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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531647/multifunctional-plla-ceramic-fiber-membranes-for-bone-regeneration-applications
#1
Daniel Santos, Dina M Silva, Pedro S Gomes, Maria H Fernandes, José D Santos, Vitor Sencadas
A novel method to process electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) membranes incorporating glass reinforced hydroxyapatite granules (gHA) interspacially between the polymeric fibers is reported, thus increasing the surface area for cellular interactions. gHA granules (≤150μm) electrospun together with the polymer solution, lead to an average fiber diameter of 550±150nm for pristine PLLA and 440±170nm for the composite samples. An increase of the overall porosity was observed, from 79±3% for the PLLA up to 88±5% for the hybrid samples, keeping material's wettability and mechanical properties...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527044/endocytic-vesicle-rupture-is-a-conserved-mechanism-of-cellular-invasion-by-amyloid-proteins
#2
William P Flavin, Luc Bousset, Zachary C Green, Yaping Chu, Stratos Skarpathiotis, Michael J Chaney, Jeffrey H Kordower, Ronald Melki, Edward M Campbell
Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522800/single-cell-single-mrna-analysis-of-ccnb1-promoter-regulation
#3
Nidhi Vishnoi, Jie Yao
Promoter activation drives gene transcriptional output. Here we report generating site-specifically integrated single-copy promoter transgenes and measuring their expression to indicate promoter activities at single-mRNA level. mRNA counts, Pol II density and Pol II firing rates of the Ccnb1 promoter transgene resembled those of the native Ccnb1 gene both among asynchronous cells and during the cell cycle. We observed distinct activation states of the Ccnb1 promoter among G1 and G2/M cells, suggesting cell cycle-independent origin of cell-to-cell variation in Ccnb1 promoter activation...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521011/translation-initiation-events-on-structured-eukaryotic-mrnas-generate-gene-expression-noise
#4
Estelle Dacheux, Naglis Malys, Xiang Meng, Vinoy Ramachandran, Pedro Mendes, John Eg McCarthy
Gene expression stochasticity plays a major role in biology, creating non-genetic cellular individuality and influencing multiple processes, including differentiation and stress responses. We have addressed the lack of knowledge about posttranscriptional contributions to noise by determining cell-to-cell variations in the abundance of mRNA and reporter protein in yeast. Two types of structural element, a stem-loop and a poly(G) motif, not only inhibit translation initiation when inserted into an mRNA 5΄ untranslated region, but also generate noise...
May 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516841/us3-and-us9-proteins-contribute-to-the-stromal-invasion-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-in-the-respiratory-mucosa
#5
Jing Zhao, Katrien C K Poelaert, Lennert Steukers, Herman W Favoreel, Yewei Li, Shafiqul I Chowdhury, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Brigitte Caij, Hans J Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection may lead to conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract problems, pneumonia, genital disorders and abortion. BHV-1 is able to spread quickly in a plaque-wise manner and invade by breaching the basement membrane (BM) barrier in the respiratory mucosa. BHV-1 Us3, a serine/threonine kinase, induces a dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization and BHV-1 Us9, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is required for axonal transport of viruses in neurons. In this study, we investigated the role of Us3 and Us9 during BHV-1 infection in the respiratory mucosa...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515465/gender-specific-differential-expression-of-exosomal-mirna-in-synovial-fluid-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#6
Ravindra Kolhe, Monte Hunter, Siyang Liu, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Chetan Pundkar, Ashis K Mondal, Bharati Mendhe, Michelle Drewry, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Yutao Liu, Carlos M Isales, Robert E Guldberg, Mark W Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514843/single-cell-real-time-visualization-and-quantification-of-perylene-bioaccumulation-in-microorganisms
#7
Xin Jin, Xuejun Guo, Deshu Xu, Yanna Zhao, Xinghui Xia, Fan Bai
Bioaccumulation of perylene in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was visualized and quantified in real time with high sensitivity at high temporal resolution. For the first time, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM) with a microfluidic flow chamber and temperature control has enabled us to record the dynamic process of perylene bioaccumulation in single bacterial cells and examine the cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Although with identical genomes, individual E. coli cells exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in perylene accumulation dynamics, as shown by the high coefficient of variation (C...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514428/unraveling-cell-to-cell-signaling-networks-with-chemical-biology
#8
Zev J Gartner, Jennifer A Prescher, Luke D Lavis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512335/arginine-rich-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-extracellular-vesicles-for-active-macropinocytosis-induction-and-efficient-intracellular-delivery
#9
Ikuhiko Nakase, Kosuke Noguchi, Ayako Aoki, Tomoka Takatani-Nakase, Ikuo Fujii, Shiroh Futaki
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes have been shown to play crucial roles in cell-to-cell communication because of their ability to carry biofunctional molecules (e.g., microRNAs and enzymes). EVs also have pharmaceutical advantages and are highly anticipated to be a next-generation intracellular delivery tool. Here, we demonstrate an experimental technique that uses arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-modified EVs to induce active macropinocytosis for effective cellular EV uptake. Modification of arginine-rich CPPs on the EV membrane resulted in the activation of the macropinocytosis pathway, and the number of arginine residues in the peptide sequences affected the cellular EV uptake efficiency...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511719/interleukin-10-producing-lag3-regulatory-t-cells-are-associated-with-disease-activity-and-abatacept-treatment-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Shinichiro Nakachi, Shuji Sumitomo, Yumi Tsuchida, Haruka Tsuchiya, Masanori Kono, Rika Kato, Keiichi Sakurai, Norio Hanata, Yasuo Nagafuchi, Shoko Tateishi, Hiroko Kanda, Tomohisa Okamura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a role in the suppression of inflammation in autoimmune diseases, and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3) was reported as a marker of interleukin (IL)-10-producing Tregs. We aimed to clarify the function of human IL-10-producing CD4(+)CD25(-)LAG3(+) T cells (LAG3(+) Tregs) and their association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: LAG3(+) Tregs of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with B cells and follicular helper T cells to examine antibody suppression effects...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508453/tetr-dependent-gene-regulation-in-intracellular-listeria-monocytogenes-demonstrates-the-spatiotemporal-surface-distribution-of-acta
#11
Sibylle Schmitter, Lars Fieseler, Jochen Klumpp, Ralph Bertram, Martin J Loessner
To enable specific and tightly controlled gene expression both in-vitro and during the intracellular lifecycle of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a TetR-dependent genetic induction system was developed. Highest concentration of cytoplasmic TetR and best repression of tetO-controlled genes was obtained by tetR expression from the synthetic promoter Pt17 . Anhydrotetracycline (ATc) as inducer permitted concentration-dependent, fine-tuned expression of genes under control of the tetO operator and a suitable promoter...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508298/stability-of-control-networks-in-autonomous-homeostatic-regulation-of-stem-cell-lineages
#12
Natalia L Komarova, P van den Driessche
Design principles of biological networks have been studied extensively in the context of protein-protein interaction networks, metabolic networks, and regulatory (transcriptional) networks. Here we consider regulation networks that occur on larger scales, namely the cell-to-cell signaling networks that connect groups of cells in multicellular organisms. These are the feedback loops that orchestrate the complex dynamics of cell fate decisions and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis in stem cell lineages...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506438/prion-like-spreading-in-tauopathies
#13
REVIEW
Jacob I Ayers, Benoit I Giasson, David R Borchelt
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that functions in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics, especially in neurons. Misfolded and aggregated forms of tau produce pathological structures in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tauopathy dementias. These disorders can present with a sporadic etiology, such as in AD, or a familial etiology, such as in some cases of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism. Notably, the pathological features of tau pathology in these diseases can be very distinct...
April 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503055/protein-markers-associated-with-an-aldh-sub-population-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
Rui Yang, Xinhua Liu, Smathorn Thakolwiboon, Jianhui Zhu, Xiucong Pei, Mingrui An, Zhijing Tan, David M Lubman
ALDH has been shown to be a marker that denotes a sub-population of cancer stem cells in colorectal and other cancers. This sub-population of cells shows an increased risk for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation resulting in recurrence and death. It is thus essential to identify the important signaling pathways related to ALDH1+ CSCs in colon cancer. The essential issue becomes to isolate pure sub-populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues for further analysis. To achieve this goal, tissues from colorectal cancer Stage III patients were immuno-stained with ALDH1 antibody...
October 2016: Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498512/recurrent-atp2a2-p-pro602leu-mutation-differentiates-acrokeratosis-verruciformis-of-hopf-from-the-allelic-condition-darier-disease
#15
Anne Ronan, Angela Ingrey, Natalia Murray, Paul Chee
Darier disease and Acrokeratosis Verruciformis of Hopf (AKV) are rare disorders of keratinization with autosomal dominant inheritance and very distinct clinical pictures. Both have been shown to be caused by mutations in ATP2A2 (ATPase, Ca(++) transporting, cardiac muscle, slow-twitch) a gene encoding one of the SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase2) intracellular pumps with a crucial role in cell-to-cell adhesion in both skin and heart. While hundreds of different missense and nonsense mutations cause Darier disease, only one missense mutation, p...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497202/exosomes-and-their-application-in-biomedical-field-difficulties-and-advantages
#16
REVIEW
Jafar Rezaie, Saeed Ajezi, Çığır Biray Avci, Mohammad Karimipour, Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Alireza Nourazarian, Emel Sokullu, Aysa Rezabakhsh, Reza Rahbarghazi
The science of gene therapy has experienced a controversial history. At first, the initial concept that various disorders become curable by gene transferring was very exciting and challengeable. However, the problems and difficulties related to emerging techniques and unwanted side effects seen in some patients who have undergone gene therapy make some questions against the safety of novel molecular medicine approach. In line with this statement, discovery and developing a good bio-vector possessing low toxicity and high efficiency rate are the most important issues in gene therapy field...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496157/rna-seq-based-genome-wide-analysis-reveals-loss-of-inter-chromosomal-regulation-in-breast-cancer
#17
Jesús Espinal-Enríquez, Cristóbal Fresno, Guillermo Anda-Jáuregui, Enrique Hernández-Lemus
Breast cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease. Common hallmark features of cancer can be found. Their origin may be traced back to their intricate relationships governing regulatory programs during the development of this disease. To unveil distinctive features of the transcriptional regulation program in breast cancer, a pipeline for RNA-seq analysis in 780 breast cancer and 101 healthy breast samples, at gene expression and network level, was implemented. Inter-chromosomal relationships between genes resulted strikingly scarce in a cancer network, in comparison to its healthy counterpart...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495997/extracellular-vesicles-in-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
M Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells...
May 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495996/extracellular-vesicles-in-angiogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Dilyana Todorova, Stéphanie Simoncini, Romaric Lacroix, Florence Sabatier, Françoise Dignat-George
During the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, have emerged as important players in cell-to-cell communication in normal physiology and pathological conditions. EVs encapsulate and convey various bioactive molecules that are further transmitted to neighboring or more distant cells, where they induce various signaling cascades. The message delivered to the target cells is dependent on EV composition, which, in turn, is determined by the cell of origin and the surrounding microenvironment during EV biogenesis...
May 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494949/molecular-counting-with-localization-microscopy-a-bayesian-estimate-based-on-fluorophore-statistics
#20
Daniel Nino, Nafiseh Rafiei, Yong Wang, Anton Zilman, Joshua N Milstein
Superresolved localization microscopy has the potential to serve as an accurate, single-cell technique for counting the abundance of intracellular molecules. However, the stochastic blinking of single fluorophores can introduce large uncertainties into the final count. Here we provide a theoretical foundation for applying superresolved localization microscopy to the problem of molecular counting based on the distribution of blinking events from a single fluorophore. We also show that by redundantly tagging single molecules with multiple, blinking fluorophores, the accuracy of the technique can be enhanced by harnessing the central limit theorem...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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