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osteomyelitis; gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918656/diagnosing-kingella-kingae-infections-in-infants-and-young-children
#1
Pablo Yagupsky
Kingella kingae is currently recognized as the prime etiology of skeletal system infections in children aged 6-48 months. The organism is notoriously fastidious, its growth is inhibited by synovial fluid and bone exudates, and its presence in clinical specimens is commonly missed by traditional culture methods. Areas covered. The present review discusses the use of improved laboratory methods to detect the organism in normally sterile body fluids, exudates, and upper respiratory tract specimens. Expert commentary...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807049/oral-manifestations-dental-management-and-a-rare-homozygous-mutation-of-the-prdm12-gene-in-a-boy-with-hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-viii-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Karim Elhennawy, Seif Reda, Christian Finke, Luitgard Graul-Neumann, Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann, Theodosia Bartzela
BACKGROUND: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Chen et al. recently identified the causative gene and characterized biallelic mutations in the PR domain-containing protein 12 gene, which plays a role in the development of pain-sensing nerve cells. Our patient's family was included in Chen and colleagues' study. We performed a literature review of the PubMed library (January 1985 to December 2016) on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I to VIII genetic disorders and their orofacial manifestations...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748698/band-gap-engineering-of-titania-film-through-cobalt-regulation-for-oxidative-damage-of-bacterial-respiration-and-viability
#3
Jinhua Li, Jiaxing Wang, Donghui Wang, Geyong Guo, Kelvin W K Yeung, Xianlong Zhang, Xuanyong Liu
Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality, and extended periods of hospitalization and impose a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria is clinically significant. Herein, TiO2-based heterojunctions, including Co-TiO2, CoO-TiO2, and Co3O4-TiO2, were first designed by optimizing magnetron sputtering to establish a platform to explore the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria. We found that the energy band bending and band gap narrowing were effectively promoted at the contact interface of the heterojunctions, which have the ability to induce abiotic reactive oxygen species formation...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737063/genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-broilers-with-vertebral-osteomyelitis-in-southeast-brazil
#4
Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga, Carlos Augusto Gomes Leal, Camila Costa Silva, André Almeida Fernandes, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins, Roselene Ecco
Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a worldwide emerging disease that affects broilers. Recently, the isolation of Enterococcus faecalis in cases of the disease has been described. This study aimed at determining the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profile of 12 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from broilers with VO. Strains were isolated from nine flocks from six farms in a high-density poultry production area in Southeast Brazil and were evaluated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic analysis...
July 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713020/pneumolysin-induced-autophagy-contributes-to-inhibition-of-osteoblast-differentiation-through-downregulation-of-sp1-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells
#5
Jinwook Kim, Hee-Weon Lee, Dong Kwon Rhee, James C Paton, Suhkneung Pyo
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The 53kDa protein pneumolysin (PLY) is the main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases. PLY forms pores in cholesterol-containing membranes, thereby interfering with the function of cells. Bone destruction is a serious matter in chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. S. pneumoniae is increasingly being recognized as a common cause of septic arthritis, but its pathogenesis is poorly defined...
July 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682162/cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-polymorphism-rs689466-may-contribute-to-the-increased-susceptibility-to-post-traumatic-osteomyelitis-in-chinese-population
#6
Lei Wang, Nan Jiang, Qing-Rong Lin, Cheng-He Qin, Yan-Jun Hu, Bin Yu
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme is one of the major mediators during inflammation reactions, and COX-2 gene polymorphisms of rs20417 and rs689466 have been reported to be associated with several inflammatory diseases. However, potential links between the two polymorphisms and risk of developing post-traumatic osteomyelitis remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate associations between the rs20417 and rs689466 polymorphisms and susceptibility to post-traumatic osteomyelitis in Chinese population...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682145/a-link-between-osteomyelitis-and-il1rn-and-il1b-polymorphisms-a-study-in-patients-from-northeast-brazil
#7
Clinio Alves De Souza, Argos Queiroz Alves De Souza, Maria do Socorro Queiroz Alves De Souza, José Alberto Dias Leite, Maíra Silva De Morais, Sílvia Helena Barem Rabenhorst
Background and purpose - Treatment failure of osteomyelitis can result from genetic susceptibility, highlighting polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members, central mediators of innate immunity and inflammation. Polymorphisms are DNA sequence variations that are common in the population (1% or more) and represent multiple forms of a single gene. We investigated the association of IL1RNVNTR (rs2234663) and IL1B-511C > T (rs16944) polymorphisms with osteomyelitis development in patients operated on because of bone trauma...
October 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658621/nociceptors-boost-the-resolution-of-fungal-osteoinflammation-via-the-trp-channel-cgrp-jdp2-axis
#8
Kenta Maruyama, Yasunori Takayama, Takeshi Kondo, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Bikash Ranjan Sahoo, Hisashi Kanemaru, Yutaro Kumagai, Mikaël M Martino, Hiroki Tanaka, Naohito Ohno, Yoichiro Iwakura, Naoki Takemura, Makoto Tominaga, Shizuo Akira
Candida albicans can enter skeletal tissue through a skin wound in an immunocompromised host or by contamination during orthopedic surgery. Such Candida osteomyelitis is accompanied by severe pain and bone destruction. It is established that nociceptor innervation occurs in skin and bone, but the mechanisms of nociceptive modulation in fungal inflammation remain unclear. In this study, we show that C. albicans stimulates Nav1.8-positive nociceptors via the β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 to induce calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592808/snx10-gene-mutation-leading-to-osteopetrosis-with-dysfunctional-osteoclasts
#9
Eva-Lena Stattin, Petra Henning, Joakim Klar, Emma McDermott, Christina Stecksen-Blicks, Per-Erik Sandström, Therese G Kellgren, Patrik Rydén, Göran Hallmans, Torsten Lönnerholm, Adam Ameur, Miep H Helfrich, Fraser P Coxon, Niklas Dahl, Johan Wikström, Ulf H Lerner
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a heterogeneous disorder, characterized by defective osteoclastic resorption of bone that results in increased bone density. We have studied nine individuals with an intermediate form of ARO, from the county of Västerbotten in Northern Sweden. All afflicted individuals had an onset in early infancy with optic atrophy, and in four patients anemia was present at diagnosis. Tonsillar herniation, foramen magnum stenosis, and severe osteomyelitis of the jaw were common clinical features...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521627/disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-osteomyelitis-in-twin-sisters-related-to-stat1-gene-deficiency
#10
Sabah Boudjemaa, Linda Dainese, Sébastien Héritier, Caroline Masserot, Samia Hachemane, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Aurore Coulomb, Jacinta Bustamante
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare syndrome characterized by severe clinical infections usually caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines and environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria or more virulent mycobacteria as mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since 1996, 9 genes including 7 autosomal ( STAT1, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and 2 X-linked genes ( NEMO and CYBB) have been identified. Allelic heterogeneity leaded to recognize about 18 genetic diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, but sharing a same physiological mechanism represented by a defect in human IL-12-dependant-INF-γ-mediated immunity...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516082/multifocal-recurrent-osteomyelitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-boy-with-partial-dominant-ifn-%C3%AE-r1-deficiency-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Aidé Tamara Staines-Boone, Caroline Deswarte, Edna Venegas Montoya, Luz María Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge Alberto García Campos, Teodoro Muñiz-Ronquillo, Jacinta Bustamante, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Saul Oswaldo Lugo Reyes
Mutations in the genes coding for cytokines, receptors, second messengers, and transcription factors of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with partial dominant (PD) IFN-γ receptor 1 deficiency who had suffered from multifocal osteomyelitis attributable to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination since the age of 18 months. He developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyper-inflammatory complication, and died with multiorgan dysfunction, despite having been diagnosed and treated relatively early...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486628/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-in-children-and-adults-current-understanding-and-areas-for-development
#12
Marion R Roderick, Ethan S Sen, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
Since the first descriptions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in the 1970s, there have been numerous case reports in the literature; both unusual case reports and case series from all over the world. Our understanding of the pathogenesis has significantly changed, with it now being regarded as an autoinflammatory condition. Treatment options have also expanded, but little progress has been made in developing the evidence for treatments. Advancing gene studies have provided a mouse model, but the quest for a single gene to match the phenotype has been elusive...
April 6, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403796/riboswitches-as-potential-targets-for-the-development-of-anti-biofilm-drugs
#13
José A Reyes-Darias, Tino Krell
In nature, bacteria can exist as single motile cells or as sessile cellular community, known as microbial biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that makes them more resistant to antibiotic treatment and responses of the host immune system. Microbial biofilms are very important in medicine since they are associated with several human diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, otitis media, infective endocarditis, infectious kidney stones, osteomyelitis or prostatitis...
April 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391634/chi3l1-regulation-of-inflammation-and-the-effects-on-osteogenesis-in-a-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-murine-model-of-osteomyelitis
#14
XueQiu Chen, Jian Jiao, XiaoQing He, JianPing Zhang, Hai Wang, YongQing Xu, Tao Jin
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone and bone marrow that occurs as a consequence of infections mainly attributed to Staphylococcus aureus. In a previous study, we found that expression of the chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) gene affected mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells infected with S. aureus and there was increased expression of CHI3L1 in the blood of osteomyelitis patients. In the present study, to further investigate the role of CHI3L1 in osteomyelitis, we developed an S. aureus-induced murine model of the disease...
June 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378938/ag490-suppresses-interleukin-34-mediated-osteoclastogenesis-in-mice-bone-marrow-macrophages
#15
Xin Cheng, Qi-Long Wan, Zu-Bing Li
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) has been recently identified as a novel cytokine, substituting for the function of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), a pivotal osteoclastogenic factor involved in bone-related diseases (e.g., osteomyelitis of the jaws). However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of IL-34 in receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We found that IL-34 alone significantly maintained the survival of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and enhanced the expression of the osteoclast-related genes TRAP, Ctsk, and NFATc1, as well as TRAP-positive multinucleated cells combined with RANKL, which can be reversed by AG490...
April 5, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373200/antimicrobial-effects-of-%C3%AE-lactams-on-imipenem-resistant-ceftazidime-susceptible-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Yu Mi Wi, Ji-Young Choi, Ji-Young Lee, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song, Kwan Soo Ko
We studied the resistance mechanism and antimicrobial effects of β-lactams on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates that were susceptible to ceftazidime as detected by time-kill curve methods. Among 215 P. aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in eight hospitals in the Republic of Korea, 18 isolates (23.4% of 77 imipenem-resistant isolates) were imipenem resistant and ceftazidime susceptible. Multilocus sequence typing revealed diverse genotypes, which indicated independent emergence...
June 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348754/actinobacillus-hominis-osteomyelitis-first-reported-case-in-the-english-language-medical-literature
#17
Gavin O'Neill, Andrew Ker, Aslam Mohammed, Anne Marie Karcher
INTRODUCTION: Actinobacillus hominis is currently a rarely reported pathogen. It has previously been associated with respiratory tract infections and bacteraemia in debilitated patients. However, under-reporting may occur due to misidentification by commonly used laboratory bacterial identification systems. This case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of A. hominis osteomyelitis in the English language medical literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old male presented with a painful foot...
June 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320836/adaptive-upregulation-of-clumping-factor-a-clfa-by-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-obese-type-2-diabetic-host-mediates-increased-virulence
#18
Christopher W Farnsworth, Eric M Schott, Sarah E Jensen, Jacob Zukoski, Abigail M Benvie, Majed A Refaai, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Michael J Zuscik, Steven R Gill, Robert A Mooney
Obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D) are important risk factors for infection following orthopedic implant surgery. Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen in bone infections, adapts to multiple environments to survive and evade host immune responses. Whether adaptation of S. aureus to the unique environment of the obese/T2D host accounts for its increased virulence and persistence in this population is unknown. Thus, we assessed implant-associated osteomyelitis in normal versus high-fat-diet obese/T2D mice and found that S...
June 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317027/the-type-a-and-type-b-polysaccharide-capsules-predominate-in-an-international-collection-of-invasive-kingella-kingae-isolates
#19
Eric A Porsch, Kimberly F Starr, Pablo Yagupsky, Joseph W St Geme
Kingella kingae is an encapsulated Gram-negative bacterium and an important etiology of osteoarticular infections in young children. A recent study examining a diverse collection of carrier and invasive K. kingae isolates from Israel revealed four distinct polysaccharide capsule types. In this study, to obtain a global view of K. kingae capsule type diversity, we examined an international collection of isolates using a multiplex PCR approach. The collection contained all four previously identified capsule types and no new capsule types...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301468/recessive-coding-and-regulatory-mutations-in-fblim1-underlie-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-crmo
#20
Allison J Cox, Benjamin W Darbro, Ronald M Laxer, Gabriel Velez, Xinyu Bing, Alexis L Finer, Albert Erives, Vinit B Mahajan, Alexander G Bassuk, Polly J Ferguson
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare, pediatric, autoinflammatory disease characterized by bone pain due to sterile osteomyelitis, and is often accompanied by psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease. There are two syndromic forms of CRMO, Majeed syndrome and DIRA, for which the genetic cause is known. However, for the majority of cases of CRMO, the genetic basis is unknown. Via whole-exome sequencing, we detected a homozygous mutation in the filamin-binding domain of FBLIM1 in an affected child with consanguineous parents...
2017: PloS One
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