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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740306/topological-schemas-of-memory-spaces
#1
Andrey Babichev, Yuri A Dabaghian
Hippocampal cognitive map-a neuronal representation of the spatial environment-is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework-the memory space-that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as "networks of interconnections among the representations of events," have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694210/bright-soliton-to-quantum-droplet-transition-in-a-mixture-of-bose-einstein-condensates
#2
P Cheiney, C R Cabrera, J Sanz, B Naylor, L Tanzi, L Tarruell
Attractive Bose-Einstein condensates can host two types of macroscopic self-bound states: bright solitons and quantum droplets. Here, we investigate the connection between them with a Bose-Bose mixture confined in an optical waveguide. We show theoretically that, depending on atom number and interaction strength, solitons and droplets can be smoothly connected or remain distinct states coexisting only in a bistable region. We measure their spin composition, extract their density for a broad range of parameters, and map out the boundary of the region separating solitons from droplets...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578688/unprecedented-role-of-hybrid-n-glycans-as-ligands-for-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#3
Vidya S Shivatare, Sachin S Shivatare, Chang-Chun David Lee, Chi-Hui Liang, Kuo-Shiang Liao, Yang-Yu Cheng, Gannerla Saidachary, Chung-Yi Wu, Nan-Horng Lin, Peter D Kwong, Dennis R Burton, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong
The development of HIV vaccine has been hampered by the extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of the virus, particularly the substantial sequence diversity of gp120 and gp 41 envelope glycoproteins existing in more than 2,000 HIV variants. The highly diverse glycans on HIV spikes are commonly considered as immunologically silent self-antigens; however, the discovery of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) from HIV patients targeting the viral surface glycans has raised a major question about the origin of their antigens...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500027/trusting-telemedicine-a-discussion-on-risks-safety-legal-implications-and-liability-of-involved-stakeholders
#4
E Parimbelli, B Bottalico, E Losiouk, M Tomasi, A Santosuosso, G Lanzola, S Quaglini, R Bellazzi
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of the article is to raise awareness among all the involved stakeholders about the risks and legal implications connected to the development and use of modern telemedicine systems. Particular focus is given to the class of "active" telemedicine systems, that imply a real-world, non-mediated, interaction with the final user. A secondary objective is to give an overview of the European legal framework that applies to these systems, in the effort to avoid defensive medicine practices and fears, which might be a barrier to their broader adoption...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496614/segregation-of-the-human-basal-forebrain-using-resting-state-functional-mri
#5
Ross D Markello, R Nathan Spreng, Wen-Ming Luh, Adam K Anderson, Eve De Rosa
The basal forebrain (BF) is poised to play an important neuromodulatory role in brain regions important to cognition due to its broad projections and complex neurochemistry. While significant in vivo work has been done to elaborate BF function in nonhuman rodents and primates, comparatively limited work has examined the in vivo function of the human BF. In the current study we used multi-echo resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) from 100 young adults (18-34 years) to assess the potential segregation of human BF nuclei as well as their associated projections...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490008/a-global-network-of-biomedical-relationships-derived-from-text
#6
Bethany Percha, Russ B Altman
Motivation: The biomedical community's collective understanding of how chemicals, genes, and phenotypes interact is distributed across the text of over 24 million research articles. These interactions offer insights into the mechanisms behind higher order biochemical phenomena, such as drug-drug interactions and variations in drug response across individuals. To assist their curation at scale, we must understand what relationship types are possible and map unstructured natural language descriptions onto these structured classes...
February 27, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415440/revisiting-the-therapeutic-potential-of-bothrops-jararaca-venom-screening-for-novel-activities-using-connectivity-mapping
#7
Carolina Alves Nicolau, Alyson Prorock, Yongde Bao, Ana Gisele da Costa Neves-Ferreira, Richard Hemmi Valente, Jay William Fox
Snake venoms are sources of molecules with proven and potential therapeutic applications. However, most activities assayed in venoms (or their components) are of hemorrhagic, hypotensive, edematogenic, neurotoxic or myotoxic natures. Thus, other relevant activities might remain unknown. Using functional genomics coupled to the connectivity map (C-map) approach, we undertook a wide range indirect search for biological activities within the venom of the South American pit viper Bothrops jararaca . For that effect, venom was incubated with human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7) followed by RNA extraction and gene expression analysis...
February 6, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401206/parallel-trends-in-cortical-gray-and-white-matter-architecture-and-connections-in-primates-allow-fine-study-of-pathways-in-humans-and-reveal-network-disruptions-in-autism
#8
Basilis Zikopoulos, Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas, Helen Barbas
Noninvasive imaging and tractography methods have yielded information on broad communication networks but lack resolution to delineate intralaminar cortical and subcortical pathways in humans. An important unanswered question is whether we can use the wealth of precise information on pathways from monkeys to understand connections in humans. We addressed this question within a theoretical framework of systematic cortical variation and used identical high-resolution methods to compare the architecture of cortical gray matter and the white matter beneath, which gives rise to short- and long-distance pathways in humans and rhesus monkeys...
February 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229855/distinct-roles-of-n-and-o-glycans-in-cellulase-activity-and-stability
#9
Antonella Amore, Brandon C Knott, Nitin T Supekar, Asif Shajahan, Parastoo Azadi, Peng Zhao, Lance Wells, Jeffrey G Linger, Sarah E Hobdey, Todd A Vander Wall, Todd Shollenberger, John M Yarbrough, Zhongping Tan, Michael F Crowley, Michael E Himmel, Stephen R Decker, Gregg T Beckham, Larry E Taylor
In nature, many microbes secrete mixtures of glycoside hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and accessory enzymes to deconstruct polysaccharides and lignin in plants. These enzymes are often decorated with N- and O-glycosylation, the roles of which have been broadly attributed to protection from proteolysis, as the extracellular milieu is an aggressive environment. Glycosylation has been shown to sometimes affect activity, but these effects are not fully understood. Here, we examine N- and O-glycosylation on a model, multimodular glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A), which exhibits an O-glycosylated carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and an O-glycosylated linker connected to an N- and O-glycosylated catalytic domain (CD)-a domain architecture common to many biomass-degrading enzymes...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200496/a-national-scale-model-of-linear-features-improves-predictions-of-farmland-biodiversity
#10
Martin J P Sullivan, James W Pearce-Higgins, Stuart E Newson, Paul Scholefield, Tom Brereton, Tom H Oliver
Modelling species distribution and abundance is important for many conservation applications, but it is typically performed using relatively coarse-scale environmental variables such as the area of broad land-cover types. Fine-scale environmental data capturing the most biologically relevant variables have the potential to improve these models. For example, field studies have demonstrated the importance of linear features, such as hedgerows, for multiple taxa, but the absence of large-scale datasets of their extent prevents their inclusion in large-scale modelling studies...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081398/high-resolution-mapping-of-the-triangle-of-koch-spatial-heterogeneity-of-fast-pathway-atrionodal-connections
#11
Kelvin Chua, Gaurav A Upadhyay, Elliot Lee, Zaid Aziz, Andrew D Beaser, Cevher Ozcan, Michael Broman, Hemal M Nayak, Roderick Tung
BACKGROUND: Dedicated mapping studies of the triangle of Koch to characterize retrograde fast pathway activation have not been previously performed using high-resolution, 3-dimensional, multielectrode mapping technology. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the activation pattern and spatial distribution of the retrograde fast pathway within the triangle of Koch during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and right ventricular pacing in a consecutive series of patients using the Rhythmia mapping system (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA)...
March 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#12
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Matilde M Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Eduardo Cinosi, Jemma Reid, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioral inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder, distributed network perturbation appears focused around the prefrontal cortex, caudate, putamen, and associated neuro-circuitry...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020091/a-novel-network-analysis-approach-reveals-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-calcium-camp-homeostasis-associated-biomarkers-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#13
Fernando Palluzzi, Raffaele Ferrari, Francesca Graziano, Valeria Novelli, Giacomina Rossi, Daniela Galimberti, Innocenzo Rainero, Luisa Benussi, Benedetta Nacmias, Amalia C Bruni, Daniele Cusi, Erika Salvi, Barbara Borroni, Mario Grassi
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is the form of neurodegenerative dementia with the highest prevalence after Alzheimer's disease, equally distributed in men and women. It includes several variants, generally characterized by behavioural instability and language impairments. Although few mendelian genes (MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72) have been associated to the FTD phenotype, in most cases there is only evidence of multiple risk loci with relatively small effect size. To date, there are no comprehensive studies describing FTD at molecular level, highlighting possible genetic interactions and signalling pathways at the origin FTD-associated neurodegeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927258/a-proteomics-based-approach-reveals-differential-regulation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-proteins-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-patients
#14
Assim A Alfadda, Afshan Masood, Mohammed Y Al-Naami, Pierre Chaurand, Hicham Benabdelkamel
Obesity and the metabolic disorders that constitute metabolic syndrome are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nonetheless, the changes in the proteins and the underlying molecular pathways involved in the relevant pathogenesis are poorly understood. In this study a proteomic analysis of the visceral adipose tissue isolated from metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese patients was used to identify presence of altered pathway(s) leading to metabolic dysfunction. Samples were obtained from 18 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and were subdivided into two groups based on the presence or absence of comorbidities as defined by the International Diabetes Federation...
September 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924579/memory-integration-constructs-maps-of-space-time-and-concepts
#15
Neal W Morton, Katherine R Sherrill, Alison R Preston
Recent evidence demonstrates that new events are learned in the context of their relationships to existing memories. Within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, related memories are represented by integrated codes that connect events experienced at different times and places. Integrated codes form the basis of spatial, temporal, and conceptual maps of experience. These maps represent information that goes beyond direct experience and support generalization behaviors that require knowledge be used in new ways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884073/connectome-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-clsm-a-novel-approach-to-map-neurological-function
#16
REVIEW
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Lesion-symptom mapping is a key tool in understanding the relationship between structure and function in neuroscience as it can provide objective evidence about which regions are crucial for a given process. Initial limitations with this approach were largely overcome by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), a method introduced in the early 2000s, which allows for a whole-brain approach to study the association between damaged areas and behavioral impairment by applying an independent statistical test at every voxel...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829438/an-atlas-of-b-cell-clonal-distribution-in-the-human-body
#17
Wenzhao Meng, Bochao Zhang, Gregory W Schwartz, Aaron M Rosenfeld, Daqiu Ren, Joseph J C Thome, Dustin J Carpenter, Nobuhide Matsuoka, Harvey Lerner, Amy L Friedman, Tomer Granot, Donna L Farber, Mark J Shlomchik, Uri Hershberg, Eline T Luning Prak
B-cell responses result in clonal expansion, and can occur in a variety of tissues. To define how B-cell clones are distributed in the body, we sequenced 933,427 B-cell clonal lineages and mapped them to eight different anatomic compartments in six human organ donors. We show that large B-cell clones partition into two broad networks-one spans the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lung, while the other is restricted to tissues within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (jejunum, ileum and colon). Notably, GI tract clones display extensive sharing of sequence variants among different portions of the tract and have higher frequencies of somatic hypermutation, suggesting extensive and serial rounds of clonal expansion and selection...
September 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810930/sex-differences-in-microrna-mrna-networks-examination-of-novel-epigenetic-programming-mechanisms-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-neonatal-hypothalamus
#18
Christopher P Morgan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone promotes diverse programs of sex-specific development that vary widely between different cell types and across the developing male brain. The complexity of this phenomenon suggests that additional layers of gene regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs), must act downstream of estrogen to mediate this specificity...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782862/enhanced-estimations-of-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-using-stacked-multimodal-predictions
#19
Dorian Pustina, Harry Branch Coslett, Lyle Ungar, Olufunsho K Faseyitan, John D Medaglia, Brian Avants, Myrna F Schwartz
The severity of post-stroke aphasia and the potential for recovery are highly variable and difficult to predict. Evidence suggests that optimal estimation of aphasia severity requires the integration of multiple neuroimaging modalities and the adoption of new methods that can detect multivariate brain-behavior relationships. We created and tested a multimodal framework that relies on three information sources (lesion maps, structural connectivity, and functional connectivity) to create an array of unimodal predictions which are then fed into a final model that creates "stacked multimodal predictions" (STAMP)...
November 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742048/broad-learning-system-an-effective-and-efficient-incremental-learning-system-without-the-need-for-deep-architecture
#20
C L Philip Chen, Zhulin Liu
Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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