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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683306/maternity-care-update-prenatal-care-and-specific-conditions
#1
Andrew Smith, Wendy B Barr, Erin Bassett-Novoa, Nicholas LeFevre
Early initiation of prenatal care is associated with improved health outcomes for women and newborns. An essential element of prenatal care is determining the estimated due date, ideally using a first-trimester ultrasound. Laboratory tests should be obtained to screen for conditions that can affect pregnancy. Routine immunizations for all pregnant women include influenza vaccine; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. All women should be screened for gestational diabetes mellitus in midpregnancy...
April 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673200/surface-and-extracellular-proteome-of-the-emerging-pathogen-corynebacterium-ulcerans
#2
Miriam Bittel, Susanne Gastiger, Bushra Amin, Jörg Hofmann, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging pathogen, which is increasingly recognized as an etiological agent of diphtheria, but can also evoke ulcers of the skin and systemic infections in humans. Besides man, the bacteria can colonize a wide variety of different animals, including cattle and pet animals, which might serve as a reservoir for human infections. In this study, surface-located proteins and the exoproteome of two Corynebacterium ulcerans strains were analyzed, since these may have key roles in the interaction of the pathogen with host cells...
April 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671006/regulatory-t-cells-control-endothelial-chemokine-production-and-migration-of-t-cells-into-intestinal-tumors-of-apc-min-mice
#3
Paulina Akeus, Louis Szeponik, Filip Ahlmanner, Patrik Sundström, Samuel Alsén, Bengt Gustavsson, Tim Sparwasser, Sukanya Raghavan, Marianne Quiding-Järbrink
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are crucial for anti-tumor immunity. We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) are able to reduce T-cell transendothelial migration in vitro and accumulation of effector T cells in intestinal tumors in vivo. Treg depletion also resulted in increased levels of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 specifically in the tumors. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms for Treg mediated suppression of T-cell migration into intestinal tumors in the APCmin/+ mouse model...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670634/robust-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-pertussis-in-adults-after-a-first-acellular-booster-vaccination
#4
Saskia van der Lee, Debbie M van Rooijen, Mary-Lène de Zeeuw-Brouwer, Marjan J M Bogaard, Pieter G M van Gageldonk, Axel Bonacic Marinovic, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman
Introduction: To reduce the pertussis disease burden, nowadays several countries recommend acellular pertussis (aP) booster vaccinations for adults. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a first adult aP booster vaccination at childbearing age. Methods: In 2014, healthy adults aged 25-29 years ( n  = 105), vaccinated during infancy with four doses of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine, received a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and aP) booster vaccination. Blood samples were collected longitudinally pre-booster, 2 and 4 weeks, and 1 year and 2 years post-booster...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668078/adherence-and-immune-response-to-revaccination-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-at-a-pediatric-onco-hematology-reference-center
#5
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667858/longitudinal-analysis-of-varicella-zoster-virus-specific-antibodies-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-no-association-with-subclinical-viral-reactivations-or-lupus-disease-activity
#6
C Rondaan, C C van Leer, S van Assen, H Bootsma, K de Leeuw, S Arends, N A Bos, J Westra
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at high risk of herpes zoster. Previously, we found increased immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in SLE patients compared to controls, while antibody levels against diphtheria and cellular immunity to VZV were decreased. We aimed to test our hypothesis that increased VZV-IgG levels in SLE result from subclinical VZV reactivations, caused by stress because of lupus disease activity or immunosuppressive drug use. Methods Antibody levels to VZV (IgG, IgA, IgM), total IgG and VZV-DNA were longitudinally determined in the serum of 34 SLE patients, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667749/effect-of-lysm-macrophage-depletion-on-lung-pathology-in-mice-with-chronic-bronchitis
#7
Yogesh Saini, Brandon W Lewis, Dongfang Yu, Hong Dang, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Fabio Del Piero, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard C Boucher
Macrophages (MΦ) are key sentinels of respiratory exposure to inhaled environmental stimuli. In normal "healthy" tissues, MΦ are believed to be a dormant cell type that, upon exposure to stress-causing stimuli, may get activated to exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory roles. To test whether stress present in chronic bronchitic (CB) airways triggers MΦ to manifest protective or detrimental responses, the DTA+ (LysM-regulated Diphtheria Toxin A expressing) strain with partial MΦ-deficiency was crossed with the Scnn1b-Tg mouse model of CB and the progenies were studied at 4-5 weeks of age...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665871/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-diphtheria
#8
S Coleman
This research investigates the long-forgotten relationship between diphtheria and tuberculosis. Historical medical reports from the late 19th century are reviewed followed by a statistical regression analysis of the relationship between the two diseases in the early 20th century. Historical medical reports show a consistent association between diphtheria and tuberculosis that can increase the likelihood and severity of either disease in a co-infection. The statistical analysis uses historical weekly public health data on reported cases in five American cities over a period of several years, finding a modest but statistically significant relationship between the two diseases...
April 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659606/humoral-immunity-to-memory-antigens-and-pathogens-is-maintained-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Nadezhda A Wall, C Coral Dominguez-Medina, Sian E Faustini, Charlotte N Cook, Andrew McClean, Mark D Jesky, Marisol Perez-Toledo, Matthew D Morgan, Alexandra G Richter, Charles J Ferro, Paul Cockwell, Paul A Moss, Ian R Henderson, Lorraine Harper, Adam F Cunningham
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. This suggests that CKD patients have an impaired responsiveness to all antigens, even those first encountered before CKD onset. To examine this we evaluated antibody responses against two childhood vaccine antigens, tetanus (TT) and diphtheria toxoids (DT) and two common pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SEn) in two independent cohorts consisting of age-matched individuals with and without CKD...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658477/-pmn-dtr-mice-a-new-model-to-study-neutrophils-in-vivo
#10
Caitlin M Gillis, Laurent L Reber
Neutrophils play a key role in host defense against pathogens. They can contribute to pathological inflammation, and are thought to exacerbate tissue injury upon exposure to bacterial products, such as endotoxin (LPS). Recent findings suggest that neutrophils can also participate in adaptive immune responses and contribute to inflammation resolution. Many discoveries regarding the in vivo role of neutrophils were made possible by the use of genetically modified neutrophil-deficient mice, or by the use of neutrophil-depleting antibodies...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655588/resident-and-monocyte-derived-langerhans-cells-are-required-for-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-dermatitis-model
#11
Minseok Lee, Sung Hee Kim, Tae-Gyun Kim, Jeyun Park, Jae Won Lee, Min-Geol Lee
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic cells that reside in the epidermis and local inflammation results in an increased differentiation of monocyte-derived LCs. Only few studies have investigated on the role of LCs in psoriasis-like dermatitis model, but the results are variable and the exact role of LCs in psoriasis model remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the functional role of resident (rLCs) and monocyte-derived LCs (mLCs) in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation using human Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (huLang-DTA) mice...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652740/pneumococcal-immune-response-in-infants-whose-mothers-received-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-during-pregnancy-erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629244/uncertainty-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-basic-reproduction-number-of-diphtheria-a-case-study-of-a-rohingya-refugee-camp-in-bangladesh-november-december-2017
#13
Ryota Matsuyama, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Akira Endo, Hyojung Lee, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Shinya Tsuzuki, Hiroshi Nishiura
Background: A Rohingya refugee camp in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh experienced a large-scale diphtheria epidemic in 2017. The background information of previously immune fraction among refugees cannot be explicitly estimated, and thus we conducted an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproduction number, R 0 . Methods: A renewal process model was devised to estimate the R 0 and ascertainment rate of cases, and loss of susceptible individuals was modeled as one minus the sum of initially immune fraction and the fraction naturally infected during the epidemic...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628306/tumor-resident-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-modulate-the-accumulation-of-tcr-engineered-t-cells-in-melanoma
#14
Alastair Hotblack, Angelika Holler, Alice Piapi, Sophie Ward, Hans J Stauss, Clare L Bennett
Ongoing clinical trials explore T cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy as a treatment option for cancer, but responses in solid tumors are hampered by the immunosuppressive microenvironment. The production of TCR gene-engineered T cells requires full T cell activation in vitro, and it is currently unknown whether in vivo interactions with conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) regulate the accumulation and function of engineered T cells in tumors. Using the B16 melanoma model and the inducible depletion of CD11c+ cells in CD11c...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620944/p53-plays-a-key-role-in-the-apoptosis-of-human-ovarian-cancer-cells-induced-by-adenovirus-mediated-crm197
#15
Lvxia Dai, Qu Pan, Yanjuan Peng, Sizhou Huang, Jianmin Liu, Tian Chen, Xin Wang, Dengbang Chen, Jiandong Wang, Yanfeng Zhu, Hui Wang, Yilun Liu, Yu Ou, Xiaoping Yu, Kang Cao
Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) is a mutant form of the diphtheria toxin. Recent studies have found that CRM197 exerts an experimental antitumor effect on several types of tumors. This study applied a novel treatment of adenovirus-mediated CRM197 (AdCRM197) to human ovarian cancer cells. Interestingly, it was found that A2780 cells were sensitive to AdCRM197, but SKOV3 cells were resistant to it. Since SKOV3 cells are p53 deletion cells, while A2780 cells are p53 wild-type cells, it was postulated that p53 might play a key role in AdCRM197-induced apoptosis...
April 5, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620722/immunogenicity-and-reactogenicity-of-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-and-phid-cv-when-co-administered-with-menacwy-tt-in-infants-results-of-an-open-randomized-trial
#16
Jose Manuel Merino Arribas, Alfonso Carmona Martínez, Michael Horn, Xavier Maria Perez Porcuna, Maria Del Carmen Otero Reigada, Josep Marès Bermúdez, Fernando Centeno Malfaz, Mariano Miranda, Maria Mendez, Miguel Angel Garcia Cabezas, Wittermann Christoph, Gerhard Bleckmann, Thomas Fischbach, Devayani Kolhe, Marie Van der Wielen, Yaela Baine
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) and a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in infants/toddlers. METHODS: In this open, controlled, phase III study (NCT01144663), 2095 healthy infants were randomised (1:1:1:1) into 4 groups to receive MenACWY-TT at 2, 3, 4 and 12 months of age, or MenACWY-TT, MenC-CRM197 or MenC-TT at 2, 4 and 12 months of age...
March 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616610/a-case-of-respiratory-toxigenic-diphtheria-contact-tracing-results-and-considerations-following-a-30-year-disease-free-interval-catalonia-spain-2015
#17
Mireia Jané, Maria José Vidal, Neus Camps, Magda Campins, Ana Martínez, Joan Balcells, Maria Teresa Martin-Gomez, Gloria Bassets, Silvia Herrera-León, Anton Foguet, Mar Maresma, Nuria Follia, Sonia Uriona, Tomàs Pumarola
In May 2015, following a 30-year diphtheria-free interval in Catalonia, an unvaccinated 6-year-old child was diagnosed with diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae . After a difficult search for equine-derived diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), the child received the DAT 4 days later but died at the end of June. Two hundred and seventeen contacts were identified in relation to the index case, and their vaccination statuses were analysed, updated and completed. Of these, 140 contacts underwent physical examination and throat swabs were taken from them for analysis...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616207/evidence-of-increase-in-mortality-after-the-introduction-of-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-vaccine-to-children-aged-6-35-months-in-guinea-bissau-a-time-for-reflection
#18
Peter Aaby, Søren Wengel Mogensen, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine S Benn
Background: Whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6-35 months. Methods: In the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615715/blocking-interleukin-4-enhances-efficacy-of-vaccines-for-treatment-of-opioid-abuse-and-prevention-of-opioid-overdose
#19
Megan Laudenbach, Federico Baruffaldi, Christine Robinson, Philipp Carter, Davis Seelig, Carly Baehr, Marco Pravetoni
Vaccines offer an option to treat heroin and prescription opioid abuse and prevent fatal overdoses. Opioid vaccines elicit antibodies that block opioid distribution to the brain and reduce opioid-induced behavioral effects and toxicity. The major limitation to the translation of addiction vaccines is that efficacy is observed only in subjects achieving optimal drug-specific serum antibody levels. This study tested whether efficacy of a vaccine against oxycodone is increased by immunomodulators targeting key cytokine signaling pathways involved in B and T cell lymphocyte activation...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615269/the-public-health-value-of-vaccination-for-seniors-in-europe
#20
REVIEW
Susanna Esposito, Elisabetta Franco, Gaetan Gavazzi, Angel Gil de Miguel, Roland Hardt, George Kassianos, Isabelle Bertrand, Marie-Cécile Levant, Benoit Soubeyrand, Jose Antonio López Trigo
Longer life expectancy and decreasing fertility rates mean that the proportion of older people is continually increasing worldwide, and particularly in Europe. Ageing is associated with an increase in the risk and severity of infectious diseases. These diseases are also more difficult to diagnose and manage in seniors who often have at least one comorbid condition (60% of seniors have two or more conditions). Infectious diseases increase the risk of hospitalization, loss of autonomy and death in seniors. Effective vaccines are available in Europe for infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumococcal diseases, herpes zoster, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis...
March 31, 2018: Vaccine
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