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Medullary thyroid cancer

Terry C Lairmore
BACKGROUND: The last 200 years have seen remarkable achievements in the art and clinical practice of surgery. These advances include the introduction of antisepsis, anesthesia, vascular anastomosis, antimicrobials, organ transplantation, and the widespread application of minimally invasive operative procedures. Very recently, a surgical procedure has been shown to cure diabetes, representing the most effective treatment of a metabolic disorder by surgeons. METHODS: The author reviewed the major surgical milestones in the modern surgical era and prepared this monograph for presentation as the Claude H...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Monika Pietrowska, Hanna C Diehl, Grzegorz Mrukwa, Magdalena Kalinowska-Herok, Marta Gawin, Mykola Chekan, Julian Elm, Grzegorz Drazek, Anna Krawczyk, Dariusz Lange, Helmut E Meyer, Joanna Polanska, Corinna Henkel, Piotr Widlak
Determination of the specific type of thyroid cancer is crucial for the prognosis and selection of treatment of this malignancy. However, in some cases appropriate classification is not possible based on histopathological features only, and it might be supported by molecular biomarkers. Here we aimed to characterize molecular profiles of different thyroid malignancies using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) which enables the direct annotation of molecular features with morphological pictures of an analyzed tissue...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marina Parra-Robert, Aida Orois, Josep Maria Augé, Irene Halperin, Xavier Filella, Rafael Molina
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor caused by a malignant transformation in the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid, where calcitonin (CT) is released. Nowadays the main tumor markers (TM) used in the diagnosis and follow-up of MTC patients are CT and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Nonetheless, progastrin releasing peptide (proGRP) has been recently proposed as a TM useful in the MTC. Our aims were to investigate the release of proGRP in thyroid tumors, its role in the assessment of advanced MTC and its utility in the differential diagnosis between MTC and non-MTC thyroid tumors...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Shih-Ping Cheng, Po-Sheng Yang, Ming-Nan Chien, Ming-Jen Chen, Jie-Jen Lee, Chien-Liang Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The induction of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen results from altered glycosylation in transformed cells. Globo H is a hexasaccharide glycosphingolipid overexpressed on malignancies of epithelial origin and has become an attractive vaccine target. We aimed to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic value of Globo H in thyroid neoplasms. METHODS: Globo H expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis using commercial and in-house tissue microarrays...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Vina Pulido, Shin Yin Lee, Naomi Yu Ko
In the era of precision medicine and targeted therapy, diagnostic inaccuracy can have tremendous ramifications. We present the case of a 61-year-old man initially diagnosed with small cell lung cancer by pathology. Prior to initiating chemotherapy, multidisciplinary discussions led to an amendment of the diagnosis to medullary thyroid cancer.
May 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
Ke Jiang, Jianyong Lei, Wenjie Chen, Yanping Gong, Han Luo, Zhihui Li, Rixiang Gong, Jingqiang Zhu
The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are known to be prognostic factors in several cancers. However, no previous investigation has been performed to evaluate the significance of the NLR and PLR in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).The aim of this study was to identify the ability of the preoperative NLR or PLR to predict lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with MTC. Data from all patients with MTC who had undergone surgery at our institution from May 2009 to May 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Friedhelm Raue, Karin Frank-Raue
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with the two subtypes, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), is the most frequent subtype of thyroid cancer; more rare subtypes are medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). The incidence of DTC has increased rapidly in recent years due to the more frequent use of imaging methods such as ultrasound of the neck and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Beatriz G Cavalheiro, Leandro L Matos, Ana Kober N Leite, Marco Aurélio V Kulcsar, Claudio R Cernea, Lenine G Brandão
Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic data, histological type, treatment and follow-up of the 811 patients treated for thyroid cancer in Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP) over 5 years. Materials and methods: Retrospective analyses of electronic chart information. Results: There were 679 cases (83.7%) of papillary thyroid cancer, 61 (7.5%) of follicular carcinoma, 54 (6.7%) of medullary carcinoma, 11 (1...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Steven A Lacy, Dale R Miles, Linh T Nguyen
Cabozantinib inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. The capsule formulation (Cometriq(®)) is approved for the treatment of progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer at a 140-mg free base equivalent dose. The tablet formulation (Cabometyx™, 60-mg free base equivalent dose) is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma following anti-angiogenic therapy. Cabozantinib displays a long terminal plasma half-life (~120 h) and accumulates ~fivefold by day 15 following daily dosing based on area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Yongkun Sun, Wei Niu, Feng Du, Chunxia Du, Shuting Li, Jinwan Wang, Li Li, Fengqing Wang, Yu Hao, Chuan Li, Yihebali Chi
BACKGROUND: Anlotinib is a novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is designed to primarily inhibit VEGFR2/3, FGFR1-4, PDGFR α/β, c-Kit, and Ret. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of anlotinib in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. METHODS: Anlotinib (5-16 mg) was orally administered in patients with solid tumor once a day on two schedules: (1) four consecutive weeks (4/0) or (2) 2-week on/1-week off (2/1)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Mutsushi Yamasaki, Yoshiyasu Sato, Takeo Nomura, Fuminori Sato, Shinya Uchino, Hiromitsu Mimata
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome with major components of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism. MEN2B is the most aggressive and rarest of the MEN2 variants. Pheochromocytoma in MEN2 is virtually always located in the adrenal medulla, but MEN2-associated extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (paraganglioma) are rare. A 59-year-old man who has been diagnosed with MEN2B consulted our hospital for surgical treatment of a 10-mm left adrenal mass and a 30-mm retroperitoneal mass...
October 5, 2016: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
William Grey, Rosaline Hulse, Anna Yakovleva, Dilyana Genkova, Benjamin Whitelaw, Ellen Solomon, Salvador J Diaz-Cano, Louise Izatt
The REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in growth and differentiation during embryogenesis and maintenance of the urogenital and nervous systems in mammals. Distinct mutations across hotspot RET exons can cause Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A (MEN2A) characterised by development of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. Here, we report a 42-year-old man presented in the clinic with a unilateral PCC, with subsequent investigations revealing a nodular and cystic thyroid gland...
October 5, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
Rohit Ranganath, Manish A Shaha, Bin Xu, Jocelyn Migliacci, Ronald Ghossein, Ashok R Shaha
BACKGROUND: de Quervain's thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition of the thyroid mostly treated medically, rarely requiring surgical treatment. We intend to review the surgical experience with de Quervain's thyroiditis at a tertiary cancer center over a period of 22years. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records from 1992 to 2014 at a tertiary cancer center was performed and all patients with a histopathological diagnosis of de Quervain's thyroiditis were included...
August 18, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Shumei Kato, Vivek Subbiah, Erica Marchlik, Sheryl K Elkin, Jennifer L Carter, Razelle Kurzrock
PURPOSE: Aberrations in genetic sequences encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor RET lead to oncogenic signaling that is targetable with anti-RET multi-kinase inhibitors. Understanding the comprehensive genomic landscape of RET aberrations across multiple cancers may facilitate clinical trial development targeting RET. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated the molecular portfolio of 4,871 patients with diverse malignancies for the presence of RET aberrations using Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) certified targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 182 or 236 gene panels...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
José-Manuel Gómez-Sáez
Sunitinib is an oral oxindol derivative and a potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor and a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, which has antitumor and antiangiogenic activity due to the selective inhibition that can stabilize progressive metastatic disease. The aim of this review is to expose whether the drug could be considered as a new promising therapy compared with other tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. Areas covered: In seven open-label studies carried out with sunitinb, the drug showed its anti-tumoral activity in advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma and in medullary thyroid carcinoma...
October 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
B Evranos, S B Polat, H Baser, D Ozdemir, A Kilicarslan, A Yalcin, R Ersoy, B Cakir
BACKGROUND: A fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most valuable diagnostic procedure for pre-operative discrimination of benign and malignant nodules. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology provides standardised reporting and cytomorphological criteria in aspiration smears. The aim of the present study was to determine malignancy rates in nodules with different cytology results and evaluate the diagnostic value of Bethesda for variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
September 25, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Vinicius Ernani, Mukesh Kumar, Amy Y Chen, Taofeek K Owonikoko
Although rare, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) exemplifies the value that ever-expanding knowledge of molecular pathways and mechanisms brings to managing challenging cancers. Although surgery can be curative for MTC in many patients, a substantial proportion of patients present with locoregional or distant metastatic disease. Once distant disease occurs, treatment options are limited, and conventional cancer treatments such as cytotoxic chemotherapy are of minimal benefit. Biomarkers such as calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen are important correlates of disease burden as well as predictors of disease progress, including recurrence and survival...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Jian Yu Xu, William A Murphy, Denái R Milton, Camilo Jimenez, Sarika N Rao, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Steven G Waguespack, Ramona Dadu, Robert F Gagel, Anita K Ying, Maria E Cabanillas, Steven P Weitzman, Naifa L Busaidy, Rena V Sellin, Elizabeth Grubbs, Steven I Sherman, Mimi I Hu
CONTEXT: Bone metastases (BM) can lead to devastating skeletal related events (SREs) in cancer patients. Data regarding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with BM are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the natural history of BM and SREs in MTC patients identified by a cancer center tumor registry. SETTING: A tertiary cancer center. PATIENTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We retrospectively reviewed charts of MTC patients with BM who received care from 1991-2014 to characterize BM and SREs...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Enke Baldini, Marco Biricotti, Salvatore Ulisse, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli
Traditional therapies for advanced or metastatic progressive medullary thyroid cancer (pMTC) are poor effective. Several TKIs have been tested in clinical trials in pMTC patients. Areas covered: This paper reviews efficacy and safety of vandetanib in the treatment of pMTC. Expert commentary: Vandetanib (trade name CAPRELSA® [Vandetanib]) has been shown to improve progression-free survival (30.5 vs 19.3 months in controls) in pMTC patients. Vandetanib is approved by FDA and EMA for metastatic MTC in adults; in adolescents and children with metastatic or locally advanced MTC, vandetanib seems to be effective...
November 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Luca Mologni, Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini, Peter Goekjian, Leonardo Scapozza
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinases are involved in the control of several biological processes and have been recognized as hot spots of oncogenic transformation, thus representing a major therapeutic target. Dysregulated activation of RET kinase, either through point mutations or gene fusions, is accountable for a significant fraction of thyroid carcinomas, as well as a minor population of lung cancers. Two drugs are currently available for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma and two additional compounds have been approved for differentiated thyroid carcinoma...
September 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
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