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Hari Shankar, Demetri Blanas, Kian Bichoupan, Daouda Ndiaye, Ellie Carmody, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Joan Culpepper-Morgan, Dougles T Dieterich, Andrea D Branch, Mulusew Bekele, Kim Nichols, Ponni V Perumalswami
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African nations have among the highest rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide, but little is known about HBV infection in African-born persons in the United States. METHODS: From October 2011 to July 2013, community-based HBV screenings were conducted targeting persons originating from Africa in New York City. Persons were identified as currently HBV infected (HBsAg positive) or exposed (HBcAb positive). RESULTS: Overall, 955 persons were screened for HBV; the median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 35-54 years) and 75...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Bernardo C Mendes, Gustavo S Oderich
Endovascular repair has been increasingly used to treat thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms using patient-specific or off-the-shelf fenestrated and branched stent grafts. Device customization limits the application of patient-specific devices in patients who need urgent or emergency repair because of ruptured or large, rapidly expanding aneurysms. For these patients, an off-the-shelf multibranched stent graft, the t-Branch stent graft (Cook Medical, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) has been developed based on the relative predictability of visceral vessel anatomy, allowing incorporation and intraoperative customization of target vessels with four down-going directional branches...
May 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
P V Perumalswami, N Patel, K Bichoupan, L Ku, R Yalamanchili, A Harty, D Motamed, V Khaitova, C Chang, P Grewal, L Liu, T D Schiano, M Woodward, D T Dieterich, A D Branch
To conduct surveillance and determine the safety profile of new hepatitis C virus treatments in real-world clinical practice. Hepatic decompensation and other serious adverse events were investigated in an observational cohort study of 511 patients treated with regimens containing sofosbuvir, December 2013-June 2014. Among 499 previously stable patients (no history of hepatic decompensation during the previous 12 months), a nested case-control study was performed to identify predictors of decompensation/serious adverse event...
September 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
David Del Bello, Agnes Cha, Maria Sorbera, Kian Bichoupan, Calley Levine, Erin Doyle, Alyson Harty, Neal Patel, Michel Ng, Donald Gardenier, Joseph Odin, Thomas D Schiano, Daniel S Fierer, Leonard Berkowitz, Ponni V Perumalswami, Douglas T Dieterich, Andrea D Branch
BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) achieve high sustained virological response (SVR) rates on sofosbuvir (SOF)-containing regimens in clinical trials. Real world data on patients coinfected with HCV and HIV treated with SOF-based regimens are lacking. METHODS: This observational cohort study included HIV/HCV-coinfected adults with genotype 1 HCV who initiated treatment with a SOF-containing regimen between December 2013 and December 2014 (n = 89) at the Mount Sinai Hospital or the Brooklyn Hospital Center...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Theodosios Bisdas, Martin Austermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Adib Khanafer, Manar Khashram, Carmen-Maria Ruiz, Dana Mann, Andrew Laing
PURPOSE: To report the use of the off-the-shelf Zenith t-Branch Thoracoabdominal Endovascular Graft for the treatment of a symptomatic acute type Ia endoleak subsequent to previous infrarenal bifurcated endovascular aneurysm repair. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old man presented 4 years after implantation of an Anaconda stent-graft with sac expansion and type II endoleak, which was treated over the next 18 months with repeated coil and glue embolization of the leak and sac...
February 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Juliana Houghton, Marla M Holt, Deborah A Giles, M Bradley Hanson, Candice K Emmons, Jeffrey T Hogan, Trevor A Branch, Glenn R VanBlaricom
Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated noise. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated noise on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies...
2015: PloS One
Els Herremans, Pieter Verboven, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Dennis Cantre, Mattias van Dael, Thomas De Schryver, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Bart M Nicolaï
The void network and vascular system are important pathways for the transport of gases, water and solutes in apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh). Here we used X-ray micro-tomography at various spatial resolutions to investigate the growth of these transport structures in 3D during fruit development of "Jonagold" apple. The size of the void space and porosity in the cortex tissue increased considerably. In the core tissue, the porosity was consistently lower, and seemed to decrease toward the end of the maturation period...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ildiko Van Rhijn, Dale I Godfrey, Jamie Rossjohn, D Branch Moody
The antigen-presenting molecules CD1 and MHC class I-related protein (MR1) display lipids and small molecules to T cells. The antigen display platforms in the four CD1 proteins are laterally asymmetrical, so that the T cell receptor (TCR)-binding surfaces are comprised of roofs and portals, rather than the long grooves seen in the MHC antigen-presenting molecules. TCRs can bind CD1 proteins with left-sided or right-sided footprints, creating unexpected modes of antigen recognition. The use of tetramers of human CD1a, CD1b, CD1c or MR1 proteins now allows detailed analysis of the human T cell repertoire, which has revealed new invariant TCRs that bind CD1b molecules and are different from those that define natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells...
October 2015: Nature Reviews. Immunology
S H Rossi, A Patel, P Saha, A Gwozdz, R Salter, P Gkoutzios, T Carrell, S Abisi, B Modarai
OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) following endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair is a devastating and unpredictable complication. This study describes a single unit's experience of SCI in patients who have had endovascular TAAA repair. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of patients having endovascular TAAA repair using branched and fenestrated stent grafts between 2008 and 2014 at a single high volume centre was reviewed. Patients who developed neurological symptoms and signs related to SCI were identified and factors associated with onset and recovery of neurology were analysed...
November 2015: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Carlos E Guarnizo, Fernanda P Werneck, Lilian G Giugliano, Marcella G Santos, Jéssica Fenker, Lucas Sousa, Annelise B D'Angiolella, Adriana R Dos Santos, Christine Strüssmann, Miguel T Rodrigues, Tainá F Dorado-Rodrigues, Tony Gamble, Guarino R Colli
The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits...
January 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Fanny Buffetto, Valérie Cornuault, Maja Gro Rydahl, David Ropartz, Camille Alvarado, Valérie Echasserieau, Sophie Le Gall, Brigitte Bouchet, Olivier Tranquet, Yves Verhertbruggen, William G T Willats, J Paul Knox, Marie-Christine Ralet, Fabienne Guillon
Rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) is a pectic polysaccharide composed of a backbone of alternating rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues with side chains containing galactose and/or arabinose residues. The structure of these side chains and the degree of substitution of rhamnose residues are extremely variable and depend on species, organs, cell types and developmental stages. Deciphering RGI function requires extending the current set of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to this polymer. Here, we describe the generation of a new mAb that recognizes a heterogeneous subdomain of RGI...
November 2015: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yunyun Gu, Jie Yu, Xialin Hu, Daqiang Yin
The distributions of alkylphenol (AP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in marine organisms, including fish, prawns and molluscs, could reflect the exposure of AP and BPA directly and effectively. This paper provides the first report on the species-dependent distribution and the human health risks of four APs (4-t-octylphenol, 4-t-OP; 4-octylphenol, 4-OP;4-nonylphenol, 4-NP; 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-n-NP) and BPA in 95 wild and 88 processed marine biota samples from the East China Sea of the Yangtze River Delta area. 4-NP was the predominant compound with the highest detected concentration of 19,890...
January 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Suvrajit Saha, Il-Hyung Lee, Anirban Polley, Jay T Groves, Madan Rao, Satyajit Mayor
Molecular diffusion at the surface of living cells is believed to be predominantly driven by thermal kicks. However, there is growing evidence that certain cell surface molecules are driven by the fluctuating dynamics of cortical cytoskeleton. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we measure the diffusion coefficient of a variety of cell surface molecules over a temperature range of 24-37 °C. Exogenously incorporated fluorescent lipids with short acyl chains exhibit the expected increase of diffusion coefficient over this temperature range...
November 5, 2015: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Tara M Stanne, Mani Shankar Narayanan, Sophie Ridewood, Alexandra Ling, Kathrin Witmer, Manish Kushwaha, Simone Wiesler, Bill Wickstead, Jennifer Wood, Gloria Rudenko
ISWI chromatin remodelers are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are important for the assembly and spacing of nucleosomes, thereby controlling transcription initiation and elongation. ISWI is typically associated with different subunits, forming specialized complexes with discrete functions. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, TbISWI down-regulates RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression sites (ESs), which are monoallelically expressed...
November 6, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Abhishek Gupta, Scott A Willis, Lynne J Waddington, Tim Stait-Gardner, Liliana de Campo, Dennis W Hwang, Nigel Kirby, William S Price, Minoo J Moghaddam
Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9...
September 28, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
Victoria O Kasprowicz, Tan-Yun Cheng, Thumbi Ndung'u, Henry Sunpath, D Branch Moody, Anne G Kasmar
Single-cell analysis captures the heterogeneity of T-cell populations that target defined antigens. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in defects of antimycobacterial immunity, which remain poorly defined. We therefore recruited a small number of subjects, including those with latent and active M. tuberculosis infection, with or without concomitant HIV infection, and tracked the mycobacterial glycolipid-reactive T-cell repertoire by using CD1b tetramers. Glycolipid-reactive T cells expressed memory markers and the HIV coreceptors CD4 and CCR5; they were not detected in subjects with HIV-associated active M...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Taras Bryk, G Ruocco, T Scopigno, Ari P Seitsonen
Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure...
September 14, 2015: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christopher H Renninger, Vanna J Rocchi, Leo T Kroonen
PURPOSE: Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) offers enhanced prosthetic use by harnessing additional neural control from unused nerves in the amputated limb. The purpose of this study was to document the location and number of motor end plates to each muscle commonly used in TMR in the brachium relative to proximally based bony landmarks. METHODS: We dissected 18 matched upper limbs (9 fresh-frozen cadavers). The locations of each of the nerves' muscular insertions into the medial biceps and brachialis were measured relative to the anterolateral tip of the acromion...
November 2015: Journal of Hand Surgery
Elrasheed Osman, Kong T Tan, Leonard Tse, Jeffrey Jaskolka, Graham Roche-Nagle, George Oreopoulos, Barry Rubin, Thomas Lindsay
OBJECTIVE: This study determined the 30-day morbidity and mortality and in-hospital costs of elective fenestrated (fEVAR) and branched (bEVAR) endovascular aneurysm repairs at a single academic institution and determined factors that influence them. METHODS: All elective fEVAR or bEVAR patients treated between November 2007 and March 2014 in a Canadian academic hospital were included. Procedural details, 30-day morbidity and mortality rates, and cost of hospitalization were analyzed...
December 2015: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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