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Calorie shifting

Frédéric Tantot, Shauna L Parkes, Alain R Marchand, Chloé Boitard, Fabien Naneix, Sophie Layé, Pierre Trifilieff, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
Evidence now indicates that the chronic consumption of high-calorie foods, such as a high-fat diet (HFD), is associated with impaired control over food-seeking, yet the extent of this alteration is not fully understood. Using different reinforcement schedules, we evaluated whether HFD intake from weaning to adulthood modifies instrumental responding and induces a shift from goal-directed actions to habitual responding. We first observed reduced instrumental performance and motivation for a food reward in HFD-fed rats trained under schedules of reinforcement that facilitate habitual responding [Random Interval (RI)]...
October 3, 2016: Appetite
S Sonomtseren, Y Sankhuu, J D Warfel, D L Johannsen, C M Peterson, B Vandanmagsar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a weight loss intervention in Mongolian adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and with BMIs ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2). METHODS: Eighty participants (33 men/47 women) aged 32-56 years old received education sessions to improve nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Participants were counselled in-person on two occasions with regular follow-up by phone to eat less (reduce calorie intake by 30-40% and consume fewer fatty foods), shift food intake to earlier in a day and increase physical activity such as walking, jogging, running and biking...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Roberto Salvia, Simona D'Amore, Giusi Graziano, Caterina Capobianco, Moris Sangineto, Domenico Paparella, Paola de Bonfils, Giuseppe Palasciano, Michele Vacca
The Mediterranean diet (MeD) is believed to promote health; nevertheless, changes in the nutritional patterns in the Mediterranean area (increased intake of refined carbohydrates/saturated fats; reduced fibers intake; main calorie load shifted to dinner) led to reduced MeD benefits in recent decades. We retrospectively investigated the effects of a MeD with a low intake of refined carbohydrates in the evening ("MeDLowC") on body weight (BW) and metabolic profile of overweight/obese subjects. According to their adherence to MeDLowC, subjects were classified into 44 (41%) individuals with "excellent" adherence and 63 (59%) with "poor" adherence...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Andaleeb Rahman
This article provides evidence on the role of consumer food subsidies in improving nutritional intake and diet quality by evaluating the expansion of the government food assistance program coverage in the hunger prone state of Odisha in India. In 8 districts of Odisha, popularly known as the Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput (KBK) region which is notable for extreme poverty and starvation deaths, the government did away with the targeted food assistance program in 2008 and made the scheme universal. Using a Difference-in-Difference methodology over two repeated cross sectional household surveys, this article finds that the shift from targeted to a universal food security program in the KBK region of Odisha has led to an improvement in the household nutritional intake and diet quality...
August 2016: Food Policy
Tadashi Okabe, Hideo Terashima, Atsuhiro Sakamoto
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We previously demonstrated that the gastric emptying rate of liquids chiefly depended on the total amount of calories (energy content) in a uniform volume. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of different volumes of liquids with a uniform energy content on gastric emptying. METHODS: Three types of test solutions were prepared with a uniform amount of calories (200 kcal provided by glucose) and step-wise increments in volume (200 ml, 400 ml, and 600 ml)...
August 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Peter Mancuso
Adipose tissue has traditionally been defined as connective tissue that stores excess calories in the form of triacylglycerol. However, the physiologic functions attributed to adipose tissue are expanding, and it is now well established that adipose tissue is an endocrine gland. Among the endocrine factors elaborated by adipose tissue are the adipokines; hormones, similar in structure to cytokines, produced by adipose tissue in response to changes in adipocyte triacylglycerol storage and local and systemic inflammation...
2016: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Seema Gulati, Anoop Misra, Meenu Sharma
Background India is undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). From a healthy traditional home-cooked high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, there is a shift towards increasing consumption of packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar and less fiber. Although fats and oils have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity...
August 11, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ram Prakash Narayanan, Akheel A Syed
Bariatric surgery is most commonly carried out in women of childbearing age. Whilst fertility rates are improved, pregnancy following bariatric surgery poses several challenges. Whilst rates of many adverse maternal and foetal outcomes in obese women are reduced after bariatric surgery, pregnancy is best avoided for 12-24 months to reduce the potential risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Dumping syndromes are common after bariatric surgery and can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in pregnancy...
October 2016: Obesity Surgery
Simin N Meydani, Sai K Das, Carl F Pieper, Michael R Lewis, Sam Klein, Vishwa D Dixit, Alok K Gupta, Dennis T Villareal, Manjushri Bhapkar, Megan Huang, Paul J Fuss, Susan B Roberts, John O Holloszy, Luigi Fontana
Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR...
July 2016: Aging
Ivan Orlandi, Damiano Pellegrino Coppola, Maurizio Strippoli, Rossella Ronzulli, Marina Vai
Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, is a byproduct and noncompetitive inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction catalyzed by Sirtuins. These represent a family of evolutionarily conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that are well-known critical regulators of metabolism and aging and whose founding member is Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effects of NAM supplementation in the context of yeast chronological aging, the established model for studying aging of postmitotic quiescent mammalian cells...
June 16, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Biagio Arcidiacono, Roberta Francesca De Rose, Saverio Massimo Lepore, Nicola Costa, Tiziana Montalcini, Antonio Brunetti, Diego Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro, Marilena Celano
An increased incidence of obesity is registered worldwide, and its association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is closely related with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases. A major clinical problem in the management of obesity is the non-adherence or low adherence of patients to a hypocaloric dietetic restriction. In this study, we evaluated in obese mice the effects of shifting from high-calorie foods to normal diet on insulin sensitivity. Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice (n = 20) were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for a 24-week period...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marian P Jarlenski, Julia A Wolfson, Sara N Bleich
INTRODUCTION: A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. METHODS: Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Lauren Butler, Jennifer M Poti, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Long-term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. OBJECTIVE: This study examined shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN: This study was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data from the 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys...
July 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Lena J Vogt, Antje Steveling, Peter J Meffert, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Rebecca Kessler, Norbert Hosten, Janine Krüger, Simone Gärtner, Ali A Aghdassi, Julia Mayerle, Markus M Lerch, Jens-Peter Kühn
OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. METHODS: Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Carolyn E Ievers-Landis, April Kneifel, Jennifer Giesel, Farah Rahman, Sumana Narasimhan, Naveen Uli, Maryann O'Riordan
OBJECTIVE : To examine associations of sleep duration and regularity with dietary intake and eating-related cognitions among adolescents who are overweight/obese.  METHODS : Participants were 315 adolescents being evaluated through Healthy Kids, Healthy Weight. Outcomes were reported sleep duration and regularity (bedtime shift, wake-time shift, sleep duration shift). Major predictors were dietary intake (e.g., consumption of calories and sugar-sweetened beverages) and eating-related cognitions (food preoccupation, eating self-efficacy)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Clare M Mathes, Chanel Letourneau, Ginger D Blonde, Carel W le Roux, Alan C Spector
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a "cafeteria"-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Lei Hao, Kuan-Hsun Huang, Kyoko Ito, Sudathip Sae-Tan, Joshua D Lambert, A Catharine Ross
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; however, the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression by diet remains incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of a high-carbohydrate (HC) liquid diet, with and without supplementation with a lipid emulsion (LE), and of a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with a low-fat diet (LFD) on the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression in the liver of intact mice...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Paul M Wise, Laura Nattress, Linda J Flammer, Gary K Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. DESIGN: Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michael Mayr, Hartmut Imgart, Katrin Skala, Andreas Karwautz
During refeeding syndrome-a well-known and dreaded complication of weight-restauration in anorexia nervosa-a shift of electrolytes and fluid can occur in malnourished patients and might therefore lead to-potentially fatal-cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological symptoms. Causes of this are metabolic and hormonal changes during re-establishment of a carbohydrate-rich diet. This syndrome is most commonly associated with hypophosphatemia, which can however be accompanied by other chemical laboratory abnormalities...
2015: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Stephen Boué, Ilana Fortgang, Ronald J Levy, Deepak Bhatnagar, Matthew Burow, George Fahey, Mark L Heiman
OBJECTIVE: Simplification of diets, low in variety but high in energy, contributes to the loss in diversity observed in the obese gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. A novel GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) as a dietary intervention was developed. METHODS: Mice were fed either an obesogenic diet (ObD) or an ObD containing 15% activated soy pod fiber (ObD-ASPF) for 30 days. The diets were isocaloric and balanced for macronutrient content. ASPF is a novel fiber preparation from whole soy pods that is activated to produce glyceollins...
January 2016: Obesity
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