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osteomyelitis; gene

Kelly E Helmick, Michael M Garner, Jack Rhyan, Daniel Bradway
Two novel and distinct Brucella strains were recovered from 5 of 10 adult, sex undetermined, captive waxy tree frogs ( Phyllomedusa sauvagii) and two of five adult, sex undetermined, captive Colorado river toads ( Incilius alvarius) held in a zoologic collection with clinical and pathologic findings of bacterial disease. These amphibians originated from three separate private breeding facilities over several years and exhibited disease 9-49 mo following release from quarantine. Common presenting signs were vague but included focal abscessation, weight loss, change in coloration, anorexia, and decreased perching...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Barbara Gaußmann, Claudia Hess, Beatrice Grafl, Mercedes Kovacs, Salome Troxler, Beatrix Stessl, Michael Hess, Surya Paudel
The pheno- and genotypic relatedness among Escherichia coli isolates from broilers with and without macroscopic lesions on the femoral head were investigated. In total, 219 isolates obtained from the bone marrow were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance profiles (AMR), phylogenetic grouping, detection of virulence-associated genes (VAG) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotyping revealed that 48.4% of the isolates were assigned to one of the three serotypes (O78:K80: 21.0%, O2:K1: 18...
February 16, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ryota Hase, Takuya Hirooka, Takashi Itabashi, Yasunobu Endo, Yoshihito Otsuka
A 65-year-old man presented with gradually exacerbating low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed vertebral osteomyelitis in the Th11-L2 vertebral bodies and discs. The patient showed negative findings on conventional cultures. Direct broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with sequencing of the biopsied specimen had the highest similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter cinaedi. This case suggests that direct broad-range PCR with sequencing should be considered when conventional cultures cannot identify the causative organism of vertebral osteomyelitis, and that this method may be particularly useful when the pathogen is a fastidious organism, such as H...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
Bei Jiang, Yinan Wang, Zihan Feng, Lei Xu, Li Tan, Shuang Zhao, Yali Gong, Cheng Zhang, Xiaoqiang Luo, Shu Li, Xiancai Rao, Yizhi Peng, Zhao Xie, Xiaomei Hu
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of the difficult-to-treat osteomyelitis (OM). To better diagnose and manage S. aureus OM, especially for severe and long duration cases, indicators for risk prediction and severity evaluation are needed. Here, 139 clinical S. aureus isolates from orthopedic infections were divided into OM group (60 isolates from 60 OM patients) and non-OM group (79 isolates from 79 non-OM patients). Molecular types, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factor profiles were evaluated and compared between the two groups to identify potential indicators associated with the prevalence of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rossella Dorati, Antonella DeTrizio, Tiziana Modena, Bice Conti, Francesco Benazzo, Giulia Gastaldi, Ida Genta
A great deal of research is ongoing in the area of tissue engineering (TE) for bone regeneration. A possible improvement in restoring damaged tissues involves the loading of drugs such as proteins, genes, growth factors, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs into scaffolds for tissue regeneration. This mini-review is focused on the combination of the local delivery of antibiotic agents with bone regenerative therapy for the treatment of a severe bone infection such as osteomyelitis. The review includes a brief explanation of scaffolds for bone regeneration including scaffolds characteristics and types, a focus on severe bone infections (especially osteomyelitis and its treatment), and a literature review of local antibiotic delivery by the combination of scaffolds and drug-delivery systems...
December 12, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
Christopher W Farnsworth, Eric M Schott, Abigail M Benvie, Jacob Zukoski, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Steven R Gill, Michael J Zuscik, Robert A Mooney
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients have a fivefold increased rate of infection following placement of an indwelling orthopaedic device. Though implant infections are associated with inflammation, periosteal reactive bone formation, and osteolysis, the effect of obesity/T2D on these complicating factors has not been studied. To address this question, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (60% Kcal from fat) to induce obesity/T2D, or a control diet (10% Kcal from fat) for 3 months, and challenged with a transtibial pin coated with a bioluminescent USA300 strain of S...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Faqi Cao, Wu Zhou, Guohui Liu, Tian Xia, Mengfei Liu, Bobin Mi, Yi Liu
Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) peptidoglycan (PGN-sa), the major cell wall component of S. aureus , has been demonstrated to be an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. aureus -induced osteomyelitis. However, the exact role of PGN-sa in osteoclastogenesis during S. aureus -induced osteomyelitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that PGN-sa promoted receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and calcitonin receptor was upregulated by PGN-sa treatment...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Amr T M Saeb, Khalid A Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa T Tayeb
Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. We isolated P. mirabilis SCDR1 from a Diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against Nanosilver colloids, the commercial Nanosilver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Eva Raphael, Lee W Riley
Background: Drug-resistance genes found in human bacterial pathogens are increasingly recognized in saprophytic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from environmental sources. The clinical implication of such environmental GNBs is unknown. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to determine how often such saprophytic GNBs cause human infections. Methods: We queried PubMed for articles published in English, Spanish, and French between January 2006 and July 2014 for 20 common environmental saprophytic GNB species, using search terms "infections," "human infections," "hospital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Nidal J Alkhatib, Manaf H Younis, Ahmad S Alobaidi, Nebal M Shaath
INTRODUCTION: Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative coccobacillus, that is saprophytic on skin and mucosa, and rarely causing human infections. Reported cases of human infections usually occur in immunocompromised patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the second case of M. osloensis-caused-osteomyelitis in literature, occurring in a young healthy man. The organism was identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Our patient was treated successfully with surgical debridement and intravenous third-generation cephalosporins...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Fátima Rodríguez Acosta, Wilma D Basualdo Acuña, Héctor Castro, Ana Campuzano, María L Macchi, Juana Ortellado de Canese, Patricia Almada, Mónica Rodríguez, Lorena Grau, Gladys Velázquez, Carmen Espínola, Gloria C Samudio Domínguez, Gloria Gómez, Letizia Carpinelli, Rosa M Guillén Fretes
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the first causes of skin and soft tissue infections, and can also produce severe diseases such as osteomyelitis and pneumonia. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the SCCmec type and virulence profile and to study the genetic diversity by MLVA analysis of 21 CA-MRSA isolates that infected Paraguayan children in 2010. The SCCmec type and virulence factors were performed by PCR and genetic diversity by MLVA (multiple locus variable analysis)...
October 17, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Qingzhu Kong, Yu Jin, Shi Yan, Yin Wang, Jingxin Zhao, Zhen Feng, Junqiang Wei, Yu Wang, Lingwei Kong, Litao Guo, Jianing Yang
To investigate the effects of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) gene polymorphisms on the onset of osteomyelitis in Chinese Han population.In all, 80 osteomyelitis patients (case group) and 81 healthy people (control group) were recruited into this case-control study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was utilized to examine the genotypes of MMP-1 polymorphisms (-1607 2G/1G and -519A/G) in the 2 groups. Genotype and allele differences between the case and control groups were analyzed by chi-square test...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chih-Jung Chen, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, Chin-Te Lu, Yu-Yu Chuang, Chien-Chang Yang, Ting-Shu Wu, Chun-Yi Lee, Min-Chi Lu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yhu-Chering Huang
Objectives: Clonal complex (CC) 9 is a prevalent livestock-associated (LA) MRSA clone in Asia whose pathogenicity in humans remains unknown. Methods: In 2012, we identified a patient with CC9-MRSA infection linked to livestock. After screening 3328 clinical MRSA isolates from a national database, eight isolates (0.24%) collected between 1998 and 2012 were further confirmed to be of CC9. The detailed molecular features of the nine human CC9 strains and phylogenetic relatedness to animal CC9 strains were characterized with WGS...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Li-Rong Ren, Zhi-Hua Wang, Hai Wang, Xiao-Qing He, Mu-Guo Song, Yong-Qing Xu
BACKGROUND Osteomyelitis is one of the refractory diseases encountered in orthopedics, while Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common causative organism in osteomyelitis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the bone loss caused by S. aureus infection have not been well defined. Here, we investigated the effect of S. aureus on osteoclast differentiation and the probable molecular mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS RAW 264.7 cells were treated for 5 days with live S. aureus, inactivated S. aureus, and S...
September 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Pablo Yagupsky
Kingella kingae is currently recognized as the prime etiology of skeletal system infections in children aged 6-48 months. The organism is notoriously fastidious, its growth is inhibited by synovial fluid and bone exudates, and its presence in clinical specimens is commonly missed by traditional culture methods. Areas covered: The present review discusses the use of improved laboratory methods to detect the organism in normally sterile body fluids, exudates, and upper respiratory tract specimens. Expert commentary: While inoculation of joint and bone exudates into blood culture vials dilutes the concentration of detrimental factors and significantly improves the isolation of the organism, novel PCR-based assays have enhanced sensitivity, shortened the time-to-detection of K...
October 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Karim Elhennawy, Seif Reda, Christian Finke, Luitgard Graul-Neumann, Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann, Theodosia Bartzela
BACKGROUND: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Chen et al. recently identified the causative gene and characterized biallelic mutations in the PR domain-containing protein 12 gene, which plays a role in the development of pain-sensing nerve cells. Our patient's family was included in Chen and colleagues' study. We performed a literature review of the PubMed library (January 1985 to December 2016) on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I to VIII genetic disorders and their orofacial manifestations...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jinhua Li, Jiaxing Wang, Donghui Wang, Geyong Guo, Kelvin W K Yeung, Xianlong Zhang, Xuanyong Liu
Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality, and extended periods of hospitalization and impose a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria is clinically significant. Herein, TiO2-based heterojunctions, including Co-TiO2, CoO-TiO2, and Co3O4-TiO2, were first designed by optimizing magnetron sputtering to establish a platform to explore the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria. We found that the energy band bending and band gap narrowing were effectively promoted at the contact interface of the heterojunctions, which have the ability to induce abiotic reactive oxygen species formation...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga, Carlos Augusto Gomes Leal, Camila Costa Silva, André Almeida Fernandes, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins, Roselene Ecco
Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a worldwide emerging disease that affects broilers. Recently, the isolation of Enterococcus faecalis in cases of the disease has been described. This study aimed at determining the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profile of 12 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from broilers with VO. Strains were isolated from nine flocks from six farms in a high-density poultry production area in Southeast Brazil and were evaluated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic analysis...
July 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Jinwook Kim, Hee-Weon Lee, Dong Kwon Rhee, James C Paton, Suhkneung Pyo
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The 53kDa protein pneumolysin (PLY) is the main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases. PLY forms pores in cholesterol-containing membranes, thereby interfering with the function of cells. Bone destruction is a serious matter in chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. S. pneumoniae is increasingly being recognized as a common cause of septic arthritis, but its pathogenesis is poorly defined...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Lei Wang, Nan Jiang, Qing-Rong Lin, Cheng-He Qin, Yan-Jun Hu, Bin Yu
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme is one of the major mediators during inflammation reactions, and COX-2 gene polymorphisms of rs20417 and rs689466 have been reported to be associated with several inflammatory diseases. However, potential links between the two polymorphisms and risk of developing post-traumatic osteomyelitis remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate associations between the rs20417 and rs689466 polymorphisms and susceptibility to post-traumatic osteomyelitis in Chinese population...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
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