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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139623/extracellular-proteinases-of-candida-species-pathogenic-yeasts
#1
Maria Rapala-Kozik, Oliwia Bochenska, Dorota Zajac, Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Mariusz Gogol, Marcin Zawrotniak, Andrzej Kozik
The increased incidence of severe disseminated infections caused by opportunistic yeast-like fungi Candida spp. highlights the urgent need for research into the major virulence factors of these pathogens - extracellular aspartic proteinases of the candidapepsin and yapsin families. Classically, these enzymes were considered to be generally destructive factors that damage host tissues and provide nutrients for pathogen propagation. However, in recent decades, novel and more specific functions have been suggested for extracellular candidal proteinases...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133203/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-tachykinin-related-peptides-in-the-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#2
A N S Haddad, M S Defferrari, S Hana, S G Szeto, A B Lange
Tachykinins (tachykinin-related peptides, TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that have widespread distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and most have been shown to stimulate contractions of visceral muscles. Invertebrate TRPs carry a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide (FXGXR-amide) and most of them share some amino acid sequence similarities (approx. 45%) with the vertebrate and mammalian tachykinin family. We have functionally characterized the tachykinins in R...
November 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111117/identification-of-b-cell-recognized-linear-epitopes-in-a-snake-venom-serine-proteinase-from-the-central-american-bushmaster-lachesis-stenophrys
#3
M Madrigal, A Alape-Girón, E Barboza-Arguedas, W Aguilar-Ulloa, M Flores-Díaz
Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038201/kinin-b1-receptor-promotes-neurogenic-hypertension-through-activation-of-centrally-mediated-mechanisms
#4
Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice...
December 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036225/human-plasma-derived-c1-esterase-inhibitor-concentrate-has-limited-effect-on-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-lung-inflammation-in-mice
#5
Ingrid Stroo, Jack Yang, Adam A Anas, J Daan de Boer, Gerard van Mierlo, Dorina Roem, Diana Wouters, Ruchira Engel, Joris J T H Roelofs, Cornelis van 't Veer, Tom van der Poll, Sacha Zeerleder
C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) can inhibit multiple pathways (complement, contact-kinin, coagulation, and fibrinolysis) that are all implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. We explored the effect of human plasma-derived C1-INH on allergic lung inflammation in a house dust mite (HDM) induced asthma mouse model by daily administration of C1-INH (15 U) during the challenge phase. NaCl and HDM exposed mice had comparable plasma C1-INH levels, while bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels were increased in HDM exposed mice coinciding with slightly reduced activation of complement (C5a)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990089/kinin-b1-receptor-as-a-novel-prognostic-progression-biomarker-for-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques
#6
Tiantian Liu, Hengfang Liu, Li Feng, Bo Xiao
Stroke caused by atherosclerosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, associated with carotid plaque rupture and inflammation progression. However, the inflammatory biomarkers which aid in predicting the future course of plaques are less detailed. The present study investigated the association between plaque vulnerable and inflammatory biomarkers using blood and plaque specimens. Carotid plaque specimens were obtained from 80 patients following stroke, 14 patients suffering from transient ischaemic attack and 17 asymptomatic patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987408/perfluorohexadecanoic-acid-increases-paracellular-permeability-in-endothelial-cells-through-the-activation-of-plasma-kallikrein-kinin-system
#7
Qian S Liu, Fang Hao, Zhendong Sun, Yanmin Long, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous and high persistent in human blood, thus potentially inducing a myriad of deleterious consequences. Plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), which physiologically regulates vascular permeability, is vulnerable to exogenous stimulators, like PFASs with long-chain alkyl backbone substituted by electronegative fluorine. The study on the interactions of PFASs with the KKS and the subsequent effects on vascular permeability would be helpful to illustrate how the chemicals penetrate the biological vascular barriers to reach different tissues...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966616/factor-xii-driven-inflammatory-reactions-with-implications-for-anaphylaxis
#8
REVIEW
Lysann Bender, Henri Weidmann, Stefan Rose-John, Thomas Renné, Andy T Long
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. It is triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells and basophils in response to immunologic or non-immunologic mechanisms. Mediators that are released upon mast cell activation include the highly sulfated polysaccharide and inorganic polymer heparin and polyphosphate (polyP), respectively. Heparin and polyP supply a negative surface for factor XII (FXII) activation, a serine protease that drives contact system-mediated coagulation and inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951324/modulation-of-cardiac-vagal-tone-by-bradykinin-acting-on-nucleus-ambiguus
#9
Eugen Brailoiu, Matthew McGuire, Shadaria A Shuler, Elena Deliu, Jeffrey L Barr, Mary E Abood, G Cristina Brailoiu
Bradykinin (BK), a component of the kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system exerts multiple effects via B1 and B2 receptor activation. In the cardiovascular system, bradykinin has cardioprotective and vasodilator properties. We investigated the effect of BK on cardiac-projecting neurons of nucleus ambiguus, a key site for the parasympathetic cardiac regulation. BK produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Pretreatment with HOE140, a B2 receptor antagonist, but not with R715, a B1 receptor antagonist, abolished the response to BK...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950949/g-protein-coupled-kinin-receptors-and-immunity-against-pathogens
#10
Julio Scharfstein, Pablo I P Ramos, Manoel Barral-Netto
For decades, immunologists have considered the complement system as a paradigm of a proteolytic cascade that, acting cooperatively with the immune system, enhances host defense against infectious organisms. In recent years, advances made in thrombosis research disclosed a functional link between activated neutrophils, monocytes, and platelet-driven thrombogenesis. Forging a physical barrier, the fibrin scaffolds generated by synergism between the extrinsic and intrinsic (contact) pathways of coagulation entrap microbes within microvessels, limiting the systemic spread of infection while enhancing the clearance of pathogens by activated leukocytes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910792/inflammation-a-key-contributor-to-the-genesis-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Qi Qian
It has become apparent that inflammation and inflammatory reactions can evoke renal injury and promote chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Under physiological condition, intrarenal vascular distribution is heterogeneous, and medulla is hypoxic. To avoid energy deprivation in the low pO2 regions of the kidney, an array of hormones, autocoids, and vasoactive substances, including medullipin, prostaglandins, endothelins, nitric oxide, angiotensin II, kinins, and adenosine, tonically regulates the microvasculature to ensure a perfect match of the microcirculation (O2 supply) and renal tubules (O2 demand)...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860991/antithrombotic-potential-of-tormentil-extract-in-animal-models
#12
Natalia Marcinczyk, Dominika Jarmoc, Agnieszka Leszczynska, Agnieszka Zakrzeska, Karol Kramkowski, Jakub Strawa, Anna Gromotowicz-Poplawska, Ewa Chabielska, Michal Tomczyk
Potentilla species that have been investigated so far display pharmacological activity mainly due to the presence of polyphenols. Recently, it was shown that polyphenol-rich extract from rhizome of Potentilla erecta (tormentil extract) affects the metabolism of arachidonic acid and exerts both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, suggesting a possible effect on thrombosis. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of tormentil extract on haemostasis in a rat model of thrombosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854705/whole-genome-sequencing-study-of-serum-peptide-levels-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#13
Paul S de Vries, Bing Yu, Elena V Feofanova, Ginger A Metcalf, Michael R Brown, Atefeh L Zeighami, Xiaoming Liu, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Eric Boerwinkle, Alanna C Morrison
Oligopeptides are important markers of protein metabolism, as they are cleaved from larger polypeptides and proteins. Genetic association studies may help elucidate their origin and function. In 1,552 European Americans and 1,872 African Americans of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we performed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing and measured serum levels of 25 peptides. Common variants (minor allele frequency > 5%) were analysed individually. We grouped low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency ≤ 5%) by a genome-wide sliding window using region-based aggregate tests...
September 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842604/neuroprotective-effect-of-kinin-b1-receptor-activation-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-diabetic-mice
#14
Dorinne Desposito, Georges Zadigue, Christopher Taveau, Clovis Adam, François Alhenc-Gelas, Nadine Bouby, Ronan Roussel
Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system enhances cardiac and renal tolerance to ischemia. Here we investigated the effects of selective agonists of kinin B1 or B2 receptor (R) in brain ischemia-reperfusion in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. The role of endogenous kinins was assessed in tissue kallikrein deficient mice (TK(-/-)). Mice underwent 60min-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), eight weeks after type 1-diabetes induction. Treatment with B1R-, B2R-agonist or saline was started at reperfusion. Neurological deficit (ND), infarct size (IS), brain water content (BWC) were measured at day 0, 1 and 2 after injury...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826826/the-relevance-of-kalikrein-kinin-system-via-activation-of-b2-receptor-in-lps-induced-fever-in-rats
#15
Denis de Melo Soares, Danielle R Santos, Christoph Rummel, Daniela Ott, Míriam C C Melo, Joachim Roth, João B Calixto, Glória E P Souza
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the involvement of endogenous kallikrein-kinin system and the bradykinin (BK) B1 and B2 receptors on LPS- induced fever and the POA cells involved in this response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats received either i.v. (1 mg/kg), i.c.v. (20 nmol) or i.h. (2 nmol) injections of icatibant (B2 receptor antagonist) 30 or 60 min, respectively, before the stimuli. DALBK (B1 receptor antagonist) was given either 15min before BK (i...
August 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824610/mast-cell-coupling-to-the-kallikrein-kinin-system-fuels-intracardiac-parasitism-and-worsens-heart-pathology-in-experimental-chagas-disease
#16
Clarissa R Nascimento, Daniele Andrade, Carla Eponina Carvalho-Pinto, Rafaela Rangel Serra, Lucas Vellasco, Guilherme Brasil, Erivan Schnaider Ramos-Junior, Julia Barbalho da Mota, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Marcus V Andrade, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro, Luiz Juliano, Patrícia Hessab Alvarenga, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando Lencastre Sicuro, Antônio C Campos de Carvalho, Erik Svensjö, Julio Scharfstein
During the course of Chagas disease, infectious forms of Trypanosoma cruzi are occasionally liberated from parasitized heart cells. Studies performed with tissue culture trypomastigotes (TCTs, Dm28c strain) demonstrated that these parasites evoke neutrophil/CXCR2-dependent microvascular leakage by activating innate sentinel cells via toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Upon plasma extravasation, proteolytically derived kinins and C5a stimulate immunoprotective Th1 responses via cross-talk between bradykinin B2 receptors (B2Rs) and C5aR...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824433/kininase-1-as-a-preclinical-therapeutic-target-for-kinin-b1-receptor-in-insulin-resistance
#17
Youssef Haddad, Réjean Couture
Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) contributes to insulin resistance, an early event in type 2 diabetes, through the upregulation and activation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines and the oxidative stress. This study addresses the hypothesis that inhibition of kininase 1 (carboxypeptidase M, CPM), the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of B1R agonists, could exert the same beneficial effects to B1R antagonism in insulin resistance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were made insulin resistant with a drinking solution containing 10% D-glucose for a period of 9 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820397/long-term-feeding-with-bioactive-tripeptides-in-aged-hypertensive-and-normotensive-rats-special-focus-on-blood-pressure-and-bradykinin-induced-vascular-reactivity
#18
A Siltari, J Roivanen, R Korpela, H Vapaatalo
Bradykinin is the main player of the kallikrein-kinin system. Bradykinin-induced vasodilatation is age-dependent; this is believed to be associated with the level of expression of the two bradykinin receptors (BR1 and BR2) in the vasculature. The aim of this study was to clarify bradykinin-induced vascular reactivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) after 6 weeks' consumption of a drink containing bioactive tripeptides (Ile-Pro-Pro, Val-Pro-Pro and Leu-Pro-Pro)...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816340/coagulation-factor-xii-regulates-inflammatory-responses-in-human-lungs
#19
Rosanna Hess, Lukasz Wujak, Christina Hesse, Katherina Sewald, Danny Jonigk, Gregor Warnecke, Hans-Gerd Fieguth, Steven de Maat, Coen Maas, Francesco Bonella, Klaus T Preissner, Benjamin Weiss, Liliana Schaefer, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Philipp Markart, Malgorzata Wygrecka
Increased procoagulant activity in the alveolar compartment and uncontrolled inflammation are hallmarks of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we investigated whether the contact phase system of coagulation is activated and may regulate inflammatory responses in human lungs. Components of the contact phase system were characterized in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from 54 ARDS patients and 43 controls, and their impact on cytokine/chemokine expression in human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) was assessed by a PCR array...
October 5, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808141/a-critical-role-for-plasma-kallikrein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-autoantibody-induced-arthritis
#20
Aizhen Yang, Junsong Zhou, Bo Wang, Jihong Dai, Robert W Colman, Wenchao Song, Yi Wu
The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) consists of serine proteases, prekallikrein (pKal) and factor XII (FXII), and a cofactor, high-MW kininogen (HK). Upon activation, activated pKal and FXII cleave HK to release bradykinin. Activation of this system has been noted in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and its pathogenic role has been characterized in animal arthritic models. In this study, we generated 2 knockout mouse strains that lacked pKal and HK and determined the role of KKS in autoantibody-induced arthritis...
August 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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