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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921554/dj-1-deficiency-impairs-autophagy-and-reduces-alpha-synuclein-phagocytosis-by-microglia
#1
Yuval Nash, Eran Schmukler, Dorit Trudler, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Dan Frenkel
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, of which 1% of the hereditary cases are linked to mutations in DJ-1, an oxidative stress sensor. The pathological hallmark of PD is intercellular inclusions termed Lewy Bodies, composed mainly of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein. Recent findings have shown that α-Syn can be transmitted from cell to cell, suggesting an important role of microglia, as the main scavenger cells of the brain, in clearing α-Syn. We previously reported that the knock down (KD) of DJ-1 in microglia increased cells' neurotoxicity to dopaminergic neurons...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918363/changes-in-zn-homeostasis-during-long-term-culture-of-primary-endothelial-cells-and-effects-of-zn-on-endothelial-cell-senescence
#2
Marco Malavolta, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Elisa Pierpaoli, Mauro Provinciali, Ogo A Ogo, Dianne Ford
Endothelial cell senescence and Zn nutritional status influence cardiovascular disease. The influence of Zn appears dichotomous, hence it is imperative to understand the relationship with cellular senescence to improve knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis of the disease. Here we aimed to determine: 1) the impact of chronic exposure to a moderately high dose of Zn on senescence of endothelial cells; 2) the changes in Zn homeostasis during the lifespan of primary cultured endothelial cells; and 3) the susceptibility of proliferating and senescent endothelial cells to cell death after short term exposure to increasing doses of Zn and of the Zn chelator TPEN...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914645/notch-inhibitors-and-their-role-in-the-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-promises-and-failures
#3
Marzia Locatelli, Giuseppe Curigliano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Notch signaling is a highly evolutionarily conserved cell-to-cell communication system that is involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes, such as development, stem cell maintenance, cell fate specification, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Much progress has been made in understanding Notch signaling. This review will focus on the role of canonical Notch signaling pathway in breast cancer cause and progressing. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we will discuss the results of the studies using drugs, which target the Notch pathway...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913947/extreme-chromosome-17-copy-number-instability-is-a-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Jacqueline E Birkness, Neal G Spada, Caitlyn Miller, James D Luketich, Katie S Nason, Weijing Sun, Jon M Davison
Gastric and esophageal cancers frequently show genomic instability and aneuploidy. Chromosomal copy number instability (CIN) is a form of genomic instability that exerts pleiotropic effects on cellular biology and is a source of genetic heterogeneity in a population of cells. CIN results in cell-to-cell variation in chromosome copy number which can be detected and quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CIN is a biomarker associated with differential response to a number of chemotherapy compounds...
September 14, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912673/improving-the-delivery-of-sod1-antisense-oligonucleotides-to-motor-neurons-using-calcium-phosphate-lipid-nanoparticles
#5
Liyu Chen, Clare Watson, Marco Morsch, Nicholas J Cole, Roger S Chung, Darren N Saunders, Justin J Yerbury, Kara L Vine
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1) in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912528/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-t-regulatory-cells-suppress-t-cell-proliferation-and-prolong-allograft-survival
#6
Sistiana Aiello, Federica Rocchetta, Lorena Longaretti, Silvia Faravelli, Marta Todeschini, Linda Cassis, Francesca Pezzuto, Susanna Tomasoni, Nadia Azzollini, Marilena Mister, Caterina Mele, Sara Conti, Matteo Breno, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Marina Noris, Ariela Benigni
We have previously shown that rat allogeneic DC, made immature by adenoviral gene transfer of the dominant negative form of IKK2, gave rise in-vitro to a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(-) regulatory T cells (dnIKK2-Treg). These cells inhibited Tcell response in-vitro, without needing cell-to-cell contact, and induced kidney allograft survival prolongation in-vivo. Deep insight into the mechanisms behind dnIKK2-Treg-induced suppression of Tcell proliferation remained elusive. Here we document that dnIKK2-Treg release extracellular vesicles (EV) riched in exosomes, fully accounting for the cell-contact independent immunosuppressive activity of parent cells...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912498/reproducible-and-scalable-purification-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-combined-bind-elute-and-size-exclusion-chromatography
#7
Giulia Corso, Imre Mäger, Yi Lee, André Görgens, Jarred Bultema, Bernd Giebel, Matthew J A Wood, Joel Z Nordin, Samir El Andaloussi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication and have been shown to take part in several physiological and pathological processes. EVs have traditionally been purified by ultracentrifugation (UC), however UC has limitations, including resulting in, operator-dependant yields, EV aggregation and altered EV morphology, and moreover is time consuming. Here we show that commercially available bind-elute size exclusion chromatography (BE-SEC) columns purify EVs with high yield (recovery ~ 80%) in a time-efficient manner compared to current methodologies...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912204/microstructure-cell-to-cell-coupling-and-ion-currents-as-determinants-of-electrical-propagation-and-arrhythmogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Jan P Kucera, Stephan Rohr, Andre G Kleber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912183/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#9
REVIEW
Domenico Corrado, Cristina Basso, Daniel P Judge
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder, predisposing to sudden cardiac death, particularly in young patients and athletes. Pathological features include loss of myocytes and fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocardium; biventricular involvement is often observed. It is a cell-to-cell junction cardiomyopathy, typically caused by genetically determined abnormalities of cardiac desmosomes, which leads to detachment of myocytes and alteration of intracellular signal transduction...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910710/outer-nuclear-membrane-fusion-of-adjacent-nuclei-in-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-syncytia
#10
Wei Wang, Lianwei Yang, Xiumin Huang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo...
September 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906477/microrna-signaling-in-embryo-development
#11
REVIEW
Nicole Gross, Jenna Kropp, Hasan Khatib
Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is essential for embryonic development and serves important roles in gametogenesis. miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular environment by the embryo during the preimplantation stage of development. Several cell types secrete miRNAs into biological fluids in the extracellular environment. These fluid-derived miRNAs have been shown to circulate the body. Stable transport is dependent on proper packaging of the miRNAs into extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes. These vesicles, which also contain RNA, DNA and proteins, are on the forefront of research on cell-to-cell communication...
September 14, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904889/challenges-and-unanswered-questions-for-the-next-decade-of-circulating-tumour-cell-research-in-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Sumitra Mohan, Francesca Chemi, Ged Brady
Since blood borne circulating tumour cells (CTCs) initially shed from the primary tumour can seed and initiate metastasis at distant sites a better understanding of the biology of CTCs and their dissemination could provide valuable information that could guide therapeutic intervention and real time monitoring of disease progression. Although CTC enumeration has provided a reliable prognostic readout for a number of cancers, including lung cancer, the precise clinical utility of CTCs remains to be established...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904418/leaf-extracts-of-selected-gardening-trees-can-attenuate-quorum-sensing-and-pathogenicity-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#13
Kaimin Niu, Min Kuk, Haein Jung, Kokgan Chan, Sooki Kim
An increasing concern on resistance to multiple-antibiotics has led to the discovery of novel agents and the establishment of new precaution strategy. Numerous plant sources have been widely studied to reduce virulence of pathogenic bacteria by interfering cell-to-cell based communication called quorum sensing (QS). Leaf extracts of 17 gardening trees were collected and investigated for their anti-QS effects using a sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Methanolic extracts of K4 (Acer palmatum), K9 (Acer pseudosieboldianum) and K13 (Cercis chinensis) leaves were selected for further experiments based on their antagonism effect on QS without inhibiting C...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903980/uniform-gene-expression-in-embryos-is-achieved-by-temporal-averaging-of-transcription-noise
#14
L Carine Stapel, Christoph Zechner, Nadine L Vastenhouw
Transcription is often stochastic. This is seemingly incompatible with the importance of gene expression during development. Here we show that during zebrafish embryogenesis, transcription activation is stochastic due to (1) genes acquiring transcriptional competence at different times in different cells, (2) differences in cell cycle stage between cells, and (3) the stochastic nature of transcription. Initially, stochastic transcription causes large cell-to-cell differences in transcript levels. However, variability is reduced by lengthening cell cycles and the accumulation of transcription events in each cell...
September 13, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903063/cooperative-regulation-of-gja1-expression-by-members-of-the-ap-1-family-cjun-and-cfos-in-tm3-leydig-and-tm4-sertoli-cells
#15
Firas Ghouili, Luc J Martin
Within the testis, connexin43 encoded by Gja1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication between Leydig cells as well as between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In the adult male, Leydig cells are the principal producers of testosterone sustaining spermatogenesis, while Sertoli cells nourish, protect and support the differentiating germ cells. It has been shown previously that members of the AP-1 family regulate Gja1 expression in myometrial cells, suggesting that such regulatory mechanism may also be relevant within the testis...
September 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902153/bacterial-biofilm-control-by-perturbation-of-bacterial-signaling-processes
#16
REVIEW
Tim Holm Jakobsen, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Michael Givskov
The development of effective strategies to combat biofilm infections by means of either mechanical or chemical approaches could dramatically change today's treatment procedures for the benefit of thousands of patients. Remarkably, considering the increased focus on biofilms in general, there has still not been invented and/or developed any simple, efficient and reliable methods with which to "chemically" eradicate biofilm infections. This underlines the resilience of infective agents present as biofilms and it further emphasizes the insufficiency of today's approaches used to combat chronic infections...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901743/guiding-the-growth-of-conductive-filament-by-nano-indentation-to-improve-resistive-switching
#17
Yiming Sun, Cheng Song, Jun Yin, Xianzhe Chen, Qin Wan, Fei Zeng, Feng Pan
Redox-based memristor devices, which are considered as a promising nonvolatile memory, mainly operate through the formation/rupture of nanoscale conductive filaments. However, the random growth of conductive filaments is an obstacle for the stability of memory devices and the cell-to-cell uniformity. Here, we investigate the guiding effect of nano-indentation on the growth of conductive filaments in resistive memory devices. The nano-indented top electrodes generate electric field concentration and the resultant precise control of a conductive filament in two typical memory devices Ag/SiO2/Pt and W/Ta2O5/Pt...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901383/endothelial-progenitor-cell%C3%A2-derived-extracellular-vesicle%C3%A2-meditated-cell%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-cell-communication-regulates-the-proliferation-and-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#18
Yunhao Qin, Changqing Zhang
Bone tissue engineering is a promising treatment strategy to increase bone regeneration. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are commonly used to promote vessel formation and osteoblastic differentiation in tissue engineering. Previous studies have demonstrated that EPCs regulate both proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Understanding this mechanism is critical to developing more effective treatments. The role of extracellular vesicles in cell‑to‑cell communication has attracted substantial attention...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900418/lmof2365_0442-encoding-for-a-fructose-specific-pts-permease-iia-may-be-required-for-virulence-in-l-monocytogenes-strain-f2365
#19
Yanhong Liu, Brian B Yoo, Cheng-An Hwang, Yujuan Suo, Shiowshuh Sheen, Parvaneh Khosravi, Lihan Huang
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, which is a major public health concern due to the high fatality rate. LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444 encode for fructose-specific EIIABC components of phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) permease that is responsible for sugar transport. In previous studies, in-frame deletion mutants of a putative fructose-specific PTS permease (LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444) were constructed and analyzed. However, the virulence potential of these deletion mutants has not been studied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898534/proteomic-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-infected-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#20
Yuming Li, Zhuanchang Wu, Ke Liu, Pengfei Qi, Jinpeng Xu, Jianchao Wei, Beibei Li, Donghua Shao, Yuanyuan Shi, Yafeng Qiu, Zhiyong Ma
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, which is characterized by reproductive failure and respiratory disorders. The secretome of PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), which are the primary target cells of PRRSV, was analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics to gain a profile of proteins secreted during PRRSV infection. A total of 95 secreted proteins with differentially expressed levels between PRRSV- and mock-infected PAMs was screened...
September 12, 2017: Proteomics
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