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Blood purification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433611/preanalytical-variables-for-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-analysis-of-human-blood-specimens
#1
REVIEW
Gian Luca Salvagno, Elisa Danese, Giuseppe Lippi
The use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for both diagnostics and research purposes is rapidly growing in clinical laboratories. As for more conventional areas of in vitro diagnostic testing, many preanalytical variables have an impact on these techniques and may hence jeopardize the quality of tests results. The leading preanalytical variables include patient preparation, the nature of the blood collection tubes and additives, interference from spurious hemolysis, sample handling and management, composition of blood tubes, contamination, as well as storage conditions...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427957/pcr-based-identification-of-trypanosoma-lewisi-and-trypanosoma-musculi-using-maxicircle-kinetoplast-dna
#2
Xiao-Kun Hong, Xuan Zhang, Octavio Alejandro Fusco, You-Gen Lan, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai
Trypanosoma lewisi, transmitted by rat fleas, is a widespread pathogen specific to rats with records of human infection cases. Its closely related species with global distribution, Trypanosoma musculi, is transmitted between mice by ingestion of infected fleas. These trypanosomes are of similar morphology, making it difficult to distinguish them by microscopy. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable PCR method for the diagnosis of T. lewisi and T. musculi. The T. lewisi-specific amplicons were not produced by other Trypanosoma, such as T...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416510/erythrocyte-sialoglycoproteins-engage-siglec-9-on-neutrophils-to-suppress-activation
#3
Anel Lizcano, Ismael Secundino, Simon Döhrmann, Ross Corriden, Cristina Rohena, Sandra Diaz, Pradipta Ghosh, Lingquan Deng, Victor Nizet, Ajit Varki
Healthy blood neutrophils are functionally quiescent in the bloodstream, have a short lifespan, and exit the circulation to carry out innate immune functions, or undergo rapid apoptosis and macrophage-mediated clearance to mitigate host tissue damage. Limitation of unnecessary intravascular neutrophil activation is also important to prevent serious inflammatory pathologies. Since neutrophils become easily activated after purification, we carried out ex vivo comparisons with neutrophils maintained in whole blood...
April 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414907/cell-isolation-and-recovery-using-hollow-glass-microspheres-coated-with-nanolayered-films-for-applications-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
Ziye Dong, Caroline C Ahrens, Dan Yu, Zhenya Ding, HyunTaek Lim, Wei Li
Established cell isolation and purification techniques such as FACS, isolation through magnetic micro/nano-particles and recovery via microfluidic devices have limited application as disposable technologies appropriate for point-of-care use in remote areas where lab equipment as well as electrical, magnetic, and optical sources are restricted. We report a simple yet effective method for cell isolation and recovery that requires neither specialized lab equipment nor any form of power source. Specifically, self-floating hollow glass microspheres were coated with an enzymatically degradable nanolayered film, and conjugated with antibodies to allow both fast capture and release of subpopulations of cells from a cell mixture...
April 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414780/sensitive-quantification-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#5
Sara Morón-López, Maria C Puertas, Cristina Gálvez, Jordi Navarro, Anna Carrasco, Maria Esteve, Josep Manyé, Manel Crespo, Maria Salgado, Javier Martinez-Picado
BACKGROUND: The implementation of successful strategies to achieve an HIV cure has become a priority in HIV research. However, the current location and size of HIV reservoirs is still unknown since there are limited tools to evaluate HIV latency in viral sanctuaries such as gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). As reported in the so called "Boston Patients", despite undetectable levels of proviral HIV-1 DNA in blood and GALT, viral rebound happens in just few months after ART interruption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409329/purification-of-leukemic-blast-cells-from-blood-smears-using-laser-microdissection
#6
Hidemasa Matsuo, Shuichi Shiga, Tsuyoshi Imai, Yasuhiko Kamikubo, Tsutomu Toki, Kiminori Terui, Etsuro Ito, Souichi Adachi
In treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), prognostic factors, including gene mutation and abnormal gene expression, enable risk stratification of patients. However, in the case of a small proportion of leukemic blast cells, such as AML associated with Down syndrome (AML-DS), it is not possible to examine prognostic factors precisely due to the large proportion of normal cells. Here, we present a novel method for examining prognostic factors by making a smear on a membrane slide glass from a small amount of diagnostic specimen and collecting highly pure leukemic blast cells by laser microdissection (LMD)...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400185/purification-and-characterization-of-cc-lec-c-type-lactose-binding-lectin-a-platelet-aggregation-and-blood-clotting-inhibitor-from-cerastes-cerastes-venom
#7
Saoud Samah, Chérifi Fatah, Berjeaud Jean-Marc, Kellou-Taîri Safia, Laraba-Djebari Fatima
In this study, we reported for the first time the biochemical and structural characterization of Cc-Lec, a C-type lectin purified from Cerastes cerastes venom by affinity chromatography. This lectin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE, and was shown to be a 34 271.59Da polypeptide by Electrospray mass spectrometry MS-ES-TOF. Its identified sequence of 160 amino acids corresponding to one subunit, revealed a high identity with other related proteins. Cc-Lec modeled 3D structure appeared as homodimer cross-linked by one disulfide bridge...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397716/analysis-of-factors-associated-with-death-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-a-multicenter-study-in-china
#8
Kang-Kang Song, De-Long Zhao, Yuan-Da Wang, Yong Wang, Xue-Feng Sun, Li-Ning Miao, Zhao-Hui Ni, Hong-Li Lin, Fu-You Liu, Ying Li, Ya-Ni He, Nian-Song Wang, Cai-Li Wang, Ai-Hua Zhang, Meng-Hua Chen, Xiao-Ping Yang, Yue-Yi Deng, Feng-Min Shao, Shu-Xia Fu, Jing-Ai Fang, Guang-Yan Cai, Xiang-Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Patients on hemodialysis have a high-mortality risk. This study analyzed factors associated with death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). While some studies used baseline data of MHD patients, this study used the most recent data obtained from patients just prior to either a primary endpoint or the end of the study period to find the characteristics of patients preceding death. METHODS: Participants were selected from 16 blood purification centers in China from January 2012 to December 2014...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395659/abelmoschus-manihot-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-versus-losartan-potassium-for-treating-iga-nephropathy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Ping Li, Yi-Zhi Chen, Hong-Li Lin, Zhao-Hui Ni, Yong-Li Zhan, Rong Wang, Hong-Tao Yang, Jing-Ai Fang, Nian-Song Wang, Wen-Ge Li, Xue-Feng Sun, Xiang-Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerular diseases worldwide, but effective therapy remains limited and many patients progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I)/angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) show a high level of evidence (1B level) of being of value in the treatment for IgAN according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. However, traditional Chinese medicine has raised attention in kidney disease research...
April 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382617/the-relationship-between-extent-of-hemoglobin-purification-and-the-performance-characteristics-of-a-blood-based-flocculant
#10
Rafael A Garcia, Lorelie P Bumanlag, George J Piazza
BACKGROUND: Whole blood is a highly complex substance. Hemoglobin, the most abundant blood protein, can function as a flocculant; most of the other blood components exhibit poor flocculant activity. For the purpose of processing raw whole blood into a flocculant product, the practical value of hemoglobin purification is uncertain. RESULTS: This study compares the flocculant performance of whole blood to that of three different semi-purified hemoglobin preparations...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376984/insulin-almost-a-century-of-lifesaving
#11
(no author information available yet)
The identification and purification of insulin in 1922 changed life for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Its discovery was, to a certain extent, serendipitous. Although medical researchers suspected that some type of hormone was responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, by the end of the 19th century they had made little progress. When World War I broke out, efforts stalled. A somewhat cantankerous group of Canadian researchers led by Frederick Grant Banting, a surgeon, are credited with insulin's discovery...
April 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375125/hypoglycemic-and-hypocholesterolemic-activity-of-leave-of-few-medicinal-plants-against-steptozotocin-induced-hyperglycemia
#12
Asma Ahmed Asma Ahmed, Muhammad Gulfraz, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Rehmatullah Qureshi, Shabnam Bibi, Syed Imam Shah
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is universal of the hormonal problem and Type II diabetes is foremost obstacle. Accessible management in medicine has numerous contrary paraphernalia. Medical flora shows an essential part in managing diabetes specifically in unindustrialized nations. The present study was done on leaves of Rhazya stricta Decane, Adhatoda zeylanica, Berberis lycium Royle and Olea furrrignea, whose methanolic extracts were used to check their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity by using glucometer and kit method respectively in blood of male and female albino mice Balb C...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373281/an-immunoaffinity-based-method-for-isolating-ultrapure-adult-astrocytes-based-on-atp1b2-targetting-by-the-acsa-2-antibody
#13
Mykhailo Y Batiuk, Filip de Vin, Sandra I Duqué, Chen Li, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido, Mark Fiers, T Grant Belgard, Matthew G Holt
Astrocytes are a major cell type in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are now known to play a number of essential roles in processes including synapse formation and function, as well as blood brain barrier formation and control of cerebral blood flow. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying astrocyte development and function is still rudimentary (1). This lack of knowledge is at least partly due to the lack of tools currently available for astrocyte biology. ACSA-2 is a commercially available antibody originally developed for the isolation of astrocytes from young postnatal mouse brain, using magnetic cell sorting methods, but its utility in isolating cells from adult tissue has not yet been published...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371169/a-rapid-method-for-quantifying-cytoplasmic-versus-nuclear-localization-in-endogenous-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-by-conventional-flow-cytometry
#14
George C Brittain, Sergei Gulnik
A biochemical system and method have been developed to enable the quantitative measurement of cytoplasmic versus nuclear localization within cells in whole blood. Compared with the analyses of nuclear localization by western blot or fluorescence microscopy, this system saves a lot of time and resources by eliminating the necessity of purification and culturing steps, and generates data that are free from the errors and artifacts associated with using tumor cell lines or calculating nuclear signals from 2D images...
April 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364041/galectin-3-interacts-with-the-cell-surface-glycoprotein-cd146-mcam-muc18-and-induces-secretion-of-metastasis-promoting-cytokines-from-vascular-endothelial-cells
#15
Florent Colomb, Weikun Wang, Deborah Simpson, Mudaser Zafar, Robert Beynon, Jonathan M Rhodes, Lu-Gang Yu
The galactoside-binding protein galectin-3 is increasingly recognized as an important player in cancer development, progression, and metastasis via its interactions with various galactoside-terminated glycans. We have previously shown that circulating galectin-3, that is increased by up to 30-fold in cancer patients, promotes blood-borne metastasis in an animal cancer model. This effect is partly attributable to galectin-3 interaction with unknown receptor(s) on vascular endothelial cells and causes endothelial secretion of several metastasis-promoting cytokines...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357590/non-machinery-dialysis-that-achieves-blood-purification-therapy-without-using-full-scale-dialysis-machines
#16
Takaya Abe, Mistutaka Onoda, Tomohiko Matsuura, Jun Sugimura, Wataru Obara, Toshiya Sato, Mihoko Takahashi, Kenta Chiba, Tomiya Abe
An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357359/chemical-proteomics-approach-reveals-the-direct-targets-and-the-heme-dependent-activation-mechanism-of-artemisinin-in-plasmodium-falciparum-using-an-artemisinin-based-activity-probe
#17
COMMENT
Jigang Wang, Qingsong Lin
Artemisinin and its analogues are currently the most effective anti-malarial drugs. The activation of artemisinin requires the cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in the presence of iron sources. Once activated, artemisinins attack macromolecules through alkylation and propagate a series of damages, leading to parasite death. Even though several parasite proteins have been reported as artemisinin targets, the exact mechanism of action (MOA) of artemisinin is still controversial and its high potency and specificity against the malaria parasite could not be fully accounted for...
April 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353351/effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-on-respiratory-system-mechanics-in-a-murine-model-of-neonatal-lung-injury
#18
David R Mills, Quanfu Mao, Sharon Chu, Kate Falcon Girard, Morey Kraus, James F Padbury, Monique E De Paepe
BACKGROUND: Mononuclear cells (MNCs) have well-documented beneficial effects in a wide range of adult pulmonary diseases. The effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived MNCs on neonatal lung injury, highly relevant for potential autologous application in preterm newborns at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), remain incompletely established. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term morphologic and functional effects of systemically delivered MNCs in a murine model of neonatal lung injury...
March 29, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351895/magnetic-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-microspheres-for-affinity-purification-of-antibodies-for-early-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#19
Daniel Horak, Helena Hlidkova, Yurii Kit, Rostyslav Stoika, Volodymyr Antonyuk, Severyn Myronovsky
The aim of this work is to develop new magnetic polymer microspheres with functional groups available for easy protein and antibody binding. Monodisperse macroporous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA-COOH) microspheres ca. 4 µm in diameter and containing ~ 1 mmol COOH/g were synthesized by multistep swelling polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), and [(methoxycarbonyl)methoxy]ethyl methacrylate (MCMEMA), which was followed by MCMEMA hydrolysis. The microspheres were rendered magnetic by precipitation of iron oxide inside the pores, which made them easily separable in a magnetic field...
March 28, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343448/hemoadsorption-by-cytosorb-in-septic-patients-a-case-series
#20
Klaus Kogelmann, Dominik Jarczak, Morten Scheller, Matthias Drüner
BACKGROUND: Septic shock, defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is a highly lethal condition that causes substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. One of the hallmarks of sepsis is the excessive release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators causing refractory hypotension, tissue damage, metabolic acidosis and ultimately multiple organ failure. In this context, cytokine reduction by hemoadsorption represents a new concept for blood purification, developed to attenuate the overwhelming systemic levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators released in the early phase of sepsis...
March 27, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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