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osteomyelitis; gene

Imranul Alam, Amie K McQueen, Dena Acton, Austin M Reilly, Rita L Gerard-O'Riley, Dana K Oakes, Charishma Kasipathi, Abigail Huffer, Weston B Wright, Michael J Econs
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO2) is a heritable osteosclerotic bone disorder due to dysfunctional osteoclast activity. ADO2 is caused by missense mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene characterized by osteosclerosis with multiple fractures. ADO2 can result in osteomyelitis, visual loss and bone marrow failure. Currently, there is no cure for ADO2, and until recently no appropriate animal model of ADO2 existed to understand better the pathogenesis of this disease and to test new therapies...
October 13, 2016: Bone
Jeffrey B Kaplan, Vandana Sampathkumar, Meriem Bendaoud, Alexander K Giannakakis, Edward T Lally, Nataliya V Balashova
The Gram-negative bacterium Kingella kingae is part of the normal oropharyngeal mucosal flora of children under four years old. K. kingae can enter the submucosa and cause infections of the skeletal system in children including septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. The organism is also associated with infective endocarditis in children and adults. Although biofilm formation has been coupled with pharyngeal colonization, osteoarticular infections, and infective endocarditis, no studies have investigated biofilm formation in K...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Mahir Aliyev, Andaç Aykan, Muhitdin Eski, Nuri Arslan, Bülent Kurt, Mustafa Şengezer
BACKGROUND: Based on the angiogenetic and stimulating effects of bone healing and formation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the present study was designed to assess the efficacy of VEGF gene application in the management of experimentally induced osteomyelitis. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, and osteomyelitis was induced in the left tibial bones. Group 1 (n=8) was designated as a control group, and, after the induction of osteomyelitis, no treatment was applied for a period of 4 weeks...
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Yang Li, Lina Liu, Peng Wan, Zanjing Zhai, Zhenyang Mao, Zhengxiao Ouyang, Degang Yu, Qi Sun, Lili Tan, Ling Ren, Zhenan Zhu, Yongqiang Hao, Xinhua Qu, Ke Yang, Kerong Dai
Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis (bone infection) remains a clinical challenge; in particular, it requires an implantable material with improved antibacterial activity. Here, we prepared biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-copper (Cu) alloys with different Cu contents (0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 wt%) and assessed their potential for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis. We evaluated the microstructures, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and ion release of the alloys in vitro, and their biocompatibility and antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Jialiang Zhu, Haifeng Li, Li Feng, Min Yang, Ronggong Yang, Lin Yang, Li Li, Ruoyan Li, Minshan Liu, Shuxun Hou, Yuehua Ke, Wenfeng Li, Fan Bai
A case of chronic osteomyelitis probably caused by Morganella morganii, occurring over a period of 30 years, is reported. The organism was identified through a combination of sample culture, direct sequencing, and 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Further whole-genome sequencing and population structure analysis of the isolates from the patient showed the bacterial population to be highly diverse. This case provides a valuable example of a long-term infection caused by an opportunistic pathogen, M. morganii, with high diversity, which might evolve during replication within the host...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jian Liu, Danqing Li, Xuying Sun, Yuting Wang, Qiangbing Xiao, Anmin Chen
Bacteria-induced inflammatory responses cause excessive bone resorption in chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and orthopedic implant failure. Icariine has been reported to facilitate the bone healing and reduce the occurrence of osteoporosis in clinical, moreover, laboratory studies which have proved that Icariine promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Icariine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss via an osteogenic-in vitro model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
October 2016: Inflammation
Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga, Nathalie Katy Chanteloup, Angélina Trotereau, Sylvie Baucheron, Rodrigo Guabiraba, Roselene Ecco, Catherine Schouler
BACKGROUND: Locomotor disorders and infections by Escherichia coli represent major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is associated with extraintestinal infections leading to respiratory or systemic disease known as colibacillosis. The most common lesions seen in cases of colibacillosis are perihepatitis, airsacculitis, pericarditis, peritonitis/salpingitis and arthritis. These diseases are responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Neal D Hammer, Lici A Schurig-Briccio, Svetlana Y Gerdes, Robert B Gennis, Eric P Skaar
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis in the developed world. The ability of S. aureus to cause substantial disease in distinct host environments is supported by a flexible metabolism that allows this pathogen to overcome challenges unique to each host organ. One feature of staphylococcal metabolic flexibility is a branched aerobic respiratory chain composed of multiple terminal oxidases...
2016: MBio
Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christelle Ngba Essebe, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection...
2016: Toxins
Agnieszka Bińczak-Kuleta, Aleksander Szwed, Mark R Walter, Maciej Kołban, Andrzej Ciechanowicz, Jeremy S C Clark
Previously, dominant partial interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFN-g-R1) susceptibility to environmental mycobacteria was found with IFNGR1 deletions or premature stop. Our aim was to search for IFNGR1 variants in patients with mycobacterial osteoarticular lesions. Biopsies from the patients were examined for acid-fast bacilli, inflammatory cell infiltration, and mycobacterial niacin. Mycobacterial rRNA was analyzed using a target-amplified rRNA probe test. Peripheral-blood-leukocyte genomic DNA was isolated from 19 patients using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, and all IFNGR1 exons were sequenced using an ABIPRISM 3130 device...
August 2, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Nan Jiang, Xing-Qi Zhao, Cheng-He Qin, Yan-Jun Hu, Lei Wang, Guo-Ping Xie, Sheng-Nan Wang, Li-Guang Chen, Bin Yu
Previous studies have indicated that vitamin D receptor (VDR) TaqI, BsmI, FokI and ApaI gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of several inflammatory diseases. However, potential association of the VDR gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to extremity chronic osteomyelitis remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate link between VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk of extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Chinese population. A total of 233 patients with chronic osteomyelitis and 200 healthy controls were genotyped for the 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (TaqI, BsmI, FokI and ApaI) in VDR gene using the SNaPshot genotyping method...
August 2016: Injury
David E Tabor, Li Yu, Hoyin Mok, Christine Tkaczyk, Bret R Sellman, Yuling Wu, Vaheh Oganesyan, Tim Slidel, Hasan Jafri, Michael McCarthy, Patricia Bradford, Mark T Esser
Staphylococcus aureus infections lead to an array of illnesses ranging from mild skin infections to serious diseases, such endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a pore-forming toxin, encoded by the hla gene, that is thought to play a key role in S. aureus pathogenesis. A monoclonal antibody targeting Hla, MEDI4893, is in clinical development for the prevention of S. aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The presence of the hla gene and Hla protein in 994 respiratory isolates collected from patients in 34 countries in Asia, Europe, the United States, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Australia was determined...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Andrew S Hendrix, Thomas J Spoonmore, Aimee D Wilde, Nicole E Putnam, Neal D Hammer, Daniel J Snyder, Scott A Guelcher, Eric P Skaar, James E Cassat
Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is a common and debilitating invasive infection of bone. Treatment of osteomyelitis is confounded by widespread antimicrobial resistance and the propensity of bacteria to trigger pathological changes in bone remodeling that limit antimicrobial penetration to the infectious focus. Adjunctive therapies that limit pathogen-induced bone destruction could therefore limit morbidity and enhance traditional antimicrobial therapies. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the U...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A E Osman, M Mubasher, N E ElSheikh, H AlHarthi, M S AlZahrani, N Ahmed, G ElGhazali, B A Bradley, A-S A Fadil
Hematogenous osteomyelitis (HO) is a bone infection wherein bacteria penetrate to the bone through the blood stream. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the contribution of SNPs in interleukin (IL)-1B1 (rs16944), IL1A (rs1800587), IL1B (rs1143634), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 (rs3804099), TLR4 (rs4986790), TLR4 (rs4986791), IL1R (rs2234650), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (rs1800629), TNF (rs361525), and IL1RN (rs315952) towards the development of HO in Saudi patients and compared to healthy controls...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Vartul Sangal, Paul A Hoskisson
Diphtheria is a debilitating disease caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains and has been effectively controlled by the toxoid vaccine, yet several recent outbreaks have been reported across the globe. Moreover, non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains are emerging as a major global health concern by causing severe pharyngitis and tonsillitis, endocarditis, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Molecular epidemiological investigations suggest the existence of outbreak-associated clones with multiple genotypes circulating around the world...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Wlisses Henrique Veloso Silva-Carvalho, Ronald Rodrigues de Moura, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Sergio Crovella, Rafael Lima Guimarães
The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Amit Kumar, Pragna Lakshmi Thotakura, Basant Kumar Tiwary, Ramadas Krishna
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its association with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Treatment with berberine was shown to reverse F. nucleatum-induced CRC progression in mice by balancing the growth of opportunistic pathogens in tumor microenvironment. Intestinal microbiota imbalance and the infections caused by F. nucleatum might be regulated by therapeutic intervention...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Rabindra K Mandal, Tieshan Jiang, Adnan A Al-Rubaye, Douglas D Rhoads, Robert F Wideman, Jiangchao Zhao, Igal Pevzner, Young Min Kwon
Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is a common cause of lameness in commercial broiler chickens worldwide. BCO represents substantial production loss and welfare issues of chickens. The bacterial species or communities underlying BCO pathogenesis still remain to be fully characterized. To gain insights on blood microbiota in broilers and its potential association with BCO, blood samples collected from healthy (n = 240) and lame (n = 12) chickens were analyzed by deep sequencing of 16S RNA genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pinar Gencpinar, Dilek Çavuşoğlu, Ömer Özbeyler, Özge Ö Kaya, Figen Baydan, Nihal Olgac Dundar
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis...
June 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Farrah C Phillips, Prajwal Gurung, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
A leucine-to-proline missense mutation at residue 98 in the proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 2 (Pstpip2) gene leads to autoinflammatory disease that is characterized by splenomegaly, necrosis, and spontaneous development of osteomyelitis in mice (Pstpip2(cmo)). Disease progression in these mice resembles that of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in humans. Our group and others have shown that disease progression in Pstpip2(cmo) mice is mediated by the cytokine IL-1β, independently of inflammasomes or IL-1α...
May 5, 2016: Gut Microbes
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