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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412497/optogenetic-stimulation-of-cortex-to-map-evoked-whisker-movements-in-awake-head-restrained-mice
#1
Matthieu Auffret, Veronica L Ravano, Giulia M C Rossi, Nicolas Hankov, Merissa F A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Whisker movements are used by rodents to touch objects in order to extract spatial and textural tactile information about their immediate surroundings. To understand the mechanisms of such active sensorimotor processing it is important to investigate whisker motor control. The activity of neurons in the neocortex affects whisker movements, but many aspects of the organization of cortical whisker motor control remain unknown. Here, we filmed whisker movements evoked by sequential optogenetic stimulation of different locations across the left dorsal sensorimotor cortex of awake head-restrained mice...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383981/building-community-resilience-to-violent-extremism-through-genuine-partnerships
#2
B Heidi Ellis, Saida Abdi
What is community resilience in relation to violent extremism, and how can we build it? This article explores strategies to harness community assets that may contribute to preventing youth from embracing violent extremism, drawing from models of community resilience as defined in relation to disaster preparedness. Research suggests that social connection is at the heart of resilient communities and any strategy to increase community resilience must both harness and enhance existing social connections, and endeavor to not damage or diminish them...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283558/gene-expression-profiling-with-cre-conditional-pseudorabies-virus-reveals-a-subset-of-midbrain-neurons-that-participate-in-reward-circuitry
#3
Lisa E Pomeranz, Mats I Ekstrand, Kaamashri N Latcha, Gregory A Smith, Lynn W Enquist, Jeffrey M Friedman
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway receives inputs from numerous regions of the brain as part of a neural system that detects rewarding stimuli and coordinates a behavioral response. The capacity to simultaneously map and molecularly define the components of this complex multisynaptic circuit would thus advance our understanding of the determinants of motivated behavior. To accomplish this, we have constructed pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains in which viral propagation and fluorophore expression are activated only after exposure to Cre recombinase...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255782/neuroanatomical-distribution-of-galectin-3-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#4
Hong-Il Yoo, Eu-Gene Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sung-Young Hong, Chi-Sun Yoon, Min-Ju Hong, Sang-Jin Park, Ran-Sook Woo, Tai-Kyoung Baik, Dae-Yong Song
Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin subfamily that enables the specific binding of β-galactosides. It is expressed in a broad spectrum of species and organs, and is known to have various functions related to cell adhesion, signal transduction, and proinflammatory responses. Although, expression of galectin-3 in some activated neuroglia under neuroinflammation has been well documented in the central nervous system, little is known about the neuronal expression and distribution of galectin-3 in normal brain...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220872/human-enterovirus-71-protein-interaction-network-prompts-antiviral-drug-repositioning
#5
Lu Han, Kang Li, Chaozhi Jin, Jian Wang, Qingjun Li, Qiling Zhang, Qiyue Cheng, Jing Yang, Xiaochen Bo, Shengqi Wang
As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#6
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209741/frequency-characteristics-of-human-muscle-and-cortical-responses-evoked-by-noisy-achilles-tendon-vibration
#7
Robyn Lynne Mildren, Ryan M Peters, Aimee J Hill, Jean-Sebastien Blouin, Mark Gregory Carpenter, J Timothy Inglis
Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine proprioceptive reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults (n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied two-minutes of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146573/forest-connectivity-regions-of-canada-using-circuit-theory-and-image-analysis
#8
David Pelletier, Marc-Élie Lapointe, Michael A Wulder, Joanne C White, Jeffrey A Cardille
Ecological processes are increasingly well understood over smaller areas, yet information regarding interconnections and the hierarchical nature of ecosystems remains less studied and understood. Information on connectivity over large areas with high resolution source information provides for both local detail and regional context. The emerging capacity to apply circuit theory to create maps of omnidirectional connectivity provides an opportunity for improved and quantitative depictions of forest connectivity, supporting the formation and testing of hypotheses about the density of animal movement, ecosystem structure, and related links to natural and anthropogenic forces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101951/rigidity-and-flexibility-in-the-tetrasaccharide-linker-of-proteoglycans-from-atomic-resolution-molecular-simulation
#9
Cathy Ng, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Olgun Guvench
Proteoglycans (PGs) are covalent conjugates between protein and carbohydrate (glycosaminoglycans). Certain classes of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate utilize a specific tetrasaccharide linker for attachment to the protein component: GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-Ser. Toward understanding the conformational preferences of this linker, the present work used all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with Adaptive Biasing Force (ABF) sampling to determine high-resolution, high-precision conformational free energy maps ΔG(φ, ψ) for each glycosidic linkage between constituent disaccharides, including the variant where GlcA is substituted with IdoA...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052248/hox2-genes-are-required-for-tonotopic-map-precision-and-sound-discrimination-in-the-mouse-auditory-brainstem
#10
Kajari Karmakar, Yuichi Narita, Jonathan Fadok, Sebastien Ducret, Alberto Loche, Taro Kitazawa, Christel Genoud, Thomas Di Meglio, Raphael Thierry, Joao Bacelo, Andreas Lüthi, Filippo M Rijli
Tonotopy is a hallmark of auditory pathways and provides the basis for sound discrimination. Little is known about the involvement of transcription factors in brainstem cochlear neurons orchestrating the tonotopic precision of pre-synaptic input. We found that in the absence of Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 function in Atoh1-derived glutamatergic bushy cells of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus, broad input topography and sound transmission were largely preserved. However, fine-scale synaptic refinement and sharpening of isofrequency bands of cochlear neuron activation upon pure tone stimulation were impaired in Hox2 mutants, resulting in defective sound-frequency discrimination in behavioral tests...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052137/mapping-polyclonal-hiv-1-antibody-responses-via-next-generation-neutralization-fingerprinting
#11
Nicole A Doria-Rose, Han R Altae-Tran, Ryan S Roark, Stephen D Schmidt, Matthew S Sutton, Mark K Louder, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Robert T Bailer, Valerie Cortez, Rui Kong, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Felicia Wang, Salim S Abdool Karim, James M Binley, Mark Connors, Barton F Haynes, Malcolm A Martin, David C Montefiori, Lynn Morris, Julie Overbaugh, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, Ivelin S Georgiev
Computational neutralization fingerprinting, NFP, is an efficient and accurate method for predicting the epitope specificities of polyclonal antibody responses to HIV-1 infection. Here, we present next-generation NFP algorithms that substantially improve prediction accuracy for individual donors and enable serologic analysis for entire cohorts. Specifically, we developed algorithms for: (a) selection of optimized virus neutralization panels for NFP analysis, (b) estimation of NFP prediction confidence for each serum sample, and (c) identification of sera with potentially novel epitope specificities...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009019/label-free-multi-scale-imaging-of-ex-vivo-mouse-brain-using-spatial-light-interference-microscopy
#12
Eunjung Min, Mikhail E Kandel, CheMyong J Ko, Gabriel Popescu, Woonggyu Jung, Catherine Best-Popescu
Brain connectivity spans over broad spatial scales, from nanometers to centimeters. In order to understand the brain at multi-scale, the neural network in wide-field has been visualized in detail by taking advantage of light microscopy. However, the process of staining or addition of fluorescent tags is commonly required, and the image contrast is insufficient for delineation of cytoarchitecture. To overcome this barrier, we use spatial light interference microscopy to investigate brain structure with high-resolution, sub-nanometer pathlength sensitivity without the use of exogenous contrast agents...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998275/efficient-randomization-of-biological-networks-while-preserving-functional-characterization-of-individual-nodes
#13
Francesco Iorio, Marti Bernardo-Faura, Andrea Gobbi, Thomas Cokelaer, Giuseppe Jurman, Julio Saez-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Networks are popular and powerful tools to describe and model biological processes. Many computational methods have been developed to infer biological networks from literature, high-throughput experiments, and combinations of both. Additionally, a wide range of tools has been developed to map experimental data onto reference biological networks, in order to extract meaningful modules. Many of these methods assess results' significance against null distributions of randomized networks...
December 20, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974160/capturing-and-manipulating-activated-neuronal-ensembles-with-cane-delineates-a-hypothalamic-social-fear-circuit
#14
Katsuyasu Sakurai, Shengli Zhao, Jun Takatoh, Erica Rodriguez, Jinghao Lu, Andrew D Leavitt, Min Fu, Bao-Xia Han, Fan Wang
We developed a technology (capturing activated neuronal ensembles [CANE]) to label, manipulate, and transsynaptically trace neural circuits that are transiently activated in behavioral contexts with high efficiency and temporal precision. CANE consists of a knockin mouse and engineered viruses designed to specifically infect activated neurons. Using CANE, we selectively labeled neurons that were activated by either fearful or aggressive social encounters in a hypothalamic subnucleus previously known as a locus for aggression, and discovered that social-fear and aggression neurons are intermixed but largely distinct...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955713/rare-and-common-epilepsies-converge-on-a-shared-gene-regulatory-network-providing-opportunities-for-novel-antiepileptic-drug-discovery
#15
Andree Delahaye-Duriez, Prashant Srivastava, Kirill Shkura, Sarah R Langley, Liisi Laaniste, Aida Moreno-Moral, Bénédicte Danis, Manuela Mazzuferi, Patrik Foerch, Elena V Gazina, Kay Richards, Steven Petrou, Rafal M Kaminski, Enrico Petretto, Michael R Johnson
BACKGROUND: The relationship between monogenic and polygenic forms of epilepsy is poorly understood and the extent to which the genetic and acquired epilepsies share common pathways is unclear. Here, we use an integrated systems-level analysis of brain gene expression data to identify molecular networks disrupted in epilepsy. RESULTS: We identified a co-expression network of 320 genes (M30), which is significantly enriched for non-synonymous de novo mutations ascertained from patients with monogenic epilepsy and for common variants associated with polygenic epilepsy...
December 13, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896986/network-map-of-adverse-health-effects-among-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence
#16
Kathleen Whiting, Larry Y Liu, Mehmet Koyutürk, Günnur Karakurt
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem with devastating health consequences. Screening procedures may overlook relationships between IPV and negative health effects. To identify IPV-associated women's health issues, we mined national, aggregated de-identified electronic health record data and compared female health issues of domestic abuse (DA) versus non-DA records, identifying terms significantly more frequent for the DA group. After coding these terms into 28 broad categories, we developed a network map to determine strength of relationships between categories in the context of DA, finding that acute conditions are strongly connected to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and neurological conditions among victims...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824358/you-say-prefrontal-cortex-and-i-say-anterior-cingulate-meta-analysis-of-spatial-overlap-in-amygdala-to-prefrontal-connectivity-and-internalizing-symptomology
#17
H A Marusak, M E Thomason, C Peters, C Zundel, F Elrahal, C A Rabinak
Connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are considered critical for the expression and regulation of emotional behavior. Abnormalities in frontoamygdala circuitry are reported across several internalizing conditions and associated risk factors (for example, childhood trauma), which may underlie the strong phenotypic overlap and co-occurrence of internalizing conditions. However, it is unclear if these findings converge on the same localized areas of mPFC or adjacent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760077/the-gut-microbiome-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-patients-differs-from-healthy-controls-in-genes-that-can-influence-the-balance-between-a-healthy-and-dysregulated-immune-response
#18
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756228/drug-discovery-using-clinical-outcome-based-connectivity-mapping-application-to-ovarian-cancer
#19
Rama Raghavan, Stephen Hyter, Harsh B Pathak, Andrew K Godwin, Gottfried Konecny, Chen Wang, Ellen L Goode, Brooke L Fridley
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (5 % of cancer deaths). The standard treatment for patients with advanced EOC is initial debulking surgery followed by carboplatin-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy. Unfortunately, with chemotherapy most patients relapse and die resulting in a five-year overall survival around 45 %. Thus, finding novel therapeutics for treating EOC is essential. Connectivity Mapping (CMAP) has been used widely in cancer drug discovery and generally has relied on cancer cell line gene expression and drug phenotype data...
October 19, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713929/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-science-in-development
#20
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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