Read by QxMD icon Read

Cre microglia

Robert H LeBlanc, Ruiya Chen, Magdy H Selim, Khalid A Hanafy
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease that affects over 30,000 Americans per year. Previous animal studies have explored the therapeutic effects of deferoxamine (DFX) via its iron-chelating properties after SAH, but none have assessed the necessity of microglial/macrophage heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 or Hmox1) in DFX neuroprotection, nor has the efficacy of an intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration route been fully examined. We explored the therapeutic efficacy of systemic and ICV DFX in a SAH mouse model and its effect on microglial/macrophage HO-1...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Rentaro Okazaki, Toru Doi, Kentaro Hayakawa, Kazuhito Morioka, Osamu Imamura, Kunio Takishima, Makoto Hamanoue, Yasuhiro Sawada, Motoshi Nagao, Sakae Tanaka, Toru Ogata
BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is a crucial component of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Although the initiation of inflammatory processes by the production of cytokines and chemokines by immune cells is well characterized, the processes of inflammatory aggravation of demyelinating diseases remain obscure. Here, we examined the contribution of Erk2, one of the isoforms of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, to demyelinating inflammation. METHODS: We used the cuprizone-induced demyelinating mouse model...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Roham Parsa, Harald Lund, Ivana Tosevski, Xing-Mei Zhang, Ursula Malipiero, Jan Beckervordersandforth, Doron Merkler, Marco Prinz, Alexandra Gyllenberg, Tojo James, Andreas Warnecke, Jan Hillert, Lars Alfredsson, Ingrid Kockum, Tomas Olsson, Adriano Fontana, Tobias Suter, Robert A Harris
Intracerebral levels of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) rise rapidly during the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We addressed the role of TGFβ responsiveness in EAE by targeting the TGFβ receptor in myeloid cells, determining that Tgfbr2 was specifically targeted in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) but not in CNS resident microglia by using bone-marrow chimeric mice. TGFβ responsiveness in moDCs was necessary for the remission phase since LysM(Cre) Tgfbr2(fl/fl) mice developed a chronic form of EAE characterized by severe demyelination and extensive infiltration of activated moDCs in the CNS...
November 2016: Glia
Lei Wang, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Annette D de Kloet, Eric G Krause
This study tested the hypothesis that deletion of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1a) from the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) attenuates anxiety-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and cardiovascular reactivity. We used the Cre/LoxP system to generate male mice with AT1a specifically deleted from the PVN. Deletion of the AT1a from the PVN reduced anxiety-like behavior as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In contrast, PVN AT1a deletion had no effect on HPA axis activation subsequent to an acute restraint challenge but did reduce hypothalamic mRNA expression for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
September 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
H-J Kim, M-H Cho, W H Shim, J K Kim, E-Y Jeon, D-H Kim, S-Y Yoon
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders caused by various genetic and environmental factors that result in synaptic abnormalities. ASD development is suggested to involve microglia, which have a role in synaptic refinement during development. Autophagy and related pathways are also suggested to be involved in ASDs. However, the precise roles of microglial autophagy in synapses and ASDs are unknown. Here, we show that microglial autophagy is involved in synaptic refinement and neurobehavior regulation...
July 12, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Daojing Li, Chunjiong Wang, Yang Yao, Li Chen, Guiyou Liu, Rongxin Zhang, Qiang Liu, Fu-Dong Shi, Junwei Hao
Inflammatory factors secreted by microglia play an important role in focal ischemic stroke. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a known regulator of immune responses, but the role that mTORC1 signaling plays in poststroke neuroinflammation is not clear. To explore the relationship between microglial action in the mTORC1 pathway and the impact on stroke, we administered the mTORC1 inhibitors sirolimus and everolimus to mice. Presumably, disrupting the mTORC1 pathway after focal ischemic stroke should clarify the subsequent activity of microglia...
June 24, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Thomas Blank, Marco Prinz
The antibacterial enzyme lysozyme M (LysM) encoded by the Lyz2 gene is broadly expressed in myeloblasts, macrophages, and neutrophils, and thus has been used for a long time as a cell-specific marker for myeloid cells in mice. In order to delete loxP-site flanked genes in myeloid cells, a Cre-recombinase (Cre) expressing mouse line was created by inserting Cre-coding sequence into the translational start site of the LysM gene. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [2016. 46: 1529-1532], Orthgiess et al...
June 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Einat B Vitner, Tamar Farfel-Becker, Natalia Santos Ferreira, Dena Leshkowitz, Piyush Sharma, Karl S Lang, Anthony H Futerman
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a key phenomenon in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which brain inflammation is engaged and delineating the key players in the immune response and their contribution to brain pathology is of great importance for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for these devastating diseases. Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disease, is caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene and is a significant risk factor for Parkinson's disease; in some forms of Gaucher disease, neuroinflammation is observed...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Annette Masuch, Rianne van der Pijl, Lisa Füner, Yochai Wolf, Bart Eggen, Erik Boddeke, Knut Biber
Recent data suggest that ramified microglia fulfil various tasks in the brain. However, to investigate this unique cell type cultured primary microglia are only a poor model. We here describe a method to deplete and repopulate organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) with ramified microglia isolated from adult mouse brain creating microglia-replenished OHSC (Mrep-OHSC). Replenished microglia integrate into the tissue and ramify to a degree indistinguishable from their counterparts in the mouse brain. Moreover, wild-type slices replenished with microglia from TNFα-deficient animals provide similar results as OHSC prepared from microglia-specific TNFα-knockout mice (CX3CR1(cre) /TNFα(fl/fl) )...
August 2016: Glia
Anika Lückoff, Albert Caramoy, Rebecca Scholz, Marco Prinz, Ulrich Kalinke, Thomas Langmann
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss among the elderly. AMD pathogenesis involves chronic activation of the innate immune system including complement factors and microglia/macrophage reactivity in the retina. Here, we show that lack of interferon-β signaling in the retina accelerates mononuclear phagocyte reactivity and promotes choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the laser model of neovascular AMD Complete deletion of interferon-α/β receptor (Ifnar) using Ifnar1(-/-) mice significantly enhanced early microglia and macrophage activation in lesion areas...
2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Agnieszka Dejda, Gaelle Mawambo, Jean-Francois Daudelin, Khalil Miloudi, Naoufal Akla, Chintan Patel, Elisabeth M M A Andriessen, Nathalie Labrecque, Florian Sennlaub, Przemyslaw Sapieha
PURPOSE: Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a transmembrane receptor that is critical for vascular development within the central nervous system (CNS). It binds and influences signaling of several key angiogenic factors, such as VEGF-165, semaphorin 3A, platelet derived growth factor, and more. Neuropilin-1 is expressed by neurons and endothelial cells as well as a subpopulation of proangiogenic macrophages/microglia that are thought to interact with endothelial tip cells to promote vascular anastomosis during brain vascularization...
April 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Nadja Osterberg, Napoleone Ferrara, Jean Vacher, Simone Gaedicke, Gabriele Niedermann, Astrid Weyerbrock, Soroush Doostkam, Hans-Eckart Schaefer, Karl H Plate, Marcia Regina Machein
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas are highly vascularized tumors with a prominent infiltration of macrophages/microglia whose role in promoting glioma growth, invasion, and angiogenesis has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The contribution of myeloid-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to glioma growth was analyzed in vivo in a syngeneic intracranial GL261 glioma model using a Cre/loxP system to knock out the expression of VEGF-A in CD11b + myeloid cells...
July 2016: Neuro-oncology
Ihsan Ekin Demir, Elke Tieftrunk, Stephan Schorn, Ömer Cemil Saricaoglu, Paulo L Pfitzinger, Steffen Teller, Kun Wang, Christine Waldbaur, Magdalena U Kurkowski, Sonja Maria Wörmann, Victoria E Shaw, Timo Kehl, Melanie Laschinger, Eithne Costello, Hana Algül, Helmut Friess, Güralp O Ceyhan
OBJECTIVE: The impact of glia cells during GI carcinogenesis and in cancer pain is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism how Schwann cells (SCs) become activated in the pancreatic cancer (PCa) microenvironment and influence spinal activity and pain sensation. DESIGN: Human SCs were exposed to hypoxia, to pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and/or to T-lymphocytes. Both SC and intrapancreatic nerves of patients with PCa with known pain severity were assessed for glial intermediate filament and hypoxia marker expression, proliferation and for transcriptional alterations of pain-related targets...
June 2016: Gut
Zhonghui Guan, Julia A Kuhn, Xidao Wang, Bradley Colquitt, Carlos Solorzano, Smitha Vaman, Andrew K Guan, Zoe Evans-Reinsch, Joao Braz, Marshall Devor, Sherry L Abboud-Werner, Lewis L Lanier, Stavros Lomvardas, Allan I Basbaum
Although microglia have been implicated in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, the manner by which injured sensory neurons engage microglia remains unclear. We found that peripheral nerve injury induced de novo expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) in injured sensory neurons. CSF1 was transported to the spinal cord, where it targeted the microglial CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). Cre-mediated sensory neuron deletion of Csf1 completely prevented nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and reduced microglial activation and proliferation...
January 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Margaret A Hamner, Zucheng Ye, Richard V Lee, Jamie R Colman, Thu Le, Davin C Gong, Bruce R Ransom, Jonathan R Weinstein
UNLABELLED: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon whereby brief ischemic exposure confers tolerance to a subsequent ischemic challenge. IPC has not been studied selectively in CNS white matter (WM), although stroke frequently involves WM. We determined whether IPC is present in WM and, if so, its mechanism. We delivered a brief in vivo preconditioning ischemic insult (unilateral common carotid artery ligation) to 12- to 14-week-old mice and determined WM ischemic vulnerability [oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)] 72 h later, using acutely isolated optic nerves (CNS WM tracts) from the preconditioned (ipsilateral) and control (contralateral) hemispheres...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Edel Kavanagh, Miguel Angel Burguillos, Alejandro Carrillo-Jimenez, María José Oliva-Martin, Martiniano Santiago, Johanna Rodhe, Bertrand Joseph, Jose Luis Venero
Increasing evidence involves sustained pro-inflammatory microglia activation in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently uncovered a completely novel and unexpected role for caspase-8 and its downstream substrates caspase-3/7 in the control of microglia activation and associated neurotoxicity to dopaminergic cells. To demonstrate the genetic evidence, mice bearing a floxed allele ofCASP8 were crossed onto a transgenic line expressing Cre under the control of Lysozyme 2 gene...
September 2015: Aging
Karolina Kucharova, William B Stallcup
BACKGROUND: The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by several cell types in demyelinated lesions and has important effects on the biology of these cells. Here we determine the cell-type-specific roles of NG2 in the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) and myeloid cell contributions to demyelination and remyelination. METHODS: We have used Cre-Lox technology to dissect the cell-type-specific contributions of NG2 to myelin damage and repair. Demyelination is induced by microinjection of 1 % lysolecithin into the spinal cord white matter of control, OPC-specific NG2-null (OPC-NG2ko), and myeloid-specific NG2-null (My-NG2ko) mice...
2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Anett Ketscher, Stephanie Ketterer, Susanne Dollwet-Mack, Ulrike Reif, Thomas Reinheckel
Cathepsin D (Ctsd) is a ubiquitously expressed aspartic protease functioning primarily in the acidic endosomal/lysosomal cell compartment. At an age of 26 ± 1 days, mice with constitutive Ctsd deficiency (Ctsd(-/-)) die from a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease equivalent to the congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) type 10 in humans. In addition to neurodegeneration, Ctsd(-/-) mice exhibit a loss of CD4(+)/CD8(+)-double-positive thymocytes and an atrophy of the intestinal mucosa. To date, it is not understood if and how these phenotypes are triggering each other...
March 2016: Biochimie
Christian J Hoffmann, Ulrike Harms, Andre Rex, Frank Szulzewsky, Susanne A Wolf, Ulrike Grittner, Gisela Lättig-Tünnemann, Michael Sendtner, Helmut Kettenmann, Ulrich Dirnagl, Matthias Endres, Christoph Harms
BACKGROUND: Poststroke angiogenesis contributes to long-term recovery after stroke. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is a key regulator for various inflammatory signals and angiogenesis. It was the aim of this study to determine its function in poststroke outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated a tamoxifen-inducible and endothelial-specific Stat3 knockout mouse model by crossbreeding Stat3(floxed/KO) and Tie2-Cre(ERT2) mice. Cerebral ischemia was induced by 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
May 19, 2015: Circulation
Wei Su, John Kang, Bryce Sopher, James Gillespie, Macarena S Aloi, Guy L Odom, Stephanie Hopkins, Amanda Case, David B Wang, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Gwenn A Garden
Microglia are a specialized population of myeloid cells that mediate CNS innate immune responses. Efforts to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate microglia behaviors have been hampered by the lack of effective tools for manipulating gene expression. Cultured microglia are refractory to most chemical and electrical transfection methods, yielding little or no gene delivery and causing toxicity and/or inflammatory activation. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAVs) vectors are non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA vectors commonly used to transduce many primary cell types and tissues...
January 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"