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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725527/taking-electrons-out-of-bioelectronics-from-bioprotonic-transistors-to-ion-channels
#1
REVIEW
Xenofon Strakosas, John Selberg, Zahra Hemmatian, Marco Rolandi
From cell-to-cell communication to metabolic reactions, ions and protons (H(+)) play a central role in many biological processes. Examples of H(+) in action include oxidative phosphorylation, acid sensitive ion channels, and pH dependent enzymatic reactions. To monitor and control biological reactions in biology and medicine, it is desirable to have electronic devices with ionic and protonic currents. Here, we summarize our latest efforts on bioprotonic devices that monitor and control a current of H(+) in physiological conditions, and discuss future potential applications...
July 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724544/mica-expressing-monocytes-enhance-natural-killer-cell-fc-receptor-mediated-antitumor-functions
#2
Amanda R Campbell, Megan C Duggan, Lorena P Suarez-Kelly, Neela Bhave, Kallan S Opheim, Elizabeth McMichael, Prashant Trikha, Robin Parihar, Eric Luedke, Adrian Lewis, Bryant Yung, Robert Lee, David Raulet, Susheela Tridandapani, Veronika Groh, Lianbo Yu, Vedat Yildiz, John C Byrd, Michael A Caligiuri, William E Carson
Natural Killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that promote the antitumor response via communication with other cell types in the tumor microenvironment. Previously, we have shown that NK cells secrete a profile of immune stimulatory factors (e.g., IFNgamma, MIP-1alpha, TNFalpha) in response to dual stimulation with the combination of antibody (Ab)-coated tumor cells and cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 12. We now demonstrate that this response is enhanced in the presence of autologous monocytes...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723908/sorting-cells-by-their-density
#3
Nazila Norouzi, Heran C Bhakta, William H Grover
Sorting cells by their type is an important capability in biological research and medical diagnostics. However, most cell sorting techniques rely on labels or tags, which may have limited availability and specificity. Sorting different cell types by their different physical properties is an attractive alternative to labels because all cells intrinsically have these physical properties. But some physical properties, like cell size, vary significantly from cell to cell within a cell type; this makes it difficult to identify and sort cells based on their sizes alone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721472/a-model-for-transfer-of-p-glycoproteins-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cell-line-with-multiple-transfer-rules
#4
P Magal, A Noussair, J Pasquier, P Zongo, F Le Foll
In this paper, we consider a direct protein transfer process between cells in co-culture. Assuming that cells continually encounter each other, and from some hypotheses on cell-to-cell rules of transfer, we derive discrete and continuous Boltzmann-like integro-differential equations. The novelty of this model is to take into account multiple transfer rules. This new transfer model is used to fit the experimental data of cell-to-cell protein transfer in breast cancer.
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718414/epigenetics-and-cancer-stem-cells-unleashing-hijacking-and-restricting-cellular-plasticity
#5
REVIEW
Elanor N Wainwright, Paola Scaffidi
Epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as key players in cancer development which affect cellular states at multiple stages of the disease. During carcinogenesis, alterations in chromatin and DNA methylation resulting from genetic lesions unleash cellular plasticity and favor oncogenic cellular reprogramming. At later stages, during cancer growth and progression, additional epigenetic changes triggered by interaction with the microenvironment modulate cancer cell phenotypes and properties, and shape tumor architecture...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718351/exosomal-hsp60-a-potentially-useful-biomarker-for-diagnosis-assessing-prognosis-and-monitoring-response-to-treatment
#6
Caruso Bavisotto, F Cappello, Ajl Macario, E Conway de Macario, M Logozzi, S Fais, C Campanella
Cell-to-cell communication is imperative for life and it is mediated by sending and receiving information via the secretion and subsequent receptor-mediated detection of biological molecules. Exosomes (EXs) secreted from cells to the extracellular environment play an important role in intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered: New evidence indicates that tumor cells-derived EXs contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. The exosomal heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is very likely a key player in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the progress of diseases, such as cancer...
July 18, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715477/the-rhlr-quorum-sensing-receptor-controls-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pathogenesis-and-biofilm-development-independently-of-its-canonical-homoserine-lactone-autoinducer
#7
Sampriti Mukherjee, Dina Moustafa, Chari D Smith, Joanna B Goldberg, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication process that relies on the production, release, and response to extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. QS controls virulence and biofilm formation in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa possesses two canonical LuxI/R-type QS systems, LasI/R and RhlI/R, which produce and detect 3OC12-homoserine lactone and C4-homoserine lactone, respectively. Here, we use biofilm analyses, reporter assays, RNA-seq studies, and animal infection assays to show that RhlR directs both RhlI-dependent and RhlI-independent regulons...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714506/an-integrated-microwell-array-platform-for-cell-lasing-analysis
#8
Qiushu Chen, Yu-Cheng Chen, Zhizheng Zhang, Biming Wu, Rhima Coleman, Xudong Fan
Biological cell lasers are emerging as a novel technology in biological studies and biomedical engineering. The heterogeneity of cells, however, can result in various lasing behaviors from cell to cell. Thus, the capability to track individual cells during laser investigation is highly desired. In this work, a microwell array was integrated with high-quality Fabry-Pérot cavities for addressable and automated cell laser studies. Cells were captured in the microwells and the corresponding cell lasing was achieved and analyzed using SYTO9-stained Sf9 cells as a model system...
July 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713623/bistability-and-oscillations-in-co-repressive-synthetic-microbial-consortia
#9
Mehdi Sadeghpour, Alan Veliz-Cuba, Gábor Orosz, Krešimir Josić, Matthew R Bennett
Synthetic microbial consortia are conglomerations of multiple strains of genetically engineered microbes programmed to cooperatively bring about population-level phenotypes. By coordinating their activity, the constituent strains can display emergent behaviors that are difficult to engineer into isogenic populations. To do so, strains are engineered to communicate with one another through intercellular signaling pathways. As a result, the regulatory networks that control gene transcription throughout the population are sensitive to the extracellular concentration of the signaling molecules, and hence the relative densities of constituent strains...
March 2017: Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713387/human-cd6-down-modulation-following-t-cell-activation-compromises-lymphocyte-survival-and-proliferative-responses
#10
Esther Carrasco, Cristina Escoda-Ferran, Núria Climent, Cristina Miró-Julià, Inês T Simões, Mario Martínez-Florensa, Adelaida Sarukhan, Esther Carreras, Francisco Lozano
Available evidence indicates that the CD6 lymphocyte surface receptor is involved in T-cell developmental and activation processes, by facilitating cell-to-cell adhesive contacts with antigen-presenting cells and likely modulating T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Here, we show that in vitro activation of human T cells under different TCR-ligation conditions leads to surface downregulation of CD6 expression. This phenomenon was (i) concomitant to increased levels of soluble CD6 (sCD6) in culture supernatants, (ii) partially reverted by protease inhibitors, (iii) not associated to CD6 mRNA down-regulation, and (iv) reversible by stimulus removal...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713164/human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-induces-a-regulatory-b-cell-like-phenotype-in-vitro
#11
Jacobo Lopez-Abente, Adrián Prieto-Sanchez, Maria-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernandez, Rafael Correa-Rocha, Marjorie Pion
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) usually show a general dysregulation and hyper-activation of the immune system. A direct influence of HIV-1 particles on B-cell phenotypes and functions has been previously described. However, the consequences of B-cell dysregulation are still poorly understood. We evaluated the phenotypic changes in primary B cells after direct contact with HIV-1 particles in comparison with different types of stimuli. The functionality of treated B cells was challenged in co-culture experiments with autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
July 17, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712928/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-propagate-immunosuppressive-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-in-cell-to-cell-contact-independent-and-dependent-manners-under-hypoxic-culture
#12
Naoki Takizawa, Naoto Okubo, Masaharu Kamo, Naoyuki Chosa, Toshinari Mikami, Keita Suzuki, Seiji Yokota, Miho Ibi, Masato Ohtsuka, Masayuki Taira, Takashi Yaegashi, Akira Ishisaki, Seiko Kyakumoto
Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophage (Mφ), M2-Mφ that expressed the typical M2-Mφs marker, CD206, and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, is beneficial and expected tool for the cytotherapy against inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived lineage-positive (Lin+) blood cells proliferated and differentiated into M2-Mφs by cooperation with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxic condition: MSCs not only promoted proliferation of undifferentiated M2-Mφs, pre-M2-Mφs, in the Lin+ fraction via a proliferative effect of the MSCs-secreted macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also promoted M2-Mφ polarization of the pre-M2-Mφs through cell-to-cell contact with the pre-M2-Mφs...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711596/the-relevance-of-contact-independent-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-tdp-43-and-sod1-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Maya A Hanspal, Christopher M Dobson, Justin J Yerbury, Janet R Kumita
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates by proteins including TDP-43 and SOD1, in affected cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Pathology spreads from an initial site of onset to contiguous anatomical regions. There is evidence that for disease-associated proteins, including TDP-43 and SOD1, non-native protein conformers can promote misfolding of the natively folded counterparts, and cell-to-cell transfer of pathological aggregates may underlie the spread of the disease throughout the CNS...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710287/rna-search-engines-empower-the-bacterial-intranet
#14
REVIEW
Tom Dendooven, Ben F Luisi
RNA acts not only as an information bearer in the biogenesis of proteins from genes, but also as a regulator that participates in the control of gene expression. In bacteria, small RNA molecules (sRNAs) play controlling roles in numerous processes and help to orchestrate complex regulatory networks. Such processes include cell growth and development, response to stress and metabolic change, transcription termination, cell-to-cell communication, and the launching of programmes for host invasion. All these processes require recognition of target messenger RNAs by the sRNAs...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710286/how-tetraspanins-shape-endothelial-and-leukocyte-nano-architecture-during-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Jonas Franz, Marco Tarantola, Christoph Riethmüller
Tetraspanins are ubiquitous membrane proteins that induce local membrane curvature and hence co-ordinate cell-to-cell contacts. This review highlights their role in inflammation, which requires control of the nano-architecture of attachment sites between endothelial cells and leukocytes. The active role of endothelial cells in preparing for transmigration of leukocytes and determining the severity of an inflammation is often underscored. A clear hint to endothelial pre-activation is their ability to protrude clustered adhesion proteins upward prior to leukocyte contact...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709241/careful-accounting-of-extrinsic-noise-in-protein-expression-reveals-correlations-among-its-sources
#16
John A Cole, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
In order to grow and replicate, living cells must express a diverse array of proteins, but the process by which proteins are made includes a great deal of inherent randomness. Understanding this randomness-whether it arises from the discrete stochastic nature of chemical reactivity ("intrinsic" noise), or from cell-to-cell variability in the concentrations of molecules involved in gene expression, or from the timings of important cell-cycle events like DNA replication and cell division ("extrinsic" noise)-remains a challenge...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707715/myelinating-cocultures-of-rodent-stem-cell-line-derived-neurons-and-immortalized-schwann-cells
#17
Tomohiro Ishii, Emiko Kawakami, Kentaro Endo, Hidemi Misawa, Kazuhiko Watabe
Myelination is one of the most remarkable biological events in the neuron-glia interactions for the development of the mammalian nervous system. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell interactions in myelin synthesis in vitro, establishment of the myelinating system in cocultures of continuous neuronal and glial cell lines are desirable. In the present study, we performed co-culture experiments using rat neural stem cell-derived neurons or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons with immortalized rat IFRS1 Schwann cells to establish myelinating cultures between these cell lines...
July 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707657/-transmission-of-pathogenic-protein-aggregates-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
A L Schwarzman, S V Sarantseva
Deposits of amyloid peptide Aβ and intracellular aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the brain of patients are major neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). For a long time, the possibility of horizontal transmission of Aβ aggregates from cell to cell and from person to person remained hypothetical, since there was no experimental evidence. However, in 1993, the formation of senile plaques was confirmed in the brains of animals after intracerebral injections of AD patient brain homogenates or homogenates of the brain of transgenic mice enriched with Aβ aggregates...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703223/unmasking-the-molecular-link-between-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-and-brugada-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Javier Moncayo-Arlandi, Ramon Brugada
The intercalated discs that connect cardiomyocytes control cell-to-cell adhesion and communication. Several macromolecular structures (desmosomes, fascia adherens junctions, gap junctions, and sodium-channel complexes) coexist in, and confer their mechanical and electrical properties to, the intercalated disc. Traditionally, each structure was assumed to have a unique function in the intercalated disc. However, growing evidence suggests that these complexes act together in intercellular communication and adhesion, forming a single structural and functional entity - the connexome...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702128/a-novel-host-factor-for-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#20
COMMENT
Masfique Mehedi, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory disease in young children worldwide. As part of a genome-wide siRNA screen, we recently discovered that actin-related protein 2 (ARP2) is a host factor in the RSV replication cycle. ARP2 is a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex, which catalyzes actin polymerization involved in cell morphology and motility. In the course of investigating this finding, we also found that RSV infection of human lung epithelial A459 cells induced filopodia formation and stimulated cell motility...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
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