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Transplant rejection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230676/gut-microbial-balance-and-liver-transplantation-alteration-management-and-prediction
#1
REVIEW
Xinyao Tian, Zhe Yang, Fangzhou Luo, Shusen Zheng
Liver transplantation is a conventional treatment for terminal stage liver diseases. However, several complications still hinder the survival rate. Intestinal barrier destruction is widely observed among patients receiving liver transplant and suffering from ischemia-reperfusion or rejection injuries because of the relationship between the intestine and the liver, both in anatomy and function. Importantly, the resulting alteration of gut microbiota aggravates graft dysfunctions during the process. This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial alterations and liver transplantation...
December 12, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230502/-acceptance-of-post-mortem-organ-donation-in-germany-representative-cross-sectional-study
#2
E Tackmann, S Dettmer
BACKGROUND: The German post-mortem organ donation rate has dropped by one third since 2010. Furthermore, 958 patients died in 2015 in Germany while waiting for an organ. To decrease organ shortage, an amendment of the transplantation law was established in 2012. An information package including an organ donor card is sent to all German citizens via the postal service. A voluntary national transplantation register was introduced in 2016 to improve transparency in the organ donation process...
December 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229189/immunoproteasome-inhibition-prevents-chronic-antibody-mediated-allograft-rejection-in-renal%C3%A2-transplantation
#3
Jun Li, Michael Basler, Gerardo Alvarez, Thomas Brunner, Christopher J Kirk, Marcus Groettrup
Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is the major cause of fading allograft function and loss after renal transplantation. Currently, pharmacological agents for the suppression of chronic antibody-mediated rejection are lacking. Non-selective proteasome inhibitors suppress antibody-mediated allograft rejection. However, extensive adverse side effects of these inhibitors severely limit their application. In contrast, immunoproteasome inhibition is effective in preclinical models of autoimmune diseases and was applied over weeks without obvious adverse side effects...
December 4, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229171/special-considerations-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Sean A Hebert, Rita D Swinford, David R Hall, Jason K Au, John S Bynon
Universally accepted as the treatment of choice for children needing renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation affords children the opportunity for an improved quality of life over dialysis therapy. Immunologic and surgical advances over the last 15 years have improved the pediatric patient and kidney graft survival. Unique to pediatrics, congenital genitourinary anomalies are the most common primary diseases leading to kidney failure, many with urological issues. Early urological evaluation for post-transplant bladder dysfunction and emphasis on immunization adherence are the mainstays of pediatric pretransplant and post-transplant evaluations...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229149/transfusion-of-ethylene-carbodiimide-fixed-donor-splenocytes-prolongs-survival-of-vascularized-skin-allografts
#5
Jianke Ding, Shiqiang Liu, Dongliang Zhang, Yajuan Song, Xianjie Ma, Chenggang Yi, Baoqiang Song, Bo Xiao, Yingjun Su, Shuzhong Guo
BACKGROUND: Allograft rejection is a major obstacle to the widespread clinical application of vascularized composite allotransplantation. Recent studies revealed a noncytoreductive strategy to protect allografts by the transfusion of ethylene carbodiimide-fixed donor splenocytes (ECDI-SPs). To determine whether this approach offers advantages in protecting skin allografts, we examined the immunological protection of infusing ECDI-SPs with a 30-d administration of rapamycin on the skin allografts of mice...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228580/posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis-over-two-decades-in-hong-kong
#6
Chi Yuen Cheung, Maggie Kam Man Ma, Ka Foon Chau, Wai Leung Chak, Sydney Chi Wai Tang
Objective: To characterize the posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status, histological subgroups, site of occurrence and the clinical outcome in the Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 1, 227 adult kidney transplant recipients who were followed up in two transplant centers in Hong Kong over two decades. Results: 23 (1.9%) patients developed PTLD...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227340/corneal-transplantation-in-new-zealand-2000-to-2009
#7
Alexandra Z Crawford, Thiyagaraj Krishnan, Susan E Ormonde, Dipika V Patel, Charles N McGhee
PURPOSE: To quantify all minor/major adverse events in a large cohort of consecutive corneal transplants, particularly in respect to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). METHODS: All corneal transplants in the Auckland region over a 10-year period (2000-2009) were identified through the New Zealand National Eye Bank. Relevant clinical records were assessed for this period and 2 years after. All intraoperative or postoperative adverse events/complications, visual acuity, and graft outcomes were recorded...
December 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226570/campath-calcineurin-inhibitor-reduction-and-chronic-allograft-nephropathy-the-3c-study-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Richard Haynes, Lisa Blackwell, Natalie Staplin, William G Herrington, Jonathan Emberson, Parminder K Judge, Benjamin C Storey, Martin J Landray, Paul N Harden, Colin Baigent, Peter Friend
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI e.g. tacrolimus) reduce short-term kidney transplant failure, but chronic nephrotoxicity may contribute to late transplant loss. Elective conversion to inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway (mTOR e.g. sirolimus) might avoid long-term CNI renal damage and improve outcomes. The 3C Study was a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comprising sequential randomizations between alemtuzumab and basiliximab induction therapy (at the time of surgery) and between tacrolimus and sirolimus maintenance therapy at 6-months post-transplant...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226122/does-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-prevent-calcineurin-inhibitor-induced-nephrotoxicity
#9
REVIEW
Line Aas Mortensen, Claus Bistrup, Helle Charlotte Thiesson
Calcineurin inhibitors have markedly reduced acute rejection rates in renal transplantation, thus significantly improved short-term outcome. The beneficial effects are, however, tampered by acute and chronic nephrotoxicity leading to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, which impairs long-term allograft survival. The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone induces fibrosis in numerous organs, including the kidney. Evidence from animal models suggests a beneficial effect of aldosterone antagonism in reducing calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225777/evaluation-of-electrochemiluminescence-immunoassays-for-immunosuppressive-drugs-on-the-roche-cobas-e411-analyzer
#10
Angela W S Fung, Michael J Knauer, Ivan M Blasutig, David A Colantonio, Vathany Kulasingam
Background:  Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs are used to monitor drug efficacy and toxicity and to prevent organ transplantation rejection. This study evaluates the analytical performance of semi-automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECLIA) for cyclosporine (CSA), tacrolimus (TAC) and sirolimus (SRL) on the Roche cobas e 411 analyzer at a major transplant hospital to identify method suitability and limitations. Methods: Residual whole blood samples from patients undergoing immunosuppressant therapy were used for evaluation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225601/anti-donor-immune-responses-elicited-by-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles-are-we-still-learning
#11
REVIEW
Paul Lohan, Oliver Treacy, Matthew D Griffin, Thomas Ritter, Aideen E Ryan
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous) MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224938/subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-carotid-and-aorta-intima-media-thickness-and-their-predictors
#12
Emily R Perito, Andrew Phelps, Tabitha Vase, Vickie A Feldstein, Robert H Lustig, Philip Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and predictors of cardiovascular risk in pediatric liver transplant recipients using noninvasive markers of subclinical atherosclerosis: carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and aorta intima-media thickness (aIMT). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 88 pediatric liver transplant recipients. The cIMT and aIMT were measured by ultrasound imaging using standardized protocol. RESULTS: Participants were 15...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224020/association-between-glcci1-promoter-polymorphism-rs37972-and-post-transplant-hypertension-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#13
Aki Mafune Hamada, Izumi Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Nakada, Akimitsu Kobayashi, Yusuke Koike, Jun Miki, Hiroki Yamada, Yudo Tanno, Ichiro Ohkido, Nobuo Tsuboi, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Takashi Yokoo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Post-transplant hypertension is highly prevalent in renal transplant recipients and is a risk factor for graft loss, cardiovascular disease and death. Glucocorticoid is used to prevent rejection, but simultaneously increases the risk of post-transplant hypertension. The glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 (GLCCI1) promoter polymorphism (rs37972) has been reported to be associated with response to glucocorticoid therapy in asthma. We therefore examined the association between GLCCI1 promoter polymorphism and post-transplant hypertension in renal transplant recipients...
December 8, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223945/-heart-transplantation-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#14
Pablo Mouras, Laura Barcán, César Belziti, Rodolfo Pizarro, Noelia Mañez, Ricardo Marenchino
Because of its own unfavourable evolution, HIV infection was until recently considered a contraindication for organ transplantation. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy prolonged the life expectancy of these patients and allowed the manifestation of disorders directly or indirectly related to HIV infection, mainly liver, kidney and cardiovascular diseases. We present a case of cardiac transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy that was performed in a patient with a recently detected HIV infection...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222866/outcome-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-compared-to-acute-cellular-rejection-after-pediatric-heart-transplantation
#15
Gabrielle R Vaughn, Neal W Jorgensen, Yuk M Law, Erin L Albers, Borah J Hong, Joshua M Friedland-Little, Mariska S Kemna
Outcomes of ACR after pediatric HTx have been well described, but less has been reported on outcomes of AMR. We compared the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular outcomes (composite end-point of death, retransplantation, or allograft vasculopathy) of pediatric HTx recipients with AMR, ACR, and no rejection in a retrospective single-center study of 104 recipients. Twenty were treated for AMR; 15 were treated for ACR. Recipients with AMR had an increased frequency of congenital heart disease (90% vs ACR 67% vs no rejection 59%, P = ...
December 9, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222694/preparation-and-evaluation-of-decellularized-porcine-carotid-arteries-cross-linked-by-genipin-the-preliminary-results
#16
Yongquan Gu, Fei Wang, Rong Wang, Jianxin Li, Cong Wang, Liqiang Li, Zeqin Xu, Jian Zhang
Decellularized arteries have been considered as promising scaffolds for small-diameter vascular substitutes. However, weakened mechanical properties, immunological rejection and rapid degradation after transplantation still exist after decellularization. Previous studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can solve these problems. Therefore, genipin was selected as the cross-linking agent for the pre-treatment of decellularized arteries in our study. Histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties analysis and subcutaneous embedding experiment were adopted to investigate the efficiency of decellularization and the effect of genipin cross-linking on improving mechanical, structural and biological properties of decellularized arteries...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221351/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-system-as-a-bridge-to-reparative-surgery-in-ventricular-septal-defect-complicating-acute-inferoposterior-myocardial-infarction
#17
Jose Rozado, Isaac Pascual, Pablo Avanzas, Daniel Hernandez-Vaquero, Ruben Alvarez, Rocio Díaz, Beatriz Díaz, María Martín, Amelia Carro, Guillermo Muñiz, Jacobo Silva, Cesar Moris
Post-infarction ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a rare but potentially lethal complication of acute myocardial infarction. Medical management is usually futile, so definitive surgery remains the treatment of choice but the risk surgery is very high and the optimal timing for surgery is still under debate. A 55-year-old man with no previous medical history attended the emergency-room for 12 h evolution of oppressive chest pain and strong anginal pain 7 days ago. On physical examination, blood pressure was 96/70 mmHg, pansystolic murmur over left sternal border without pulmonary crackles...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219790/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients-current-treatment-options
#18
Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Aleksandar Sikole
Hepatitis C virus infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients, occurring consequently to their previous treatment with hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with lower graft and patient survival compared with that shown in patients without infection. The lower survival has been associated with the posttransplant progression of liver disease and increased risk for development of extrahepatic complications. The choice of immunosuppressive drugs could significantly affect the course of the infection with an accelerated viral replication after kidney transplant...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218760/a-systematic-review-of-immunosuppressant-adherence-interventions-in-transplant-recipients-decoding-the-streetlight-effect
#19
REVIEW
S Duncan, R A Annunziato, C Dunphy, D LaPointe Rudow, B L Shneider, E Shemesh
Non-adherence to immunosuppressant medications is an important risk factor for graft dysfunction. To evaluate the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions, we reviewed adherence intervention studies in solid organ transplant recipients (all ages). Using the following databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, we identified 41 eligible studies. Only three non-randomized trials showed a possible positive effect on objective indicators of transplant outcomes (such as rejection, liver enzyme levels, kidney function)...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218089/the-role-of-sildenafil-in-the-development-of-transplant-arteriosclerosis-in-rat-aortic-grafts
#20
Shuai Luo, Mei Yang, Hao Jin, Zi-Qiang Xu, Yi-Fu Li, Peng Xia, Yi-Rrong Yang, Bi-Cheng Chen, Yan Zhang
Chronic rejection (CR), which is characterized histologically by progressive graft arteriosclerosis, remains a significant barrier to the long-term survival of a graft. Sildenafil has been shown to protect vascular endothelial cells. In this study, we found that sildenafil significantly reduces the thickness of transplant vascular intima in a rat aortic transplant model. Moreover, sildenafil dramatically decreased the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the grafted aortas and increased the concentrations of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in serum...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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