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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350663/the-combination-of-tissue-dissection-and-external-volume-expansion-generates-large-volumes-of-adipose-tissue
#1
Yunfan He, Ziqing Dong, Gan Xie, Tao Zhou, Feng Lu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350549/loss-of-e-cadherin-as-part-of-a-migratory-phenotype-in-melanoma-is-associated-with-ulceration
#2
Marie L Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Torben Steiniche, Peter Nørgaard, Allan V Danielsen, Tine E Damsgaard, Ib J Christensen, Lars Bastholt, Holger J Møller, Henrik Schmidt
It has been suggested that embryogenic properties of migratory cells are reactivated during wound healing and metastasis in adults. This might explain the association between wound-induced inflammation and poor survival in patients with ulcerated melanoma. Linking inflammation with a migratory phenotype, we characterize the infiltration of innate inflammatory cells, loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (E-cadherin), factors associated with extracellular matrix degradation [matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and neutrophil elastase (NE)], and spindle-shaped cell morphology, between ulcerated (n = 179) and nonulcerated (n = 206) melanoma...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345796/establishing-nucleosome-architecture-and-stability-at-promoters-roles-of-pioneer-transcription-factors-and-the-rsc-chromatin-remodeler
#3
REVIEW
Slawomir Kubik, Maria Jessica Bruzzone, David Shore
Improvements in deep sequencing, together with methods to rapidly deplete essential transcription factors (TFs) and chromatin remodelers, have recently led to a more detailed picture of promoter nucleosome architecture in yeast and its relationship to transcriptional regulation. These studies revealed that ∼40% of all budding yeast protein-coding genes possess a unique promoter structure, where we propose that an unusually unstable nucleosome forms immediately upstream of the transcription start site (TSS)...
March 27, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344104/antimicrobial-medium-and-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-prevent-prfa-dependent-activation-of-virulence-genes-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#4
Eva Maria Sternkopf Lillebæk, Stine Lambert Nielsen, Rikke Scheel Thomasen, Nils J Færgeman, Birgitte H Kallipolitis
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment...
March 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342985/mast-cells-are-directly-activated-by-contact-with-cancer-cells-by-a-mechanism-involving-autocrine-formation-of-adenosine-and-autocrine-paracrine-signaling-of-the-adenosine-a3-receptor
#5
Yaara Gorzalczany, Eyal Akiva, Ofir Klein, Ofer Merimsky, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg
Mast cells (MCs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, their underlying mechanisms of activation within the TME remain poorly understood. Here we show that recapitulating cell-to-cell contact interactions by exposing MCs to membranes derived from a number of cancer cell types, results in MC activation, evident by the increased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases and Akt, in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent fashion. Activation is unidirectional since MC derived membranes do not activate cancer cells...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342033/sequencing-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-tobacco-virus-2-a-polerovirus-from-nicotiana-tabacum
#6
Benguo Zhou, Fang Wang, Xuesong Zhang, Lina Zhang, Huafeng Lin
The complete genome sequence of a new virus, provisionally named tobacco virus 2 (TV2), was determined and identified from leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) exhibiting leaf mosaic, yellowing, and deformity, in Anhui Province, China. The genome sequence of TV2 comprises 5,979 nucleotides, with 87% nucleotide sequence identity to potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Its genome organization is similar to that of PLRV, containing six open reading frames (ORFs) that potentially encode proteins with putative functions in cell-to-cell movement and suppression of RNA silencing...
March 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341621/cancer-cachexia-induced-muscle-atrophy-evidence-for-alterations-in-micrornas-important-for-muscle-size
#7
David Edward Lee, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Thomas A Blackwell, Richard A Perry, Lemuel A Brown, Bhuwan Khatri, Dongwon Seo, Walter Gay Bottje, Tyrone Anthony Washington, Michael P Wiggs, Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Perry Greene
Muscle atrophy is a hallmark of cancer cachexia resulting in impaired function and quality of life and cachexia is the immediate cause of death for 20-40% of cancer patients. Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as being involved in muscle development and atrophy, however less is known specifically on miRNAs in cancer cachexia. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the miRNA profile of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia to uncover potential miRNAs involved with this catabolic condition...
March 24, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339499/evaluation-of-fusion-protein-cleavage-site-sequences-of-newcastle-disease-virus-in-genotype-matched-vaccines
#8
Shin-Hee Kim, Zongyan Chen, Asuka Yoshida, Anandan Paldurai, Sa Xiao, Siba K Samal
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of NDV in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating NDV strains, such as the genotype V virulent strains currently circulating in Mexico and Central America. In this study, a reverse genetics system was developed for the virulent NDV strain Mexico/01/10 strain and used to generate highly attenuated vaccine candidates by individually modifying the cleavage site sequence of fusion (F) protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334115/faster-a-user-friendly-tool-for-ultrafast-and-robust-cell-segmentation-in-large-scale-microscopy
#9
Oliver Hilsenbeck, Michael Schwarzfischer, Dirk Loeffler, Sotiris Dimopoulos, Simon Hastreiter, Carsten Marr, Fabian J Theis, Timm Schroeder
Motivation: Quantitative large-scale cell microscopy is widely used in biological and medical research. Such experiments produce huge amounts of image data and thus require automated analysis. However, automated detection of cell outlines (cell segmentation) is typically challenging due to, e.g., high cell densities, cell-to-cell variability and low signal-to-noise ratios. Results: Here, we evaluate accuracy and speed of various state-of-the-art approaches for cell segmentation in light microscopy images using challenging real and synthetic image data...
February 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333153/a-novel-inhibitor-idpp-interferes-with-entry-and-egress-of-hcv-by-targeting-glycoprotein-e1-in-a-genotype-specific-manner
#10
Myungeun Lee, Jaewon Yang, Eunji Jo, Ji-Young Lee, Hee-Young Kim, Ralf Bartenschlager, Eui-Cheol Shin, Yong-Soo Bae, Marc P Windisch
Despite recent advances in curing chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the high economic burden to therapy, viral drug resistance, difficult to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and patient groups are still of concern. To address this unmet medical needs, we devised strategies to identify novel viral interventions through target-free high-throughput screening of small molecules utilizing a phenotypic-based HCV infection assay. Thereby, a very potent (EC50 46 ± 26 pM) iminodipyridinopyrimidine (IDPP) drug candidate was selected, and confirmed in primary human hepatocytes (EC50 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331600/bacterial-cell-to-cell-signaling-promotes-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-parasitic-bacteriophages
#11
Pierre Moreau, Stephen P Diggle, Ville-Petri Friman
The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes. Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses (bacteriophages) and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. We found that a QS-signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331092/monkeypox-virus-host-factor-screen-in-haploid-cells-identifies-essential-role-of-garp-complex-in-extracellular-virus-formation
#12
Susan Realegeno, Andreas S Puschnik, Amrita Kumar, Cynthia Goldsmith, Jillybeth Burgado, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Victoria A Olson, Darin Carroll, Inger Damon, Tetsuya Hirata, Taroh Kinoshita, Jan E Carette, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325933/a-permanent-host-shift-of-rabies-virus-from-chiroptera-to-carnivora-associated-with-recombination
#13
Nai-Zheng Ding, Dong-Shuai Xu, Yuan-Yuan Sun, Hong-Bin He, Cheng-Qiang He
Bat virus host shifts can result in the spread of diseases with significant effects. The rabies virus (RABV) is able to infect almost all mammals and is therefore a useful model for the study of host shift mechanisms. Carnivore RABVs originated from two historical host shifts from bat viruses. To reveal the genetic pathways by which bat RABVs changed their host tropism from bats to carnivores, we investigated the second permanent bat-to-carnivore shift resulting in two carnivore variants, known as raccoon RABV (RRV) and south-central skunk RABV (SCSKV)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325833/the-unique-prodomain-of-t-cadherin-plays-a-key-role-in-adiponectin-binding-with-the-essential-extracellular-cadherin-repeats-1-and-2
#14
Shiro Fukuda, Shunbun Kita, Yoshinari Obata, Yuya Fujishima, Hirofumi Nagao, Shigeki Masuda, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Junichi Takagi, Norikazu Maeda, Iichiro Shimomura
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived circulating protein, accumulates in the heart, vascular endothelium, and skeletal muscles through an interaction with T-cadherin (T-cad), a unique glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cadherin. Recent studies have suggested that this interaction is essential for adiponectin-mediated cardiovascular protection. However, the precise protein-protein interaction between adiponectin and T-cad remains poorly characterized. Using ELISA-based and surface plasmon analyses, we report here that T-cad fused with IgG Fc as a fusion-tag by replacing its GPI-anchor specifically bound both hexameric and larger multimeric adiponectin with a dissociation constant of approximately 1...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317069/deciphering-the-role-of-ectosomes-in-cancer-development-and-progression-focus-on-the-proteome
#15
REVIEW
Magdalena Surman, Ewa Stępień, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło
Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. They are shed into the extracellular space and are proposed as a novel form of intracellular communication in which information is transmitted from the originating cell to recipient cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. This review focuses on a single population of extracellular vesicles-ectosomes. We summarize recent studies of tumor-derived ectosomes which examine their biogenesis and protein cargo, and their influence on different aspects of cancer progression...
March 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316168/-advances-in-the-research-of-effects-of-exosomes-derived-from-stem-cells-on-wound-repair
#16
M Y Li, D W Liu, Y G Mao
Exosomes are nano-vesicles released by many kinds of cells. Exosomes play a significant role in cell-to-cell communication and substance transportation through direct effect of signaling molecules on the cell membrane surface, intracellular regulation of cellular content during membrane fusion, or regulation of release of various bioactive molecules. Several studies have reported that culture supernatant of stem cells has some related exosomes to take part in wound repair. The secretion of exosomes is depended on the source and the physiological and pathological condition of deriving cells...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316143/endothelial-microparticles-act-as-novel-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-biomarkers-of-circulatory-hypoxia-related-diseases-a-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Fan Deng, Shuang Wang, Liangqing Zhang
Circulatory hypoxia-related diseases (CHRDs), including acute coronary syndromes, stroke and organ transplantation, attract increased attention due to high morbidity and mortality. Mounting evidence shows that hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, coagulation, inflammation and angiogenesis play extremely important roles in the physiological and pathological processes of CHRD-related vascular endothelial injury. Interestingly, hypoxia, even hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation can all induce release of endothelial microparticles (EMPs)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316093/morphology-heterogeneity-within-a-campylobacter-jejuni-helical-population-the-use-of-calcofluor-white-to-generate-rod-shaped-c-jejuni-81-176-clones-and-the-genetic-determinants-responsible-for-differences-in-morphology-within-11168-strains
#18
Emilisa Frirdich, Jacob Biboy, Steven Huynh, Craig T Parker, Waldemar Vollmer, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni helical shape is important for colonization and host interactions with straight mutants having altered biological properties. Passage on calcofluor white (CFW) resulted in C. jejuni 81-176 isolates with morphology changes: either a straight morphology from frameshift mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in peptidoglycan hydrolase genes pgp1 or pgp2 or a reduction in curvature due a frameshift mutation in cjj81176_1105, a putative peptidoglycan endopeptidase. Shape defects were restored by complementation...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315294/neuronal-cell-sheet-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ips-cells
#19
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Erika Takada, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
<p>Transplantation of stem cells which differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in pre-clinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in diseased brain have utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used as graft. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke patients and brain injury. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity as cortical motor neurons...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314577/nanotubes-the-fast-track-to-treatment-of-dent-disease
#20
Thomas E Willnow
Studies in mice have suggested bone marrow transplantation as a strategy to correct the endocytic dysfunction of the proximal tubules in renal Fanconi syndrome, yet the mode of action has remained mysterious. Using a mouse model of Dent disease, Gabriel et al. now show that rescue of the resorptive capacity in the diseased kidney involves cell-to-cell contact between engrafted and host cells via nanotubes, cellular projections that enable transfer of wild-type activity into mutant cells of the proximal tubule...
April 2017: Kidney International
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