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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891383/a-hypothesis-moderate-consumption-of-alcoholic-beverages-contributes-to-lower-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-t2dm-due-to-scavenging-of-%C3%AE-dicarbonyls-by-several-classes-of-dietary-phytochemicals
#1
Benjamin S Szwergold
The world is experiencing an epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2DM). This has led to increased morbidity and mortality, explosive growth in heath-care budgets and has an even greater, if indirect, impact on societies and economies of the affected countries. While genetic susceptibility to T2DM is a major determinant of its prevalence, changes in life-styles also play a role. One such change has been a transition from traditional diets characterized by low caloric and high nutrient density to calorie-rich but nutrient-poor Western diets...
September 11, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877457/a-ketogenic-diet-extends-longevity-and-healthspan-in-adult-mice
#2
Megan N Roberts, Marita A Wallace, Alexey A Tomilov, Zeyu Zhou, George R Marcotte, Dianna Tran, Gabriella Perez, Elena Gutierrez-Casado, Shinichiro Koike, Trina A Knotts, Denise M Imai, Stephen M Griffey, Kyoungmi Kim, Kevork Hagopian, Fawaz G Haj, Keith Baar, Gino A Cortopassi, Jon J Ramsey, Jose Alberto Lopez-Dominguez
Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854932/a-healthy-approach-to-dietary-fats-understanding-the-science-and-taking-action-to-reduce-consumer-confusion
#3
REVIEW
Ann G Liu, Nikki A Ford, Frank B Hu, Kathleen M Zelman, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Consumers are often confused about nutrition research findings and recommendations. As content experts, it is essential that nutrition scientists communicate effectively. A case-study of the history of dietary fat science and recommendations is presented, summarizing presentations from an Experimental Biology Symposium that addressed techniques for effective scientific communication and used the scientific discourse of public understanding of dietary fats and health as an example of challenges in scientific communication...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743250/child-and-parent-perspectives-on-healthier-side-dishes-and-beverages-in-restaurant-kids-meals-results-from-a-national-survey-in-the-united-states
#4
Eleanor T Shonkoff, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Vanessa M Lynskey, Grace Chan, Meaghan E Glenn, Christina D Economos
BACKGROUND: Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health...
July 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704429/effects-of-coconut-oil-on-glycemia-inflammation-and-urogenital-microbial-parameters-in-female-ossabaw-mini-pigs
#5
Annie E Newell-Fugate, Katherine Lenz, Cassandra Skenandore, Romana A Nowak, Bryan A White, Andrea Braundmeier-Fleming
Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699145/shifts-in-food-preferences-after-bariatric-surgery-observational-reports-and-proposed-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Natasha Kapoor, Werd Al-Najim, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure and results in long-term weight loss. Alterations in food preference and choices may contribute to the long-term benefits of RYGB. This manuscript reviews the available literature documenting changes in food preference in both humans and experimental animals after RYGB and discusses the current theory on the underlying mechanisms involved...
July 11, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606563/participants-with-pharmacologically-impaired-taste-function-seek-out-more-intense-higher-calorie-stimuli
#7
Corinna A Noel, Meaghan Sugrue, Robin Dando
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests a weaker sense of taste in people with obesity, with the assumption that a debilitated taste response increases the desire for more intensely tasting stimuli to compensate for decreased taste input. However, empirical testing of this supposition remains largely absent. METHOD: In a randomized, repeated measures design, 51 healthy subjects were treated with varying concentrations of a tea containing Gymnema sylvestre (GS), to temporarily and selectively diminish sweet taste perception, or a control tea...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585209/influence-of-antioxidants-on-leptin-metabolism-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#8
REVIEW
Harald Mangge, Christian Ciardi, Kathrin Becker, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Leptin, a hormone made by fat cells regulates appetite and hunger and thus food intake behavior. Interestingly, , food preservatives like sodium sulfite and sodium benzoate and also natural colorant and spice compounds such as curcumin were found to decrease the release of leptin in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, after co-incubation with LPS, which was added to mimic the pro-inflammatory status in obesity. Several of these compounds are well known food antioxidants...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548389/night-shift-work-is-associated-with-poorer-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Areesa Manodpitipong, Sunee Saetung, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Nantaporn Siwasaranond, Thanawat Wongphan, Chotima Sornsiriwong, Pranee Luckanajantachote, Prasitchai Mangjit, Prasit Keesukphan, Stephanie J Crowley, Megan M Hood, Sirimon Reutrakul
The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545455/the-effect-of-weight-loss-on-hdl-subfractions-and-lcat-activity-in-two-genotypes-of-apoa-ii-265t-c-polymorphism
#10
Masoumeh Moradi, Maryam Mahmoudi, Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Roxana Zahirihashemi, Fariba Koohdani
BACKGROUND: People may have different responses to the same environmental changes. It has been reported that genome variations may be responsible for these differences. Also, HDL subfractions may be influenced by different genetic variations. The aim of the present study was to determine gene-diet interactions and to evaluate the influence of weight loss on HDL subfractions between two genotypes of -265 T>C APOA-II polymorphism. METHODS: In the present study, 56 overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from 697 genotype-specified subjects...
May 25, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474121/optimal-nutrition-and-the-ever-changing-dietary-landscape-a-conference-report
#11
A Shao, A Drewnowski, D C Willcox, L Krämer, C Lausted, M Eggersdorfer, J Mathers, J D Bell, R K Randolph, R Witkamp, J C Griffiths
The field of nutrition has evolved rapidly over the past century. Nutrition scientists and policy makers in the developed world have shifted the focus of their efforts from dealing with diseases of overt nutrient deficiency to a new paradigm aimed at coping with conditions of excess-calories, sedentary lifestyles and stress. Advances in nutrition science, technology and manufacturing have largely eradicated nutrient deficiency diseases, while simultaneously facing the growing challenges of obesity, non-communicable diseases and aging...
May 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460894/intravenous-administration-of-oxytocin-in-rats-acutely-decreases-deprivation-induced-chow-intake-but-it-fails-to-affect-consumption-of-palatable-solutions
#12
Anica Klockars, Chloe Brunton, Lu Li, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Despite its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) acutely decreases food intake, most likely via the brainstem and hypothalamic mechanisms. Studies performed to date have focused mainly on the effects of subcutaneous or intraperitoneal OT on the consumption of only solid calorie-dense diets (either standard or high-fat), whereas it is unknown whether, similarly to central OT, peripherally administered peptide reduces intake of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable solutions...
April 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412652/during-yeast-chronological-aging-resveratrol-supplementation-results-in-a-short-lived-phenotype-sir2-dependent
#13
Ivan Orlandi, Giulia Stamerra, Maurizio Strippoli, Marina Vai
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound endowed with interesting biological properties/functions amongst which are its activity as an antioxidant and as Sirtuin activating compound towards SIRT1 in mammals. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are involved in many physiological and pathological processes including aging and age-related diseases. These enzymes are conserved across species and SIRT1 is the closest mammalian orthologue of Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410489/the-contribution-of-urbanization-to-non-communicable-diseases-evidence-from-173-countries-from-1980-to-2008
#14
Yevgeniy Goryakin, Lorenzo Rocco, Marc Suhrcke
It is widely believed that the expanding burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is in no small part the result of major macro-level determinants. We use a large amount of new data, to explore in particular the role played by urbanization - the process of the population shifting from rural to urban areas within countries - in affecting four important drivers of NCDs world-wide: diabetes prevalence, as well as average body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol level and systolic blood pressure. Urbanization is seen by many as a double-edged sword: while its beneficial economic effects are widely acknowledged, it is commonly alleged to produce adverse side effects for NCD-related health outcomes...
March 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387720/gene-diet-interaction-and-precision-nutrition-in-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Yoriko Heianza, Lu Qi
The rapid rise of obesity during the past decades has coincided with a profound shift of our living environment, including unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle, and physical inactivity. Genetic predisposition to obesity may have interacted with such an obesogenic environment in determining the obesity epidemic. Growing studies have found that changes in adiposity and metabolic response to low-calorie weight loss diets might be modified by genetic variants related to obesity, metabolic status and preference to nutrients...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293018/exploring-the-relationship-between-%C3%AE-actinin-3-deficiency-and-obesity-in-mice-and-humans
#16
P J Houweling, Y D Berman, N Turner, K G R Quinlan, J T Seto, N Yang, M Lek, D G Macarthur, G Cooney, K N North
Obesity is a worldwide health crisis, and the identification of genetic modifiers of weight gain is crucial in understanding this complex disorder. A common null polymorphism in the fast fiber-specific gene ACTN3 (R577X) is known to influence skeletal muscle function and metabolism. α-Actinin-3 deficiency occurs in an estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide, and results in reduced muscle strength and a shift towards a more efficient oxidative metabolism. The X-allele has undergone strong positive selection during recent human evolution, and in this study, we sought to determine whether ACTN3 genotype influences weight gain and obesity in mice and humans...
July 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277962/oxidative-challenges-of-avian-migration-a-comparative-field-study-on-a-partial-migrant
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Cas Eikenaar, Emma Källstig, Martin N Andersson, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Caroline Isaksson
Most avian migrants alternate flight bouts, characterized by high metabolic rates, with stopovers, periods of fuel replenishment through hyperphagia. High-energy metabolism and excessive calorie intake shift the balance between damaging prooxidants and antioxidants toward the former. Hence, migration likely affects the oxidative balance of birds. Migratory flight indeed appears to cause oxidative damage; however, whether migration affects the oxidative state of birds at stopover is unclear. Therefore, we compared total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (AOX) and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA; a measure of lipid peroxidation) in the plasma of migrant and resident common blackbirds...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264001/a-camera-phone-based-study-reveals-erratic-eating-pattern-and-disrupted-daily-eating-fasting-cycle-among-adults-in-india
#18
Neelu Jain Gupta, Vinod Kumar, Satchidananda Panda
The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251799/diet-affects-arctic-ground-squirrel-gut-microbial-metatranscriptome-independent-of-community-structure
#19
Jasmine J Hatton, Timothy J Stevenson, C Loren Buck, Khrystyne N Duddleston
We examined the effect of diet on pre-hibernation fattening and the gut microbiota of captive arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We measured body composition across time and gut microbiota density, diversity and function prior to and after five-weeks on control, high-fat, low-fat (18%, 40% and 10% energy from fat, respectively), or restricted calorie (50% of control) diets. Squirrels fattened at the same rate and to the same degree on all diets. Additionally, we found no differences in gut microbiota diversity or short chain fatty acid production across time or with diet...
April 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251782/one-year-calorie-restriction-impacts-gut-microbial-composition-but-not-its-metabolic-performance-in-obese-adolescents
#20
Alicia Ruiz, Tomás Cerdó, Ruy Jáuregui, Dietmar H Pieper, Ascensión Marcos, Alfonso Clemente, Federico García, Abelardo Margolles, Manuel Ferrer, Cristina Campoy, Antonio Suárez
Recent evidence has disclosed a connection between gut microbial glycosidase activity and adiposity in obese. Here, we measured microbial α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase activities and sorted fluorescently labeled β-galactosidase containing (βGAL) microorganisms in faecal samples of eight lean and thirteen obese adolescents that followed a controlled calorie restriction program during one year. β-galactosidase is a highly distributed functional trait, mainly expressed by members of Blautia, Bacteroides, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter and Propionibacterium...
April 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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