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Endurance exercise

P Abreu, K F Vitzel, I C C R Monteiro, T I Lima, A N Queiroz, J H Leal-Cardoso, S M Hirabara, V M Ceccatto
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Christopher Ballmann, Yawen Tang, Zachary Bush, Glenn C Rowe
Exercise has been shown to be the best intervention in the treatment of many diseases. Many of the benefits of exercise are mediated by adaptions induced in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family of transcriptional coactivators has emerged as being key mediators of the exercise response and is considered to be essential for many of the adaptions seen in skeletal muscle. However, the contribution of the PGC-1s in skeletal muscle has been evaluated by the use of either whole body or congenital skeletal muscle-specific deletion...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
I A Välimäki, T Vuorimaa, M Ahotupa, T Vasankari
We studied the effects of different types of exercises on the concentrations of oxidised HDL (oxHDLlipids) and LDL lipids (oxLDLlipids), serum lipids, antioxidant potential, paraoxonase and malondialdehyde in endurance runners by performing both a 40-min continuous run (velocity corresponding to 80% VO2max) and a 40-min intermittent run (2-min run, velocity corresponding to 100% VO2max, and 2-min rest) using a treadmill. Blood samples were taken before exercise, after 20 and 40 min of exercise, and 15 and 90 min after the end of exercise...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Emmanuelle Chaléat-Valayer, Angélique Denis, Kariman Abelin-Genevois, Amélie Zelmar, Fabienne Siani-Trebern, Sandrine Touzet, Alain Bergeret, Cyrille Colin, Jean-Baptiste Fassier
OBJECTIVE: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common and recurrent condition, but the evidence is scarce about effective strategies to prevent recurrence and disability in the longer term. This study investigated the effect of a light exercise program, initiated in the workplace and continued at home, in reducing recurrence of LBP episodes among healthcare workers. METHODS: A total of 353 healthcare workers from ten hospitals were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and were randomized to the intervention or control groups, the latter of which received usual care...
October 3, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Joshua H F Cooper, Blake E G Collins, David R Adams, Robert A Robergs, Cheyne E Donges
Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether "active" or "passive" recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m(2)) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk(-1) ET (n = 15; 50-60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4-10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Florian Husmann, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Matthias Weippert, Anett Mau-Moeller, Sven Bruhn, Martin Behrens
PURPOSE: Despite growing interest in task-dependent alterations of central and peripheral fatigue following endurance exercise, little is known about the impact of rowing on quadriceps muscle fatigue. This study aimed to investigate central and peripheral mechanisms of fatigue following a 2000-m rowing time-trial. METHODS: Eight competitive rowers (4 males, 4 females, 20 ± 4 years) performed a 2000-m time-trial on an indoor rower and a control condition (sitting)...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
The hemorheological theory of optimal hematocrit suggests that the best value of hematocrit (hct) should be that which results in the highest value of the hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio. Trained athletes compared to sedentary subjects have a lower hct, but a higher h/η, and endurance training reduces the discrepancy between the actual hct and the ⪡ideal⪢ hct that can be predicted with a theoretical curve of h/ηvs hct constructed with Quemada's model. In this study we investigated what becomes this homeostasis of h/η and hct during acute exercise in 19 athletes performing a 25 min exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ross Beaumont, Philip Cordery, Mark Funnell, Stephen Mears, Lewis James, Phillip Watson
This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (<75 mg · day(-1)) were randomly assigned to ingest caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg(-1)day(-1); titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O2peak and Wmax (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg(-1) caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla])...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Apostolos Tsimploulis, Michael Doumas, Andreas Pittaras, Charles Faselis, Jonathan Myers, Peter Kokkinos
OBJECTIVE: Chronological aging in healthy subjects is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, endurance, and aerobic fitness. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related dysfunctions. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the impact of increased exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Andrew D Schreiner, Brad A Keith, Karen E Abernathy, Jingwen Zhang, Walter A Brzezinski
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data comparing the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in swimmers to a general internal medicine population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
L Angius, B Pageaux, J Hopker, S M Marcora, A R Mauger
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can increase cortical excitability of a targeted brain area, which may affect endurance exercise performance. However, optimal electrode placement for tDCS remains unclear. We tested the effect of two different tDCS electrode montages for improving exercise performance. Nine subjects underwent a control (CON), placebo (SHAM) and two different tDCS montage sessions in a randomised design. In one tDCS session, the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and the cathodal on contralateral forehead (HEAD), while for the other montage the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and cathodal electrode above the shoulder (SHOULDER)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Martin J MacInnis, Martin J Gibala
Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (VO2max ) and mitochondrial content...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
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