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High flow

Yuri S Ryazantsev, Manuel G Velarde, Eduardo Guzman, Ramón G Rubio, Francisco Ortega, Juan-Jose Montoya
Thermo-capillary stresses on the surface of a drop can be the result of a non-isothermal surface chemical conversion of a reactant dissolved in the host fluid. The strength of heat production (with e.g. absorption) on the surface is ruled by the diffusion of the reactant and depends on the state of motion of the drop. Such thermo-capillary stresses can provoke the motion of the drop or its motionless state in the presence of an external body force. If in the balance of forces, including indeed viscous drag, the net resultant force vanishes there is the possibility of autonomous motion with constant velocity of the drop...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jun Dong, Yang Dong, Chunyu Wen, Song Gao, Liming Ren, Qiburi Bao
Nitrobenzene (NB) is one of the most challenging pollutants for groundwater remediation due to its great harm and recalcitrance. Emulsified nanoscale zero-valent iron (EZVI) is considered as a promising agent for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater for its high reactivity, good durability and low cost. In this paper, 2D tank experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of enhanced remediation of NB-contaminated groundwater with EZVI. 9 L of EZVI solution was injected into aquifer to establish in-situ reactive zone (IRZ) before 40 d of NB contamination...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Ahmad Salawi, Sami Nazzal
Soluplus® is a graft amphiphilic copolymer that is frequently used as an excipient in solid dosage forms as a dissolution and a solubility enhancer. We discovered that Soluplus® can be dissolved in vitamin E. The result is a tacky and highly adhesive material. Our research objective was to evaluate the rheological, adhesive, and textural properties of the Soluplus® /Vitamin E composites. In this study, Soluplus® was dissolved under heat in vitamin E at increasing concentrations from 0 to 40% (by weight)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Minggan Li, Dehi Joung, Dae Kun Hwang
Environment responsive hydrogel structures are of great interests in materials research and have a wide range of applications. By using a flow lithography technique, we report a one-step and high throughput fabrication method for the synthesis of highly pH-responsive hydrogels with designed shape transformations. In this method, heterogeneous hydrogels with porous and nonporous layers are synthesized using a single UV exposure in a microfluidic channel. During the UV polymerization the porous layers, which are formed by using polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS), significantly increase the swelling capability and enhance the swelling rate of the hydrogels...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Niklas Danne-Rasche, Cristina Coman, Robert Ahrends
Nano-liquid chromatography (nLC) - nano-electrospray (NSI) is one of the cornerstones of mass spectrometry based bioanalytics. Nevertheless, the application of nLC is not prevailing lipid analyses so far. In this study, we established a reproducible nLC separation for global lipidomics and describe the merits of using such a miniaturized system for lipid analyses. In order to enable comprehensive lipid analyses that is not restricted to specific lipid classes, we particularly optimized sample preparation conditions and reversed phase separation parameters...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yuting Zhao, Mingming Yang, Qiangqiang Fu, Hui Ouyang, Wei Wen, Yang Song, Chengzhou Zhu, Yuehe Lin, Dan Du
A transparent, lateral-flow test strip coupled with a smartphone-based ambient light sensor was first proposed for detect-ing enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation. The principle of the platform is based on the simultaneous measurement of the total amount of the enzyme and enzyme activity to biomonitor exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. In this study, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was adopted as the model enzyme and ethyl paraoxon was chosen as an analyte representing OP pesticides. The total amount of BChE was quantified by a sensitive colorimetric signal originating from a sandwich immunochromatographic assay utilizing PtPd nanoparticles as a polyphenol oxidase-mimicking probe, which provided a higher sensitivity than that of a peroxidase-like probe...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Mengkai Li, Mengyu Hao, Laxiang Yang, Hong Yao, James R Bolton, Ernest R Blatchley, Zhimin Qiang
The vacuum-ultraviolet/ultraviolet/chlorine (VUV/UV/chlorine) process, with a VUV/UV mercury lamp used as the light source, was found to be a highly efficient advanced oxidation process (AOP) in a previous study. Hence, its application feasibility for trace organic pollutant removal from drinking water becomes attractive. In this work, a bench-scale mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system was used to determine the degradation kinetics of sulfamethazine (SMN), a model sulfonamide antibiotic frequently detected with trace levels in aquatic environments...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Simon C Rowan, Keith D Rochfort, Lucie Piouceau, Philip M Cummins, Malachy O'Rourke, Paul McLoughlin
Fluid filtration in the pulmonary microcirculation depends on the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the endothelium, and the selective permeability of the endothelial barrier. Maintaining normal fluid balance depends both on specific properties of the endothelium and of the perfusing blood. Although some of the essential properties of blood needed to prevent excessive fluid leak have been identified and characterised, our understanding of these remains incomplete. The role of perfusate viscosity in maintaining normal fluid exchange has not previously been examined...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Shao-Li Hong, Ya-Nan Zhang, Ya-Hua Liu, Man Tang, Dai-Wen Pang, Gary Wong, Jianjun Chen, Xiangguo Qiu, George F Gao, Wenjun Liu, Yuhai Bi, Zhi-Ling Zhang
Ebola virus (EBOV) disease is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans, and has caused many deaths. Highly sensitive detection of EBOV is of great importance to early-stage diagnosis for increasing the probability of survival. Herein, we established a cellular beacon-mediated counting strategy for ultrasensitive EBOV assay on a micromagnetic platform. The detection platform that was assisted by on-demand magnetic field manipulation showed high integration, and enhanced complex sample pretreatment ability by magnetophoretic separation and continuous flow washing...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xiaojian Wu, Juliette Experton, Weihuang Xu, Charles R Martin
There are many applications that require the integration of a pump and a chemical sensor so that the solution being pumped can be analyzed in real time for a specific chemical species and the flow adjusted according to the measured concentration of that species. We describe here an alternative strategy - a chemo-responsive pump where a single device acts as both the sensor and pump simultaneously. We demonstrate this concept with a nanofluidic Pb2+ -responsive pump that uses electroosmotic flow (EOF) as the pumping technology, and a Pb2+ -binding ionophore that allows the device to selectively respond to Pb2+ ...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sybille Landwehr-Kenzel, Anne Zobel, Henrike Hoffmann, Niels Landwehr, Michael Schmueck-Henneresse, Thomas Schachtner, Andy Roemhild, Petra Reinke
Novel concepts employing autologous, ex vivo expanded natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) for adoptive transfer has potential to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the impact of dialysis and maintenance immunosuppression on the nTreg phenotype and peripheral survival is not well understood, but essential when assessing patient eligibility. The current study investigates regulatory T-cells in dialysis and kidney transplanted patients and the feasibility of generating a clinically useful nTreg product from these patients...
June 2018: Kidney International
Ewa Korzeniewska, Monika Harnisz
Biological treatment processes at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which are the most common methods of sewage treatment, could cause selective elimination and/or changes in the proportions of phenotypes/genotypes within bacterial populations in effluent. Therefore, WWTPs based on activated sludge used in sewage treatment constitute an important reservoir of enteric bacteria which harbour potentially transferable resistance genes. Together with treated wastewater, these microorganisms can penetrate the soil, surface water, rural groundwater supplies and drinking water...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Björn Scholz-Starke, Li Bo, Andreas Holbach, Stefan Norra, Tilman Floehr, Henner Hollert, Martina Roß-Nickoll, Andreas Schäffer, Richard Ottermanns
Dams have profound impacts on river ecosystems, amongst them inundation of land, altered dynamics of the water body or uprising reservoir backwaters influencing tributary or upstream river sections. Along the outstandingly ecologically important Yangtze River in China, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the largest project, covering an area of 1080 km2 . From the beginning, the dam-project came in for criticism on increasing environmental risks due to sub-merging former industrial and urban areas. We simulated dynamics of biotic and abiotic components of the TGR ecosystem (trophic guilds of aquatic organisms, hydrodynamics, nutrients), as well as the behaviour of the herbicidal substance propanil and its metabolites 3,4-Dichloroaniline (DCA) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazoxybenzene (TCAB)...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anne-Kristin Trützschler, Tanja Bus, Martin Sahn, Anja Traeger, Christine Weber, Ulrich S Schubert
In this study we show the potential of oligo(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (OEtOx) shielded graft copolymers of (2 aminoethyl)-methacrylate (AEMA) and N methyl (2-aminoethyl) methacrylate (MAEMA) for pDNA delivery in HEK cells. Copolymers were synthesized via the macromonomer method using a combination of cationic ring opening polymerization (CROP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to vary the degree of grafting (DG = 10% and 30%) as well as the side chain degree of polymerization (DP = 5 and 20)...
May 23, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Qian Zhao, Yang Hu, Shu Deng, Pei Yu, Bowen Chen, Zuomin Wang, Xiaozhe Han
Local administration of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), agonist cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODNs), and CD40 ligand (CD40L) can decrease ligature-induced periodontal inflammation and bone loss in wild type (WT) mouse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether such effect is dependent on TLR9 signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Purified spleen B cells isolated from WT C57BL/6J mice and TLR9 knockout (KO) mice were cultured for 48 hours under the following conditions: CD40L, CpG+CD40L, CpG at low, medium and high doses...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Mark Ravinet, Kohta Yoshida, Shuji Shigenobu, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Jun Kitano
Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Biswajit Medhi, Gopalakrishna M Hegde, Kalidevapura Jagannath Reddy, Debasish Roy, Ram Mohan Vasu
A method for quantitative estimation of density variation in high-speed flow, which uses light as an interrogating tool, is described. The wavefront distortion of the interrogating beam induced by the compressible flow field is estimated quantitatively, in which the density gradient of the flow field is seen as refractive-index gradient by the probing beam. The distorted wavefront is measured quantitatively by using the cross-sectional intensities of the distorted wavefront along the optical axis. Iterative algorithms are developed using both deterministic (Gauss-Newton) and stochastic (ensemble Kalman filter) update strategies to recover unknown parameters such as the phase of the wavefront or the refractive index distribution in the flow directly from the measured intensities...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Benjamin Bizjan, Brane Širok, Jinpeng Chen
This paper presents an optical method and system for contactless measurement of the mass flow rate of melts by digital cameras. The proposed method is based on reconstruction of melt stream geometry and flow velocity calculation by cross correlation, and is very cost-effective due its modest hardware requirements. Using a laboratory test rig with a small inductive melting pot and reference mass flow rate measurement by weighing, the proposed method was demonstrated to have an excellent dynamic response (0.1 s order of magnitude) while producing deviations from the reference of about 5% in the steady-state flow regime...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Ting-Yu Yi, Wen-Huo Chen, Yan-Min Wu, Mei-Fang Zhang, A-Lai Zhan, Yue-Hong Chen, Zong-Zhong Wu, Yan-Chuan Shi, Bai-Ling Chen
BACKGROUND: The differentiation between intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and intracranial embolism as the immediate cause of acute ischemic stroke requiring endovascular therapy is important but challenging. In cases of ICAS, we often observe a phenomenon we call the microcatheter "first-pass effect," which is temporary blood flow through the occluded intracranial artery when the angiographic microcatheter is initially advanced through the site of total occlusion and immediately retrieved proximally...
May 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
L Li, H Wang, L Hu, X Wu, B Zhao, Z Fan, C Zhang, J Wang, S Wang
Aging salivary glands are characterized by a reduced volume of acini, increased duct volume, decline in the rate of synthesis of proteins and their mRNA, and decreased saliva flow. Sialin is a versatile anion transporter that is highly expressed in salivary glands and may also participate in maintenance of salivary gland function. We investigated age-associated sialin expression in salivary glands. Submandibular glands of mice and human parotid gland were collected at different ages. Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression levels of sialin, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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