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Transplant rejection

Michael Kossmeier, Georg Heinze
MAIN PROBLEM: Citations are widely used for measuring scientific impact. The goal of the present study is to predict citation counts of manuscripts submitted to Transplant International (TI) in the two calendar years following publication. METHODS: We considered a comprehensive set of 21 manuscript, author, and peer review related predictor variables available early in the peer review process. We also evaluated how successfully the peer-review process at TI identified and accepted the most promising manuscripts for publication...
June 16, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Sandhya Bansal, Monal Sharma, Ranjithkumar R, T Mohanakumar
Extracellular vesicles are emerging as potent vehicles of intercellular communication. In this review, we focus on a subclass of extracellular vesicles called exosomes. Previously considered an unimportant catch-all, exosomes have recently been recognized for their role in various diseases and their potential for therapeutic use. We have examined the role of exosomes after human lung transplantation and have delineated the composition of circulating exosomes isolated from lung transplant recipients diagnosed with acute and chronic rejection, primary graft dysfunction, and respiratory viral infection...
June 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Elizabeth F Wallin, Danika L Hill, Michelle A Linterman, Kathryn J Wood
Background: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are key players in the production of antibody-producing B cells via the germinal center reaction. Therapeutic strategies targeting Tfh cells are important where antibody formation is implicated in disease, such as transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. We investigated the impact of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus on human Tfh cell differentiation and function in transplant recipients. Methods: Paired blood and lymph node (LN) samples were obtained from 61 transplant recipients immediately prior to organ implantation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yuchen Hou, Nga Lei Tam, Zhicheng Xue, Xuzhi Zhang, Bing Liao, Jie Yang, Shunjun Fu, Yi Ma, Linwei Wu, Xiaoshun He
RATIONALE: Hepatic vein occlusive disease (HVOD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation, which is characterized by nonthrombotic, fibrous obliteration of the small centrilobular hepatic veins by connective tissue and centrilobular necrosis in zone 3 of the acini. HVOD after solid organ transplantation has been reported; recently, most of these reports with limited cases have documented that acute cell rejection and immunosuppressive agents are the major causative factors. HVOD is relatively a rare complication of liver transplantation with the incidence of approximately 2%...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh, Zulkafli Zefarina, Nor Fazila Che Mat, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur
Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for finding suitable donors for transfusion patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dong Jiang, Zheng-Zheng Zhang, Feng Zhao, Shao-Jie Wang, Yan-Song Qi, Li-Heng Zhao, Ji-Ying Zhang, Jia-Kuo Yu
Meniscal allograft transplantation yields good and excellent results but is limited by donor availability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of radiated deep-frozen xenogenic meniscal tissue (RDF-X) as an alternative graft choice in meniscal transplantation. The xenogenic meniscal tissues were harvested from the inner 1/3 part of the porcine meniscus and then irradiated and deeply frozen. The medial menisci of rabbits were replaced by the RDF-X. Meniscal allograft transplantation, meniscectomy and sham operation served as controls...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kelley Núñez, Paul Thevenot, Abeer Alfadhli, Ari Cohen
The complement system anchors the innate inflammatory response by triggering both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against pathogens. The complement system also plays a critical role in sterile tissue injury by responding to damage-associated molecular patterns. The degree and duration of complement activation may be a critical variable controlling the balance between regenerative and destructive inflammation following sterile injury. Recent studies in kidney transplantation suggest that aberrant complement activation may play a significant role in delayed graft function following transplantation, confirming results obtained from rodent models of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John K Brealey, John Cassidy, Jim Manavis
Microvascular injury is an important factor in renal allograft survival. Repeated episodes of endothelial injury from chronic antibody-mediated rejection typically manifest at the ultrastructural level as circumferential multilayering of remodeled glomerular basement membrane material and peritubular capillary basal lamina. In contrast to this typical pattern of microvascular injury, a renal transplantation case is presented in which focally dilated and multilayered segments of peritubular capillary basal lamina bearing lipid droplets were interspersed with ultrastructurally normal unilayered segments of basal lamina devoid of lipid droplets...
June 13, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ondrej Zenata, Zdenek Dvorak, Radim Vrzal
Mycophenolate Mofetil (MYC) is a transplant drug used to prevent rejection in heart and kidneys transplant patients. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, was considered as a primary target for MYC. Recently, we described that MYC was activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor and it antagonizes glucocorticoid receptor. Here we describe an androgen receptor (AR) as another off-target for MYC. We found that MYC increased basal and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-inducible AR-dependent luciferase activity in AIZ-AR cells...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Maria Terezinha Santos Leite Neta, Rajiv Gandhi Sathiyabama, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds, extensively distributed in plants. T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines balance plays an essential role in the reaction of inflammatory, allergic and infectious processes and transplantation rejection. PURPOSE: This systematic review focuses on various classes of flavonoids with a view to evaluate whether Th1/Th2 cytokine-mediated pathways of immunoenhancement could reduce immune overwhelming reactions. METHODS: Articles in English published from inception to December 2017 reporting flavonoids with immunomodulatory activity for the management of immune-mediated disorders were acquired from PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science and a animal experiments where Th1 and Th2 cytokines were investigated to assess the outcome of immunoregulatory therapy were included...
May 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Carola Ledderose, Kaifeng Liu, Yutaka Kondo, Christian J Slubowski, Thomas Dertnig, Sara Denicoló, Mona Arbab, Johannes Hubner, Kirstin Konrad, Mahtab Fakhari, James A Lederer, Simon C Robson, Gary A Visner, Wolfgang G Junger
T cells must migrate in order to encounter antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and to execute their varied functions in immune defense and inflammation. ATP release and autocrine signaling through purinergic receptors contribute to T cell activation at the immune synapse that T cells form with APCs. Here, we show that T cells also require ATP release and purinergic signaling for their migration to APCs. We found that the chemokine SDF-1α triggered mitochondrial ATP production, rapid bursts of ATP release, and increased migration of primary human CD4+ T cells...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Pedro Ventura-Aguiar, Joana Ferrer, Ignacio Revuelta, David Paredes, Erika de Sousa-Amorim, Jordi Rovira, Enric Esmatjes, Juan Carlos Garcia-Valdecasas, Josep M Campistol, Federico Oppenheimer, Fritz Diekmann, Maria José Ricart
Background: Pancreas outcomes in pancreas after kidney transplantation (PAK) patients have been reported as being inferior to those of patients who receive simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK). The influence of the kidney donor (i.e. living versus deceased) has never been previously addressed. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all pancreas transplants performed in a single centre since 2007 and compared the outcomes between those patients who had previously received a living-donor kidney transplant (pancreas transplantation after living-donor kidney transplantation, PAldK; n = 18) or a deceased-donor kidney transplant (pancreas transplantation after deceased-donor kidney transplantation, PAddK; n = 28), using SPK (n = 139) recipients as a reference...
June 8, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Magali Giral, Karine Renaudin, Maarten Naesens, Redmer Luning, Dany Anglicheau, Emmanuel Morelon, Alexandre Huneau, Chloé Paul, Sophie Brouard, Grégoire Couvrat-Desvergnes, Yohann Foucher, Etienne Dantan
Surveillance biopsies after renal transplantation remain debatable. To drive the decision of such intervention, we propose a predictive score of abnormal histology at 1-year post-transplantation, named 1-Year Renal Biopsy Index (1-RBI). We studied 466 kidney recipients from the DIVAT cohort alive with a functioning graft and a surveillance biopsy at 1-year post-transplantation. Patients displaying abnormal histology (49%) (borderline, acute rejection, IFTA grade 2 or 3, glomerulonephritis) were compared to the normal or subnormal (IFTA grade 1) histology group...
June 12, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Diana E Drogalis-Kim, Roberto G Gallotti, Benjamin A Blais, Greg Perens, Jeremy P Moore
BACKGROUND: Pediatric heart transplant recipients are at an elevated risk for development of atrial tachycardia (AT) however the underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that occurrence of AT in pediatric heart transplant recipients would be associated with a higher frequency of adverse events during follow-up. METHODS: A single center retrospective review of all pediatric heart transplant recipients with suspected AT between 1997 and 2017 was performed...
June 12, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Eleni Theocharidou, Michael A Heneghan
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) can recur following liver transplantation despite immunosuppressive therapy, with implications for graft survival. Although the evidence is not robust, disease recurrence seems to occur in the presence of less intense and/or steroid-free immunosuppression in particular in the case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The main risk factor for AIH recurrence is the severity of disease activity in the explant and potentially donor/recipient HLA-DR3 mismatch. The treatment for AIH recurrence includes reintroduction or increase in the dose of steroids with or without the addition of Azathioprine...
June 12, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Narendra S Choudhary, Sanjiv Saigal, Neeraj Saraf, Amit Rastogi, Sanjay Goja, Prashant Bhangui, Srinivasan Thiagrajan, Dheeraj Gautam, Deepak Govil, Vijay Vohra, Arvinder S Soin
Introduction: Although liver transplantation is a definitive cure for Wilson's disease (WD), there is limited data about results of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adults. Material and methods: 18 adults underwent LDLT for WD. The presentations before LDLT were decompensated cirrhosis ( n  = 16), acute on chronic liver failure ( n  = 1) and acute liver failure ( n  = 1). The donors were parents ( n  = 2), siblings ( n  = 3), cousin ( n  = 1), daughter ( n  = 1), nephew ( n  = 1), spouse or relatives of spouse ( n  = 9) and from swap transplantation ( n  = 1)...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Kyoung Woon Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Kyoung Chan Doh, Mi-La Cho, Chul Woo Yang, Byung Ha Chung
The regulatory function of CCR7+ CD8+ T cells against effector T-cells involved in T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) in kidney transplant recipients was investigated. In vitro experiments explored the ability of CCR7+ CD8+ T cells to suppress T-cell proliferation under T-cell activation conditions or during coculture with human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HRPTEpiC). In an ex vivo experiment, the proportion of CCR7+ /CD8+ , FOXP3+ /CCR7+ CD8+ T and effector T-cell subsets were compared between the normal biopsy control (NC, n = 17) and TCMR group (n = 17)...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Keki R Balsara, Alexander S Krupnick, Jennifer M Bell, Ali Khiabani, Masina Scavuzzo, Ramsey Hachem, Elbert Trulock, Chad Witt, Derek E Byers, Roger Yusen, Bryan Meyers, Benjamin Kozower, G Alexander Patterson, Varun Puri, Daniel Kreisel
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 30 years, lung transplantation has emerged as the definitive treatment for end-stage lung disease. In 2005, the lung allocation score (LAS) was introduced to allocate organs according to disease severity. The number of transplants performed annually in the United States continues to increase as centers have become more comfortable expanding donor and recipient criteria and have become more facile with the perioperative and long-term management of these patients...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Bruce E Gelb, J Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Natalie M Plana, Adam Jacoby, William J Rifkin, Kimberly S Khouri, Daniel J Ceradini, Eduardo D Rodriguez
Background: Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) to human leukocyte antigen increase the risk of accelerated rejection and allograft damage and reduce the likelihood of successful transplantation. Patients with full-thickness facial burns may benefit from facial allotransplantation. However, they are at a high risk of developing DSA due to standard features of their acute care. Case Presentation: A 41-year-old male with severe disfigurement from facial burns consented to facial allotransplantation in 2014; panel reactive antibody score was 0%...
2018: Case Reports in Transplantation
Chuanlei Yang, Xing Chen, Zhanjie Wei, Jie Xiao, Weiqiang Chen, Yuqiang Shang, Jinping Liu
Acute rejection is the most important factor causing allograft loss, which remains a challenge for patients undergoing organ transplantation. There is considerable evidence indicating that the activity of PI3K and its downstream positive and negative regulators plays a major role in regulating the activation of different subsets of effector CD4+ T cells. Thus, we investigated whether class A PI3Ks are involved in the development of acute allograft rejection, we found that p110α protein expression levels in the allograft group were significantly up-regulated on day 7 post-transplantation, while p110β and p110δ expression was significantly increased on days 5 and 7 post-transplantation...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
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