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Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Amir Hossein Jafari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse lung diseases (DLD) in children involve a group of heterogeneous, rare disorders. In spite of the low diagnostic yield in pediatric DLD, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be used to diagnose specific disorders. There are few studies about microbial and cellular profiles of BAL samples in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, cytological and microbiological evaluation of BAL in children with DLD. METHODS: The clinical, cytological and microbiological profiles of BAL samples of all patients with DLD who underwent the fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) at Children's Medical Center, an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital during a year were evaluated...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Icilio Cavero, Henry Holzgrefe
INTRODUCTION: This report summarizes and comments key talks on the five traditional senses (ear, vestibular system, vision, taste, olfaction, and touch) which were delivered during the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society. AREAS COVERED: The functional observational battery (FOB) can detect major candidate drug liabilities only on ear, touch and vision. Anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology notions on each sensory system introduce speaker talks...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Robert A Saxton, Kevin E Knockenhauer, Thomas U Schwartz, David M Sabatini
Sestrin2 is a GATOR2-interacting protein that directly binds leucine and is required for the inhibition of mTORC1 under leucine deprivation, indicating that it is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. We recently reported the structure of Sestrin2 in complex with leucine [Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID, 5DJ4] and demonstrated that mutations in the leucine-binding pocket that alter the affinity of Sestrin2 for leucine result in a corresponding change in the leucine sensitivity of mTORC1 in cells. A lower resolution structure of human Sestrin2 (PDB ID, 5CUF), which was crystallized in the absence of exogenous leucine, showed Sestrin2 to be in a nearly identical conformation as the leucine-bound structure...
2016: Science Signaling
Caineng Wu, Jianqi Wei, Qingyun Cen, Xuefan Sha, Qingxiang Cai, Wuhua Ma, Ying Cao
A difficult airway may lead to hypoxia and brain damage. The WEI Nasal Jet Tube (WNJ) is a new nasal pharyngeal tube that applies supraglottic jet oxygenation and ventilation (SJOV) for patients during tracheal intubation without the need for mask ventilation. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of SJOV-assisted fibre-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) using the WNJ in the management of difficult tracheal intubations. A total of 50 adult patients with Cormack-Lehane grade ≥3 and general anesthesia with tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to either the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) or WNJ groups...
September 14, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Gabriel Izbicki, Ayal Romem, Nissim Arish, Clement Cahan, Hava Azulai, Chen Chen-Shuali, Esther Tennenhaus, Zipi Bar-Yosef, Evgeniya Zlotkevich, Ariel Rokach
BACKGROUND: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is complicated by a pneumothorax in 1-4% of cases. Performance of routine post-TBB chest radiography (CXR) results in an extremely low diagnostic yield but nevertheless is the common clinical practice prevailing today. It has previously been suggested that routine post-TBB CXR could be avoided in asymptomatic patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to prospectively assess the feasibility and safety of this approach...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Anant Mohan, Indrajit Momin, Rosemary Poulose, Charu Mohan, Karan Madan, Vijay Hadda, Randeep Guleria, R M Pandey
BACKGROUND: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) may exaggerate symptoms and lung functions in patients with pre-existing airway obstruction. Interventions which can alleviate or minimize this procedure-related bronchospasm, especially in this high-risk group are, therefore, required. METHODS: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 400 μg of inhaled salbutamol on patients with spirometric evidence of airflow obstruction planned for FOB...
July 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
David V Gauvin, Joshua D Yoder, David L Holdsworth, Marci L Harter, Jonelle R May, Noelle Cotey, Jill A Dalton, Theodore J Baird
The International Conference on Harmonisation's (ICH) Tripartite Guideline on Safety Pharmacology Studies for Human Pharmaceuticals has adopted the requirement that each new test substance must be tested for effects on the central nervous system prior to "first dose in man". This assessment is required to measure, at a minimum, the effects of the substance on general motor activity, behavioral changes, coordination, sensory/motor reflex responses, and body temperatures. To achieve this goal, ICH S7A recommends a neurobehavioral assessment (usually a functional observational battery (FOB) or modified Irwin test), which is generally undertaken in the rat...
August 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
E J Grobbee, M van der Vlugt, A J van Vuuren, A K Stroobants, M W Mundt, W J Spijker, E J C Bongers, E J Kuipers, I Lansdorp-Vogelaar, P M Bossuyt, E Dekker, M C W Spaander
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer screening programmes are implemented worldwide; many are based on faecal immunochemical testing (FIT). The aim of this study was to evaluate two frequently used FITs on participation, usability, positivity rate and diagnostic yield in population-based FIT screening. DESIGN: Comparison of two FITs was performed in a fourth round population-based FIT-screening cohort. Randomly selected individuals aged 50-74 were invited for FIT screening and were randomly allocated to receive an OC -Sensor (Eiken, Japan) or faecal occult blood (FOB)-Gold (Sentinel, Italy) test (March-December 2014)...
August 9, 2016: Gut
Ilana Oren, Emilia Hardak, Tsila Zuckerman, Yuval Geffen, Ron Hoffman, Mordechai Yigla, Irit Avivi
OBJECTIVES: The identification of the specific pathogen responsible for a respiratory infection in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) would ensure relevant treatment and prevent toxicity associated with anti-infective therapy. This large-scale study aimed to explore the clinical impact of fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FOB-BAL) in conjunction with molecular analysis on the diagnosis and management of respiratory infections in hemato-oncological patients...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jenny L Wiley, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Megan Grabenauer, Katherine N Moore, John W Huffman, Brian F Thomas
Anecdotal reports suggest that abused synthetic cannabinoids produce cannabis-like "highs," but some of their effects may also differ from traditional cannabinoids such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study examined the binding affinities of first-generation indole-derived synthetic cannabinoids at cannabinoid and noncannabinoid receptors and their effects in a functional observational battery (FOB) and drug discrimination in mice. All seven compounds, except JWH-391, had favorable affinity (≤159 nM) for both cannabinoid receptors...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
J Cnops, F Kauffmann, C De Trez, T Baltz, J Keirsse, M Radwanska, E Muraille, S Magez
African trypanosomosis is a debilitating parasitic disease occurring in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 98% of the reported HAT infections and causes a chronic, gradually progressing disease. Multiple experimental murine models for trypanosomosis have demonstrated inflammation-dependent apoptosis of splenic follicular B (FoB) cells and the destruction of B-cell memory against previously encountered pathogens. Here, we report that during murine infection with a chronic T...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
Palma Ann Marone, James T Heimbach, Boris Nemzer, John M Hunter
A branded calcium fructoborate product, a nature-identical calcium salt of bis (fructose) ester of boric acid found in plants and a natural source of boron in the human diet and sold under the trade name FruiteX-B(®) Brand Calcium Fructoborate ("FrxB"), was evaluated in a 90-day dietary toxicity study and two genotoxicity studies. In the 90-day study, four groups of 10 male and 10 female Crl:SD CD(®) IGS rats were fed diets with FrxB admixtures of 0.56, 1.12, and 1.68% dietary concentration, providing mean overall daily intakes of FrxB in male rats of 385...
September 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Andrea Burón, Margarita Posso, Judit Sivilla, Jaume Grau, Rafael Guayta, Xavier Castells, Antoni Castells, Francesc Macià
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Population-based bowel screening programmes with faecal occult blood (FOB) tests need to achieve high uptake rates and offer quality services. We invited participants in the Barcelona Programme to complete a satisfaction survey, in order to explore factors influencing uptake and respondents' opinion and satisfaction with each step of the screening process. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Telephone survey using an ad hoc questionnaire (see annex) administered to a final sample of 1189 people: 310 non-participants in the programme (NoP), 553 participants with a negative test result (PNeg), and 326 participants with a positive result (PPos)...
June 9, 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Min A Kwon, Jaegyok Song, Seokkon Kim, Seong-Mi Ji, Jeongho Bae
BACKGROUND: Various complications may occur during nasotracheal intubation. This may include epistaxis and damage to the nasopharyngeal airway. We tested the hypothesis that the use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB)-guided intubation is superior to endotracheal tube (ETT) obturated with an inflated esophageal stethoscope. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n=22 each): either an FOB-guided intubation group or ETT obturated with an inflated esophageal stethoscope group...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Simon Authier, Joseph Arezzo, Marcus S Delatte, Mary-Jeanne Kallman, Carrie Markgraf, Dominique Paquette, Michael K Pugsley, Sian Ratcliffe, William S Redfern, Joanne Stevens, Jean-Pierre Valentin, Hugo M Vargas, Michael J Curtis
The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) conducted an industry survey in 2015 to identify industry practices as they relate to central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system ('CNS') drug safety testing. One hundred fifty-eight (158) participants from Asia (16%), Europe (20%) and North America (56%) responded to the survey. 52% of participants were from pharmaceutical companies (>1000 employees). Oncology (67%) and neurology/psychiatry (66%) were the most frequent target indications pursued by companies followed by inflammation (48%), cardiovascular (43%), metabolic (39%), infectious (37%), orphan (32%) and respiratory (29%) diseases...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Raymond Heatherly
Along with technical issues, biobanking frequently raises important privacy and security issues that must be resolved as biobanks continue to grow in scale and scope. Consent mechanisms currently in use range from fine-grained to very broad, and in some cases participants are offered very few privacy protections. However, developments in information technology are bringing improvements. New programs and systems are being developed to allow researchers to conduct analyses without distributing the data itself offsite, either by allowing the investigator to communicate with a central computer, or by having each site participate in meta-analysis that results in a shared statistic or final significance result...
March 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Pervin Korkmaz Ekren, Burcu Basarik Aydogan, Alev Gurgun, Mehmet Sezai Tasbakan, Feza Bacakoglu, Stefano Nava
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a cornerstone for the treatment of acute respiratory failure of various etiologies. Using NIV is discussed in mild-to-moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients (PaO2/FiO2 > 150). These patients often have comorbidities that increase the risk for bronchoscopy related complications. The primary outcome of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and contribution in diagnosis and/or modification of the ongoing treatment of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in patients with ARDS treated with NIV...
2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Julie A Marusich, Timothy W Lefever, Bruce E Blough, Brian F Thomas, Jenny L Wiley
Vaporizing drugs in e-cigarettes is becoming a common method of administration for synthetic cathinones and classical stimulants. Heating during vaporization can expose the user to a cocktail of parent compound and thermolytic degradants, which could lead to different toxicological and pharmacological effects compared to ingesting the parent compound alone via injection or nasal inhalation. This study examined the in vivo toxicological and pharmacological effects of vaporized and injected methamphetamine (METH) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP)...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
A Pickering, R White, N L Davis
OBJECTIVE: To determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of routine fecal occult blood (FOB) testing on the identification of Bell's Stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of VLBW infants from 2012- 2013 evaluating FOB results and clinical and demographic risk factors. We determined predictive values of positive FOB testing within 48 hours of definite NEC diagnosis...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
We have five anatomical heart fob watches to be won.
November 18, 2015: Nursing Standard
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