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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656932/a-higher-calorie-refeeding-protocol-does-not-increase-adverse-outcomes-in-adult-patients-with-eating-disorders
#1
Kylie Matthews, Jan Hill, Shane Jeffrey, Susan Patterson, Amanda Davis, Warren Ward, Michelle Palmer, Sandra Capra
BACKGROUND: Patients with eating disorders (EDs) are often considered a high-risk population to refeed. Current research advises using "start low, go slow" refeeding methods (∼1,000 kcal/day, advancing ∼500 kcal/day every 3 to 4 days) in adult patients with severe EDs to prevent the development of refeeding syndrome (RFS), typically characterized by decreases in serum electrolyte levels and fluid shifts. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of RFS and related outcomes using a low-calorie protocol (LC) (1,000 kcal) or a higher-calorie protocol (HC) (1,500 kcal) in medically compromised adult patients with EDs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653027/the-relationship-among-breakfast-time-morningness-eveningness-preference-and-body-mass-index-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
H Nimitphong, N Siwasaranond, S Saetung, A Thakkinstian, B Ongphiphadhanakul, S Reutrakul
AIMS: Obesity is prevalent and related to poor outcomes in Type 2 diabetes. Evening preference and late meal times have been shown to be associated with obesity, but data are lacking in people with Type 2 diabetes. This study examined the relationship among meal timing, morningness-eveningness preference and BMI in Type 2 diabetes, using a mediation analysis. METHODS: Some 210 non-shift workers with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Morningness-eveningness preference was assessed using a standard questionnaire, the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM)...
April 13, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575528/global-remodeling-of-the-mouse-dna-methylome-during-aging-and-in-response-to-calorie-restriction
#3
András Sziráki, Alexander Tyshkovskiy, Vadim N Gladyshev
Aging is characterized by numerous molecular changes, such as accumulation of molecular damage and altered gene expression, many of which are linked to DNA methylation. Here, we characterize the blood DNA methylome across 16 age groups of mice and report numerous global, region- and site-specific features, as well as the associated dynamics of methylation changes. Transition of the methylome throughout lifespan was not uniform, with many sites showing accelerated changes in late life. The associated genes and promoters were enriched for aging-related pathways, pointing to a fundamental link between DNA methylation and control of the aging process...
March 25, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543782/low-no-calorie-sweeteners-a-review-of-global-intakes
#4
REVIEW
Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531152/from-wetland-specialist-to-hand-fed-generalist-shifts-in-diet-and-condition-with-provisioning-for-a-recently-urbanized-wading-bird
#5
Maureen H Murray, Anjelika D Kidd, Shannon E Curry, Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman, Michael J Yabsley, Henry C Adams, Taylor Ellison, Catharine N Welch, Sonia M Hernandez
Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496744/loss-of-ocab-prevents-age-induced-fat-accretion-and-insulin-resistance-by-altering-b-lymphocyte-transition-and-promoting-energy-expenditure
#6
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Alexandre Caron, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Philippe St-Pierre, Fernando Forato Anhê, Emilie Lavoie-Charland, Pascale Blais-Lecours, Marie-Claude Drolet, Julie S Lefebvre, Julie Lacombe, Yves Deshaies, Jacques Couet, Mathieu Laplante, Mathieu Ferron, Yohan Bossé, André Marette, Denis Richard, David Marsolais, Frédéric Picard
The current demographic shift toward an aging population has led to a robust increase in the prevalence of age-associated metabolic disorders. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that the etiology of obesity-related insulin resistance developed upon aging differs from that induced by high-calorie diets. Whereas the role of adaptive immunity on the changes in energy metabolism driven by nutritional challenges has gained attention in the past years, its impact upon aging remains mostly unknown. Here, we found that follicular B2 lymphocytes and expression levels of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OcaB increase with age in spleen and in intra-abdominal epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), concomitantly with higher circulating levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and impaired glucose homeostasis...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419410/2017-george-lyman-duff-memorial-lecture-fat-in-the-blood-fat-in-the-artery-fat-in-the-heart-triglyceride-in-physiology-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Ira J Goldberg
Cholesterol is not the only lipid that causes heart disease. Triglyceride supplies the heart and skeletal muscles with highly efficient fuel and allows for the storage of excess calories in adipose tissue. Failure to transport, acquire, and use triglyceride leads to energy deficiency and even death. However, overabundance of triglyceride can damage and impair tissues. Circulating lipoprotein-associated triglycerides are lipolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase. We inhibited these enzymes and showed that LpL inhibition reduces high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by >50%, and hepatic triglyceride lipase inhibition shifts low-density lipoprotein to larger, more buoyant particles...
April 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375180/designing-a-food-tax-to-impact-food-related-non-communicable-diseases-the-case-of-chile
#8
Juan Carlos Caro, Lindsey Smith-Taillie, Shu Wen Ng, Barry Popkin
The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy dense ultra-processed foods is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), causing significant health costs. Chile has the highest SSB consumption in the world, very high junk food intake and very rapid increases in these poor components of the diet plus obesity prevalence. This study's purpose is to compare the effect of different tax schemes for SSBs and ultra-processed foods on nutrient availability, utilizing price-elasticities, which are estimated from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2011-2012 Income and Expenditure survey...
August 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369749/calorie-labeling-promotes-dietary-self-control-by-shifting-the-temporal-dynamics-of-health-and-taste-attribute-integration-in-overweight-individuals
#9
Seung-Lark Lim, Molly T Penrod, Oh-Ryeong Ha, Jared M Bruce, Amanda S Bruce
Understanding why people make unhealthy food choices and how to promote healthier choices is critical to prevent obesity. Unhealthy food choices may occur when individuals fail to consider health attributes as quickly as taste attributes in their decisions, and this bias may be modifiable by health-related external cues. One hundred seventy-eight participants performed a mouse-tracking food-choice task with and without calorie information. With the addition of calorie information, participants made healthier choices...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247796/theta-burst-modulation-of-mid-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-affects-salience-coding-in-the-human-ventral-tegmental-area
#10
Martin Ulrich, Sabrina Lorenz, Markus W Spitzer, Leon Steigleder, Thomas Kammer, Georg Grön
In the context of hedonic (over-)eating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a core part of the dopaminergic reward system plays a central role in coding incentive salience of high-caloric food. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether transcranial magnetic theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the right mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (mid-VLPFC) can induce modulation of calorie-sensitive brain activation in the VTA. The prefrontal location for TBS had been predetermined by seed-based resting-state fMRI with a functionally defined portion of the VTA serving as seed region obtained from an independent second fMRI experiment...
April 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148175/treatment-efficacy-of-a-probiotic-preparation-for-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-pilot-trial
#11
Elina Manzhalii, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tetyana Beregova, Wolfgang Stremmel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of a probiotic cocktail containing Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococcus thermophilus on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: In this open-label trial, 75 patients with NASH fed a low-fat/low-calorie diet were randomly divided into the control group and experimental group, with the latter receiving the probiotic cocktail once daily for 12 weeks. RESULTS: All patients were diagnosed with fatty liver by ultrasound examination and had elevated levels of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and slightly increased body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol levels...
December 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097329/two-day-fasting-evokes-stress-but-does-not-affect-mood-brain-activity-cognitive-psychomotor-and-motor-performance-in-overweight-women
#12
Rima Solianik, Artūras Sujeta
The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m(2)) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet...
October 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067887/effects-of-a-cafeteria-diet-on-delay-discounting-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats-alterations-on-dopaminergic-sensitivity
#13
Stephen H Robertson, Erin B Rasmussen
Diet-induced obesity is a laboratory procedure in which nonhuman animals are chronically exposed to a high-fat, high-sugar diet (i.e. cafeteria diet), which results in weight gain, altered sensitivity to reward, and alterations in the dopamine D2 system. To date, few (if any) studies have examined age-related diet-induced obesity effects in a rat model or have used an impulsive choice task to characterize diet-induced behavioral alterations in reward processes. We exposed rats to a cafeteria-style diet for eight weeks starting at age 21 or 70 days...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066375/comparing-five-front-of-pack-nutrition-labels-influence-on-consumers-perceptions-and-purchase-intentions
#14
Mary T Gorski Findling, Paul M Werth, Aviva A Musicus, Marie A Bragg, Dan J Graham, Brian Elbel, Christina A Roberto
In 2011, a National Academy of Medicine report recommended that packaged food in the U.S. display a uniform front-of-package nutrition label, using a system such as a 0-3 star ranking. Few studies have directly compared this to other labels to determine which best informs consumers and encourages healthier purchases. In 2013, we randomized adult participants (N=1247) in an Internet-based survey to one of six conditions: no label control; single traffic light; multiple traffic light; Facts Up Front; NuVal; or 0-3 star ranking...
January 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064475/brain-substrates-of-unhealthy-versus-healthy-food-choices-influence-of-homeostatic-status-and-body-mass-index
#15
I H Harding, Z B Andrews, F Mata, S Orlandea, I Martínez-Zalacaín, C Soriano-Mas, E Stice, A Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Unhealthy dietary choices are a major contributor to harmful weight gain and obesity. This study interrogated the brain substrates of unhealthy versus healthy food choices in vivo, and evaluated the influence of hunger state and body mass index (BMI) on brain activation and connectivity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty adults (BMI: 18-38 kg m(-2)) performed a food-choice task involving preference-based selection between beverage pairs consisting of high-calorie (unhealthy) or low-calorie (healthy) options, concurrent with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891383/a-hypothesis-moderate-consumption-of-alcoholic-beverages-contributes-to-lower-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-t2dm-due-to-scavenging-of-%C3%AE-dicarbonyls-by-several-classes-of-dietary-phytochemicals
#16
Benjamin S Szwergold
The world is experiencing an epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2DM). This has led to increased morbidity and mortality, explosive growth in heath-care budgets and has an even greater, if indirect, impact on societies and economies of the affected countries. While genetic susceptibility to T2DM is a major determinant of its prevalence, changes in life-styles also play a role. One such change has been a transition from traditional diets characterized by low caloric and high nutrient density to calorie-rich but nutrient-poor Western diets...
September 11, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877457/a-ketogenic-diet-extends-longevity-and-healthspan-in-adult-mice
#17
Megan N Roberts, Marita A Wallace, Alexey A Tomilov, Zeyu Zhou, George R Marcotte, Dianna Tran, Gabriella Perez, Elena Gutierrez-Casado, Shinichiro Koike, Trina A Knotts, Denise M Imai, Stephen M Griffey, Kyoungmi Kim, Kevork Hagopian, Fawaz G Haj, Keith Baar, Gino A Cortopassi, Jon J Ramsey, Jose Alberto Lopez-Dominguez
Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854932/a-healthy-approach-to-dietary-fats-understanding-the-science-and-taking-action-to-reduce-consumer-confusion
#18
REVIEW
Ann G Liu, Nikki A Ford, Frank B Hu, Kathleen M Zelman, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Consumers are often confused about nutrition research findings and recommendations. As content experts, it is essential that nutrition scientists communicate effectively. A case-study of the history of dietary fat science and recommendations is presented, summarizing presentations from an Experimental Biology Symposium that addressed techniques for effective scientific communication and used the scientific discourse of public understanding of dietary fats and health as an example of challenges in scientific communication...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743250/child-and-parent-perspectives-on-healthier-side-dishes-and-beverages-in-restaurant-kids-meals-results-from-a-national-survey-in-the-united-states
#19
Eleanor T Shonkoff, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Vanessa M Lynskey, Grace Chan, Meaghan E Glenn, Christina D Economos
BACKGROUND: Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health...
July 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704429/effects-of-coconut-oil-on-glycemia-inflammation-and-urogenital-microbial-parameters-in-female-ossabaw-mini-pigs
#20
Annie E Newell-Fugate, Katherine Lenz, Cassandra Skenandore, Romana A Nowak, Bryan A White, Andrea Braundmeier-Fleming
Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation...
2017: PloS One
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