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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#1
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774000/influence-of-processing-techniques-on-microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-biodegradable-mg-3zn-2ca-alloy
#2
Pavel Doležal, Josef Zapletal, Stanislava Fintová, Zuzanka Trojanová, Miroslav Greger, Pavla Roupcová, Tomáš Podrábský
New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy...
October 28, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773072/influence-of-equal-channel-angular-pressing-passes-on-the-microstructures-and-tensile-properties-of-mg-8sn-6zn-2al-alloy
#3
Weili Cheng, Liang Tian, Shichao Ma, Yang Bai, Hongxia Wang
An I-phase containing Mg-8Sn-6Zn-2Al (wt %; TZA862) alloy was fabricated and subjected to different number of passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processing at 300 °C. The results showed that the alloys exhibited a bimodal microstructure, which consisted of fine dynamically recrystallized (DRX) grains and coarse non-DRX grains. When increasing the number of ECAP passes from 2 to 6, the fraction of DRX grains and the dispersed second phase particles subsequently increase. However, the fraction and particles then decrease once the number of ECAP passes increases to 8...
June 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772447/microstructure-evolution-in-high-purity-aluminum-single-crystal-processed-by-equal-channel-angular-pressing-ecap
#4
Jinfang Dong, Qing Dong, Yongbing Dai, Hui Xing, Yanfeng Han, Jianbo Ma, Jiao Zhang, Jun Wang, Baode Sun
Aluminum single crystal with 99.999% purity was deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 16 passes. Grain size and misorientation of processed samples were quantitatively characterized by TEM and EBSD. The results show that the refinement efficiency of high purity aluminum single crystal was poor in the initial stage. Extrusion by fewer ECAP passes (n ≤ 8) resulted in only elongated grains containing a large number of subgrains and small misorientations between grains. Stable microstructures of nearly equiaxed grains with high misorientations were obtained by 15 passages, indicating that the initial extremely coarse grains and highly uniform grain orientation are not conducive to the accumulation of strain energy...
January 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693819/haemodynamics-and-stresses-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-a-fluid-structure-interaction-study-into-the-effect-of-proximal-neck-and-iliac-bifurcation-angle
#5
Corey J Drewe, Louis P Parker, Lachlan J Kelsey, Paul E Norman, Janet T Powell, Barry J Doyle
Our knowledge of how geometry influences abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) biomechanics is still developing. Both iliac bifurcation angle and proximal neck angle could impact the haemodynamics and stresses within AAA. Recent comparisons of the morphology of ruptured and intact AAA show that cases with large iliac bifurcation angles are less likely to rupture than those with smaller angles. We aimed to perform fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations on a range of idealised AAA geometries to conclusively determine the influence of proximal neck and iliac bifurcation angle on AAA wall stress and haemodynamics...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691403/effects-of-davallia-formosana-hayata-water-and-alcohol-extracts-on-osteoblastic-mc3t3-e1-cells
#6
Chia-Feng Wu, Yeong-Shenn Lin, Sheng-Chi Lee, Cheng-Yu Chen, Ming-Chang Wu, Jen-Shinn Lin
The Taiwanese native fern Davallia formosana Hayata (DFH) is used to treat bone diseases in classical Chinese medicine. We analyzed MC3T3E1 osteoblasts treated with different concentrations of water and ethanol extracts (10, 25, and 50 [both], and 100 μg/mL [DFE only]) using cell viability, expression of osteoblast differentiation markers [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), collagen 1 (CoL-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx 2)], and mineralization. These were significantly increased by DFW or DFE after 24-h incubation compared with the untreated controls...
July 10, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690494/the-electrically-evoked-compound-action-potential-from-laboratory-to-clinic
#7
REVIEW
Shuman He, Holly F B Teagle, Craig A Buchman
The electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) represents the synchronous firing of a population of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers. It can be directly recorded on a surgically exposed nerve trunk in animals or from an intra-cochlear electrode of a cochlear implant. In the past two decades, the eCAP has been widely recorded in both animals and clinical patient populations using different testing paradigms. This paper provides an overview of recording methodologies and response characteristics of the eCAP, as well as its potential applications in research and clinical situations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688564/utility-of-intraoperative-and-postoperative-radiographs-in-pediatric-cochlear-implant-surgery
#8
Samantha Anne, Jose Miguel Juarez, Amber Shaffer, David Eleff, Dennis Kitsko, Sarah Sydlowski, Erika Woodson, David Chi
OBJECTIVE: Routine plain film radiographs are often obtained to confirm proper placement of electrode after pediatric cochlear implant surgery. Objective is to evaluate necessity of routine radiographs in pediatric cochlear implant cases. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Two tertiary care academic centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Review of all children that underwent cochlear implantation from January 2003 thru June 2015...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678078/responsiveness-of-the-electrically-stimulated-cochlear-nerve-in-children-with-cochlear-nerve-deficiency
#9
Shuman He, Bahar S Shahsavarani, Tyler C McFayden, Haibo Wang, Katherine E Gill, Lei Xu, Xiuhua Chao, Jianfen Luo, Ruijie Wang, Nancy He
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) investigate the responsiveness of the cochlear nerve (CN) to a single biphasic-electrical pulse in implanted children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) and (2) compare their results with those measured in implanted children with normal-size CNs. DESIGN: Participants included 23 children with CND (CND1 to CND23) and 18 children with normal-size CNs (S1 to S18). All subjects except for CND1 used Cochlear Nucleus cochlear implants with contour electrode arrays in their test ears...
July 1, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633960/effect-of-stimulus-level-on-the-temporal-response-properties-of-the-auditory-nerve-in-cochlear-implants
#10
Michelle L Hughes, Sarah A Laurello
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been used to examine temporal response patterns of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. ECAP responses to individual pulses in a pulse train vary across stimulation rates for individual CI users. For very slow rates, auditory neurons have ample time to discharge, recover, and respond to each pulse in the train. As the pulse rate increases, an alternating ECAP-amplitude pattern occurs. As the stimulation rate increases further, the alternating pattern eventually ceases and the overall ECAP amplitudes are diminished, yielding a relatively stochastic state that presumably reflects a combination of adaptation, desynchronization, and facilitation across fibers...
August 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628862/characterization-and-inhibition-studies-of-tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-by-aminoalkanol-derivatives-of-1-7-dimethyl-8-9-diphenyl-4-azatricyclo-5-2-1-0-2-6-dec-8-ene-3-5-10-trione-new-competitive-and-non-competitive-inhibitors-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#11
Błażej Grodner, Mariola Napiórkowska
The article describes the inhibitory effect of two new aminoalkanol derivatives on the enzymatic kinetic of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase with use of capillary zone electrophoresis to evaluate the inhibitory effect. This technique allows to investigate of the enzymatic kinetic by the measure of the amounts of the substrate and product in the presence of compound (I) or (II) in the reaction mixture. The separation process was conducted using an eCAP fused-silica capillary. The detector was set at 200nm...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607224/evaluation-of-focused-multipolar-stimulation-for-cochlear-implants-a-preclinical-safety-study
#12
Robert K Shepherd, Andrew K Wise, Ya Lang Enke, Paul M Carter, James B Fallon
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) have a limited number of independent stimulation channels due to the highly conductive nature of the fluid-filled cochlea. Attempts to develop highly focused stimulation to improve speech perception in CI users includes the use of simultaneous stimulation via multiple current sources. Focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation is an example of this approach and has been shown to reduce interaction between stimulating channels. However, compared with conventional biphasic current pulses generated from a single current source, FMP is a complex stimulus that includes extended periods of stimulation before charge recovery is achieved, raising questions on whether chronic stimulation with this strategy is safe...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499354/patient-and-care-characteristics-of-self-referrals-treated-by-the-general-practitioner-cooperative-at-emergency-care-access-points-in-the-netherlands
#13
Martijn Rutten, Fieke Vrielink, Marleen Smits, Paul Giesen
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, out-of-hours primary care is provided in general practitioner-cooperatives (GPCs). These are increasingly located on site and in collaboration with emergency departments of hospitals (ED). At such sites, also called emergency-care-access-points (ECAP), the GPC is generally responsible for the triage and treatment of self-referrals who used to attend the ED. To evaluate the effects and safety of this novel organisation, we studied the characteristics and the quality of care given by GPCs to self-referrals at ECAPs...
May 12, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498269/real-time-intracochlear-electrocochleography-obtained-directly-through-a-cochlear-implant
#14
Michael S Harris, William Jason Riggs, Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak, Prashant Malhotra, Aaron C Moberly, Brendan P O'Connell, Jourdan Holder, Federico Alberto Di Lella, Carlos Mario Boccio, George B Wanna, Robert F Labadie, Oliver F Adunka
HYPOTHESIS: Utilizing the cochlear implant to record electrophysiologic responses during device placement is a feasible and efficacious technique for monitoring near real-time cochlear physiology during and following electrode insertion. BACKGROUND: Minimizing intracochlear trauma during cochlear implantation has emerged as a highly researched area to help improve patient performance. Currently, conventional cochlear implant technology allows for the recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs)...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485290/wp%C3%A5-yw-wybranych-czynnik%C3%A3-w-%C3%A5-rodowiskowych-na-maksymalny-przep%C3%A5-yw-nosowy-wdechowy-cz%C3%A4-%C3%A5-%C3%A4-projektu-ecap-epidemiologia-chor%C3%A3-b-alergicznych-w-polsce
#15
Edyta Krzych-Fałta, Konrad Furmańczyk, Barbara Piekarska, Adam Sybilski, Bolesław Samoliński
Celem niniejszej pracy była próba określenia wpływu wybranych czynników/parametrów na wynik maksymalnego przepływu nosowego wdechowego (PNIF, ang. peak nasal inspiratory flow) w badanej populacji polskiej projektu Epidemiologia Chorób Alergicznych w Polsce (ECAP). Materiał/metody: Badaną populację stanowiła grupa dzieci w wieku 6-7 lat (n=1123), młodzieży w wieku 13-14 lat (n=1136) oraz dorosłych (n=1876) zamieszkałych w siedmiu dużych polskich miastach. W badaniu posłużono się pomiarem maksymalnego przepływu nosowego wdechowego (PNIF)...
February 28, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469553/intracochlear-recordings-of-acoustically-and-electrically-evoked-potentials-in-nucleus-hybrid-l24-cochlear-implant-users-and-their-relationship-to-speech-perception
#16
Jae-Ryong Kim, Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI) has been developed for individuals with high frequency hearing loss who retain good low frequency hearing. Outcomes have been encouraging but individual variability is high; the health of the cochlea and the auditory nerve may be important factors driving outcomes. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) reflect the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation while electrocochleography (ECochG) reflects the response of the cochlear hair cells and auditory nerve to acoustic stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468652/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-prevent-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-mice-by-suppressing-rankl-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nfatc-1-signaling-pathways
#17
Hung-Bo Hsiao, Jin-Bin Wu, Wen-Chuan Lin
BACKGROUND: Davallia formosana Hayata is a herb that has been used in Chinese medicine to treat bone diseases, including arthritis, bone fractures and osteoporosis. The rhizome of D. formosana H. has been found to be rich in (-)-Epicatechin 3-O-β-D-allopyranoside (ECAP), which is considered to be the active component of the plant in terms of its antiosteoporotic effect. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of the antiosteoporotic property of ECAP isolated from the roots of D...
May 3, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432874/delayed-changes-in-auditory-status-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-preserved-acoustic-hearing
#18
Rachel A Scheperle, Viral D Tejani, Julia K Omtvedt, Carolyn J Brown, Paul J Abbas, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Jacob J Oleson, Marie V Ozanne
This retrospective review explores delayed-onset hearing loss in 85 individuals receiving cochlear implants designed to preserve acoustic hearing at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2001 and 2015. Repeated measures of unaided behavioral audiometric thresholds, electrode impedance, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude growth functions were used to characterize longitudinal changes in auditory status. Participants were grouped into two primary categories according to changes in unaided behavioral thresholds: (1) stable hearing or symmetrical hearing loss and (2) delayed loss of hearing in the implanted ear...
April 12, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421414/polyclonal-antibodies-in-microplates-to-predict-the-maximum-adsorption-activities-of-enzyme-mutants-from-cell-lysates
#19
Yiran Feng, Xiaolan Yang, Deqiang Wang, Xiaolei Hu, Huimin Chong, Juan Liao, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fei Liao
With microplate-immobilized polyclonal antibodies against a starting enzyme or its active mutant bearing consistent accessible epitopes, the maximum activity of an adsorbed enzyme/mutant (Vs) was predicted for comparison to recognize weakly-positive mutants. Rabbit antisera against Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (ECAP) were fractionated with 33% ammonium sulfate to yield crude polyclonal antibodies for conventional immobilization in 96-well microplates. The response curve of the activities of ECAP/mutant adsorbed by the immobilized polyclonal antibodies to protein quantities from a cell lysate was fit to an approximation model to predict Vs...
June 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385501/percutaneous-embolization-of-delayed-external-carotid-artery-pseudoaneurysm-eight-years-after-partial-parathyroidectomy
#20
Antonella Laurito, Holta Kasemi, Andrea Monti, Mauro Maselli, Paola Manzo, Valeria Tavolini, Andrea Gaggiano
External carotid artery pseudoaneurysm (ECAP) is very rare. The usual mechanism is trauma or iatrogenic. We report a case of a patient with an asymptomatic, chronic ECAP secondary to partial parathyroidectomy. Percutaneous injection of the 2-component Fibrin Sealant (Tisseel; Baxter int, Deerfield, IL) with the 2 active ingredients (Sealer Protein Solution and Thrombin Solution) was carried out with successful occlusion of the pseudoaneurysmal sac. The 6-month follow-up computed tomographic scan confirmed the ECAP thrombosis...
August 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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