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R Bai, M Chen
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the characteristics of road traffic accident deaths in Haikou city, and to provide reference for the identification of causes of death and the preventive measures. METHODS: Totally 498 road traffic accident deaths accepted by the Traffic Police Branch of Haikou City Public Security Bureau in 2014-2016 were collected, and the related parameters such as sex, age, time of the accidents, travel mode of the victims, the types of vehicle and the cause of death were analysed...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
J Sun, T Wang, Z D Li, Y Shao, Z Y Zhang, H Feng, D H Zou, Y J Chen
OBJECTIVES: To reconstruct a vehicle-bicycle-cyclist crash accident and analyse the injuries using 3D laser scanning technology, multi-rigid-body dynamics and optimized genetic algorithm, and to provide biomechanical basis for the forensic identification of death cause. METHODS: The vehicle was measured by 3D laser scanning technology. The multi-rigid-body models of cyclist, bicycle and vehicle were developed based on the measurements. The value range of optimal variables was set...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Joanna Cwikiel, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Eivind Berge, Ida Unhammer Njerve, Hilde Ulsaker, Harald Arnesen, Arnljot Flaa
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered a low-grade inflammatory disease. We aimed to identify effects of short-term strenuous exercise on mediators of systemic inflammation, endothelial and platelet activation in patients with angiographically verified CAD. We hypothesized that a more pronounced inflammatory response would be present in patients with CAD than in those without CAD. METHODS: In subjects with symptoms indicative of stable CAD, an exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer was performed...
February 9, 2018: Cytokine
Taisa Pereira Piacentini Ribeiro, Flávia Giovana Manarin, Eduardo Borges de Melo
To address the rising global demand for food, it is necessary to search for new herbicides that can control resistant weeds. We performed a 2D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study to predict compounds with photosynthesis-inhibitory activity. A data set of 44 compounds (quinolines and naphthalenes), which are described as photosynthetic electron transport (PET) inhibitors, was used. The obtained model was approved in internal and external validation tests. 2D Similarity-based virtual screening was performed and 64 compounds were selected from the ZINC database...
February 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
M Van den Kerkhof, D Mabille, E Chatelain, C E Mowbray, S Braillard, S Hendrickx, L Maes, G Caljon
OBJECTIVES: Three new chemical series (bicyclic nitroimidazoles, aminopyrazoles and oxaboroles) were selected by Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative as potential new drug leads for leishmaniasis. Pharmacodynamics studies included both in vitro and in vivo efficacy, cross-resistance profiling against the current antileishmanial reference drugs and evaluation of their cidal activity potential. METHODS: Efficacy against the reference laboratory strains of Leishmania infantum (MHOM/MA(BE)/67/ITMAP263) and L...
January 31, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Daniel Bandholtz Dørge, Kristian Sonne Schmidt, Anders Haagen Jensen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Objective: Exercise increases pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in exercising and nonexercising muscles, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). No studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of change in PPTs after aerobic exercise. Primary objectives were to compare the effect on PPTs after an incremental bicycling exercise compared with quiet rest and to investigate the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the test stimulus (PPT) and the absolute and relative EIH response in exercising and nonexercising muscles...
February 7, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Chirag J Patel, Jay Bhattacharya, John P A Ioannidis, Eran Bendavid
OBJECTIVE: Better identification of at-risk groups could benefit HIV-1 care programmes. We systematically identified HIV-1 risk factors in two nationally representative cohorts of women in the Demographic and Health Surveys. METHODS: We identified and replicated the association of 1415 social, economic, environmental, and behavioral factors with HIV-1 status. We used the 2007 and 2013-2014 surveys conducted among 5715 and 15 433 Zambian women, respectively (688 shared factors)...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Dimitris Kalaitzakis, Manolis Sofiadis, Myron Triantafyllakis, Konstantinos Daskalakis, Georgios Vassilikogiannakis
Asymmetric and site-selective formal [3 + 2]-annulations of γ-alkyl-β,γ-unsaturated γ-lactams with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes have been developed. These organocatalysed transformations yield high value enantioenriched bicyclic γ-lactams with up to four new stereocenters (sometimes including a quarternary carbon). The overall transformation starts from simple and readily accessible furans and oversees a rapid, controlled, and dramatic enhancement in 3D complexity.
February 8, 2018: Organic Letters
Edinson Puentes-Cala, Manuel Liebeke, Stephanie Markert, Jens Harder
The microbial degradation pathways of bicyclic monoterpenes contain unknown enzymes for carbon-carbon cleavages. Such enzymes may also be present in the betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans, a model organism to study the anaerobic monoterpene degradation. In this study, a deletion mutant strain missing the first enzyme of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway transformed cometabolically the bicyclics sabinene, 3-carene and α-pinene into several monocyclic monoterpenes and traces of cyclic monoterpene alcohols...
February 7, 2018: Metabolites
Adalberto Aparecido Dos Santos Lopes, Marilson Kienteka, Rogério César Fermino, Rodrigo Siqueira Reis
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the built and social and environmental microscale and walking and bicycling for transportation in adults in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2009 with a household survey that included 1,419 adults. Objective evaluation of environment was performed on the resident's street segments, using an instrument for systematic observation consisting of six dimensions: "land use", "public transportation", "streetscape", "conditions and aesthetics", "places for walking and bicycling", and "social environment"...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Toh Yen Pang, Terence Shen Tao Lo, Thierry Ellena, Helmy Mustafa, Jasmin Babalija, Aleksandar Subic
Research has demonstrated that a better-fitted bicycle helmet offers improved protection to the rider during an impact. Nowadays, bicycle helmets in the market that range in size from small/medium to medium/large might not fit the diverse range of human head shapes and dimensions. 3D scanning was used to create 3D head shape databases of 20 participants who volunteered for the study. We developed new custom-fitted helmet inner liners, based on the 3D head shape of two sub-groups of participants, to map their head sizes and contours closely to the conventional Medium (M) and Large (L) sizes as described in from AS/NZS 2512...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Matthew T Knowe, Michael W Danneman, Sarah Sun, Maren Pink, Jeffrey N Johnston
The enantioselective desymmetrization of carboxylic acids by chiral Brønsted base catalysis is reported, leading to bridged bicyclic lactones with up to 94% ee. Crystallographic analysis of a substrate-catalyst complex suggests an origin of stereocontrol, reminiscent of functional Brønsted bases in biological settings, and enabled reaction optimization. The products contain an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and can be derivatized to functionalized cyclopentanes.
February 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wasif Raza, Bertil Forsberg, Christer Johansson, Johan Nilsson Sommar
BACKGROUND: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments...
2018: Global Health Action
Veniamin A Borin, Christian Wiebeler, Igor Schapiro
The primary photochemical reaction of the green-absorbing proteorhodopsin is studied by means of a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. The simulations are based on a homology model derived from the blue-absorbing proteorhodopsin crystal structure. The geometry of retinal and the surrounding sidechains in the protein binding pocket were optimized using the QM/MM method. Starting from this geometry the isomerization was studied with a relaxed scan along the C13[double bond, length as m-dash]C14 dihedral...
February 2, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Kranthikumar Yadav, J Laxmikanth Rao, R Srinivas, R Nagaraj, M V Jagannadham
The detection of post-translational modifications of proteins is an important comprehensive research area. Over the years, proteomic studies involving protein acetylation have attracted a great deal of attention. In the present study, we have focussed on the acetylation of histidine and the intrinsic stability of b1-ion of oxazolone ring and/or with side chain imidazole bicyclic product. The formation of oxazolone structure may occur when an amino moiety undergoes acetylation reaction and when it is present in the vicinity of the side chain imidazole moiety...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Greta Utecht, Andrzej Fruziński, Marcin Jasiński
Non-catalysed addition of trifluoroacetonitrile imines to enol ethers provided fully regioselectively (3 + 2)-cycloadducts, which either spontaneously or via Brønsted acid-induced elimination of ROH molecules led to the formation of 3-trifluoromethylated pyrazoles. In the case of 2,3-dihydrofuran, the respective bicyclic intermediate was isolated and its structure was confirmed by X-ray analysis. Using the developed protocol the synthesis of a known antitumor compound SC-560 was performed in 45% yield. Subsequent functionalisations of selected 4-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)pyrazoles at C(5) through lithiation/addition, cross-coupling reactions or via intramolecular Pd-catalysed C-H arylations opened up an access to polysubstituted pyrazoles including unusual tricyclic systems comprising 7-membered rings (oxepane, thiepane and azepane) as the central unit...
February 2, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Kim Vejlegaard, Christina Wegeberg, Vickie McKee, Jesper Wengel
Synthesis of two novel conformationally constrained bicyclic ribonucleoside phosphoramidites bearing a 2'-C-methyl substituent has been accomplished. These phosphoramidites were used to incorporate the corresponding 2'-C-methyl nucleotides into oligonucleotides and to study their effects on duplex thermal stability. Whereas the C2'-O4'-linked LNA-type derivative induced severe destabilization of duplexes formed with complementary DNA and RNA, the C3'-O4'-linked derivative induced RNA-selective hybridization with increased affinity relative to that of the unmodified DNA-based probe...
February 2, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Trevor V Nykaza, Antonio Ramirez, Tyler S Harrison, Michael R Luzung, Alexander T Radosevich
A small-ring phosphacycloalkane (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane, 3) catalyzes intramolecular C-N bond forming heterocy-clization of o-nitrobiaryl and -styrenyl derivatives in the presence of a hydrosilane terminal reductant. The method provides scalable access to diverse carbazole and indole compounds under operationally trivial homogeneous organocatalytic conditions, as demon-strated by 17 examples conducted on one-gram scale. In situ NMR reaction monitoring studies support a mechanism involving cata-lytic PIII/PV=O cycling, where tricoordinate phosphorus compound 3 represents the catalytic resting state...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Arthur R Bradwell, Kimberley Ashdown, Carla Rue, John Delamere, Owen D Thomas, Samuel J E Lucas, Alex D Wright, Stephen J Harris, Stephen D Myers
Objective: To assess whether acetazolamide (Az), used prophylactically for acute mountain sickness (AMS), alters exercise capacity at high altitude. Methods: Az (500 mg daily) or placebo was administered to 20 healthy adults (aged 36±20 years, range 21-77), who were paired for age, sex, AMS susceptibility and weight, in a double-blind, randomised manner. Participants ascended over 5 days to 4559 m, then exercised to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer, while recording breath-by-breath gas measurements...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
M J Fröhlich, R F Kroidl, T Welte
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the physical effort and energy expenditure needed over a working period of 45-60 min, specifically for the occupational activity of cleaning. The effort was demonstrated in absolute terms (V'O2), in relation to the involved person's maximum physical capacity (peak V'O2) and in relation to the individual aerobic-anaerobic threshold (V'O2 at VT1, the point when lactate starts to accumulate but can be cleared). In addition to this, the aim was to verify the suitability of portable ergospirometry in determining the occupational workload in a real-life setting...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
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