang, Jun Zou, Jianyong Zhong, Taiji Matsusaka, Ira Pastan, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Raymond C Harris, Hai-Chun Yang, Agnes B Fogo
Chronic glomerular injury is associated with eventual development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Here we aimed to assess whether, and how, mild chronic tubulointerstitial injury affects glomeruli. For this, we generated mice expressing different toxin receptors, one on their proximal tubular epithelial cells (diphtheria toxin receptor [DTR]) and the other only on podocytes (human CD25 [IL-2R] driven by the nephrin promoter [Nep25]), allowing serial induction of tubule-specific and glomerular (podocyte)-specific injury, respectively...
July 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698257/brain-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-resists-hypertension-via-regulating-microglial-activation
#6
You Li, Xiao Z Shen, Liang Li, Tuantuan V Zhao, Kenneth E Bernstein, Alan K Johnson, Patrick Lyden, Jianmin Fang, Peng Shi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. Recent work unveiled that hypertension is associated with chronic neuroinflammation; microglia are the major players in neuroinflammation, and the activated microglia elevate sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. This study is to understand how brain homeostasis is kept from hypertensive disturbance and microglial activation at the onset of hypertension. METHODS: Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous delivery of angiotensin II, and blood pressure was monitored in conscious animals...
July 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#7
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694804/cd169-expressing-macrophage-a-key-subset-in-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-promotes-mucosal-inflammation-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis
#8
Qiuting Li, Dan Wang, Shengyu Hao, Xiaolei Han, Yuan Xia, Xiangzhi Li, Yaoxing Chen, Masato Tanaka, Chun-Hong Qiu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis is a relapsing-remitting illness. Patients with long-standing extensive colitis are easy to develop colorectal cancer (CRC). The increasing incidence of IBD and a substantial increase in the risk of CRC make the necessity to pay more attention on the regulation of inflammation especially by specific macrophages subset. The present study reported that a key subset of sinus macrophage expressing CD169 in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) played an essential role in promoting mucosal inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694441/the-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-is-redox-controlled-by-protein-s-mycothiolation-under-oxidative-stress
#9
Melanie Hillion, Marcel Imber, Brandán Pedre, Jörg Bernhardt, Malek Saleh, Vu Van Loi, Sandra Maaß, Dörte Becher, Leonardo Astolfi Rosado, Lorenz Adrian, Christoph Weise, Rüdiger Hell, Markus Wirtz, Joris Messens, Haike Antelmann
Mycothiol (MSH) is the major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in Actinomycetes and functions in post-translational thiol-modification by protein S-mycothiolation as emerging thiol-protection and redox-regulatory mechanism. Here, we have used shotgun-proteomics to identify 26 S-mycothiolated proteins in the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae DSM43989 under hypochlorite stress that are involved in energy metabolism, amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, antioxidant functions and translation. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapDH) represents the most abundant S-mycothiolated protein that was modified at its active site Cys153 in vivo...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686600/analysis-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-macrophage-interaction-dispensability-of-corynomycolic-acids-for-inhibition-of-phagolysosome-maturation-and-identification-of-a-new-gene-involved-in-synthesis-of-the-corynomycolic-acid-layer
#10
Lisa Ott, Elena Hacker, Timo Kunert, Ian Karrington, Philipp Etschel, Roland Lang, Veit Wiesmann, Thomas Wittenberg, Albel Singh, Cristian Varela, Apoorva Bhatt, Vartul Sangal, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria, a toxin mediated disease of upper respiratory tract, which can be fatal. As a member of the CMNR group, C. diphtheriae is closely related to members of the genera Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Almost all members of these genera comprise an outer membrane layer of mycolic acids, which is assumed to influence host-pathogen interactions. In this study, three different C. diphtheriae strains were investigated in respect to their interaction with phagocytic murine and human cells and the invertebrate infection model Caenorhabditis elegans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681814/resurgence-of-diphtheria-in-rural-areas-of-north-karnataka-india
#11
Mahantesh V Parande, Subarna Roy, B G Mantur, Aisha M Parande, Rupali S Shinde
BACKGROUND: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. OBJECTIVES: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670328/long-term-maintenance-of-diphtheria-specific-antibodies-after-booster-vaccination-is-hampered-by-latent-infection-with-cytomegalovirus
#12
Birgit Weinberger, Michael Keller, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein
Many currently used vaccines are less immunogenic in the elderly compared to young adults. The impact of latent infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) on vaccine-induced antibody responses has been discussed controversially. We have demonstrated that recall responses to diphtheria vaccination are frequently insufficient in elderly persons and that antibody concentrations decline substantially within 5 years. In the current study we show that within a cohort of healthy elderly (n = 87; median age 71 years, range 66-92) antibody responses to a booster vaccination against diphtheria do not differ between CMV-negative and CMV-positive individuals 4 weeks after vaccination...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669620/prenatal-tdap-immunization-and-risk-of-maternal-and-newborn-adverse-events
#13
J Bradley Layton, Anne M Butler, Dongmei Li, Kim A Boggess, David J Weber, Leah J McGrath, Sylvia Becker-Dreps
Many countries recommend combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis immunization (Tdap) during pregnancy to stimulate transplacental transmission of pertussis antibodies to newborns. The immune system can be altered during pregnancy, potentially resulting in differing immunization risks in pregnant women. The safety of widespread Tdap immunization during pregnancy needs to be established. Our objective was to assess whether prenatal Tdap immunization was associated with adverse birth outcomes, and to evaluate the effect of timing of Tdap administration on these outcomes...
June 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669370/an-isolated-outbreak-of-diphtheria-in-south-africa-2015-erratum
#14
S Mahomed, M Archary, P Mutevedzi, Y Mahabeer, P Govender, G Ntshoe, W Kuhn, J Thomas, A Olowolagba, L Blumberg, K McCarthy, K Mlisana, M DU Plessis, A VON Gottberg, P Moodley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667835/monocytes-promote-crescent-formation-in-anti-myeloperoxidase-antibody-induced-glomerulonephritis
#15
Anthony Rousselle, Ralph Kettritz, Adrian Schreiber
Neutrophils and monocytes express anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) antigens, and activation of these cells by ANCA is central to ANCA-associated vasculitis and necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN). The importance of neutrophils is established; however, any role of monocytes is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that depletion of CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes and their derivatives would abrogate anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody-induced NCGN in a mouse model. We used passive anti-MPO antibody transfer for NCGN induction in wild-type mice or mice expressing the CCR2 promoter-controlled diphtheria toxin receptor...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666777/quantitation-of-crm197-using-imaged-capillary-isoelectric-focusing-with-fluorescence-detection-and-capillary-western
#16
John W Loughney, Sha Ha, Richard R Rustandi
Maurice is a new instrument that can perform imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF). The standard detection for icIEF is UV absorbance at 280 nm, which limits its application to high protein concentration samples and non-complex samples. Here we describe an icIEF instrument with fluorescence detection. We demonstrate the advantage of using either icIEF with fluorescence detection or quantitative Western Blot to measure diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 protein titer in crude cell lysates and purified samples...
June 27, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666760/vaccination-coverage-among-social-and-healthcare-workers-in-ten-countries-of-samu-social-international-sites
#17
Esaie Marshall, Dominique Salmon, Delphine Laisney, Nadia Bousfiha, Yacouba Togola, François Ouedraogo, Maud Santantonio, Coumba Khadidja Dieng, Suzanne Tartière, Xavier Emmanuelli
BACKGROUND: We aim to determine the vaccination coverage of social and healthcare workers in International sites of Samusocial, providing emergency care to homeless people, and to assess factors associated with having received necessary doses at adulthood. METHODS: Data on immunization coverage of social and healthcare workers were provided by a cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to April 2015 among 252 Samusocial workers in 10 countries. Vaccination status and characteristics of participants were collected through a self-administered questionnaire...
June 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654562/cardio-respiratory-events-and-inflammatory-response-after-primary-immunization-in-preterm-infants-32-weeks-gestational-age-a-randomized-controlled-study
#18
Wissal Ben Jmaa, Alfredo I Hernández, Megan Sutherland, Anik Cloutier, Nathalie Germain, Christian Lachance, Brigitte Martin, Marc H Lebel, Patrick Pladys, Anne Monique Nuyt
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may depress respiration in neonates. This study aimed to establish a link between post-immunization inflammation and cardio-respiratory events (CRE). METHODS: Randomized double-blind controlled study of infants born <32 weeks gestation receiving the 2 months vaccine which comprised diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines, and Haemophilus b conjugate and the pneumococcal conjugate 10-valent vaccines...
June 24, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647898/respiratory-diphtheriae-due-to-corynebacterium-ulcerans-transmitted-by-a-companion-dog-italy-2014
#19
Monica Monaco, Anna Rita Sacchi, Marzia Scotti, Fabiola Mancini, Carlo Riccio, Giulia Errico, Giovanna Ratti, Filippo Bondi, Alessandra Ciervo, Annalisa Pantosti
A serious respiratory tract infection due to Corynebacterium ulcerans was observed in a 70-year-old woman. Clinical presentation included pseudomembranes in the upper respiratory tract and lung involvement. C. ulcerans was recovered from the nose of the patient's dog. Both dog's and patient's isolates belonged to Sequence Type 331.
June 24, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645528/long-term-sustainable-dendritic-cell-specific-depletion-murine-model-for-periodontitis-research
#20
Amanda Finger Stadler, Mitulkumar Patel, Rafal Pacholczyk, Christopher W Cutler, Roger M Arce
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The use of animal models to study the role of DCs in periodontitis has been limited by lack of a method for sustained depletion of DCs. Hence, the objectives of this study were to validate the zDC-DTR knockin mouse model of conventional DCs (cDCs) depletion, as well as to investigate whether this depletion could be sustained long enough to induce alveolar bone loss in this model. zDC-DTR mice were treated with different dose regimens of diphtheria toxin (DT) to determine survival rate...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
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