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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341965/osmotic-shifts-cerebral-edema-and-neurologic-deterioration-in-severe-hepatic-encephalopathy
#1
Eric Michael Liotta, Anna L Romanova, Bryan D Lizza, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Minjee Kim, Brandon Francis, Rajbeer Singh Sangha, Timothy J Carroll, Daniel Ganger, Daniela P Ladner, Andrew M Naidech, James J Paparello, Shyam Prabhakaran, Farzaneh A Sorond, Matthew B Maas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effect of acute electrolyte and osmolar shifts on brain volume and neurologic function in patients with liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of brain CT scans and clinical data. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital ICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Clinically indicated CT scans and serum laboratory studies...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341940/mucocele-of-the-sphenoid-sinus
#2
Karen B Djambazov, Borislav D Kitov, Christo B Zhelyazkov, Atanas N Davarski, Alexandrina R Topalova
Mucocele of the paranasal sinuses is a rare disease with slow evolution. It is a benign, encapsulated and destructive formation filled with mucous fluid and tapistrated with respiratory epithelium. Of all the paranasal sinuses, the sphenoid sinus is affected in only 1-7% of the cases. We present two cases of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus involving the posterior ethmoidal cells. We consider here their clinical presentation, use of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, surgical care and postoperative results. Both patients presented with a history of persistent headache and in addition, one of them had a paresis of the right oculomotor and abducens nerves...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341386/at-the-core-of-reasoning-dissociating-deductive-and-non-deductive-load
#3
John P Coetzee, Martin M Monti
In recent years, neuroimaging methods have been used to investigate how the human mind carries out deductive reasoning. According to some, the neural substrate of language is integral to deductive reasoning. According to others, deductive reasoning is supported by a language-independent distributed network including left frontopolar and frontomedial cortices. However, it has been suggested that activity in these frontal regions might instead reflect non-deductive factors such as working memory load and general cognitive difficulty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#4
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341303/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-enhanced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#5
Chelsea M Stillman, Fatma Uyar, Haiqing Huang, George A Grove, Jennifer C Watt, Mariegold E Wollam, Kirk I Erickson
Consistent associations have been found between higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and indices of enhanced brain health and function, including behavioral measures of cognition as well as neuroimaging indicators such as regional brain volume. Several studies have reported that higher CRF levels are associated with a larger hippocampus, yet associations between volume and memory or functional connectivity metrics with the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Using a multi-modal framework, we hierarchically examine the association between CRF and hippocampal volume and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in younger adults (ages 22-38), as well as the relationship between these imaging markers and memory function...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341043/can-neonatal-brain-mri-be-performed-during-active-cooling
#6
Marisa J Pacella, Dhanashree A Rajderkar, Nicole Copenhaver, Kristine Boykin, Michael D Weiss
OBJECTIVE:  Due to logistical constraints, physicians traditionally delay diagnostic imaging for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) until the neonate has completed all 72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming. In some cases, neonates may require neuroimaging before 72 hours has passed. STUDY DESIGN:  We present a case in which an MRI was acquired during active hypothermia. RESULTS:  Upon return to the NICU, Baby X's temperature probe read 33...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341015/in-utero-mri-of-mouse-embryos
#7
Jiangyang Zhang, Dan Wu, Daniel H Turnbull
Genetically engineered mouse models are used extensively as models of human development and developmental diseases. Conventional histological approaches are static and two-dimensional, and do not provide a full understanding of the dynamic, spatiotemporal changes in developing mouse embryos. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a noninvasive and longitudinal approach for three-dimensional in utero imaging of normal and mutant mouse embryos. In this chapter, we describe MRI approaches that have been developed for imaging the living embryonic mouse brain and vasculature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341011/susceptibility-weighted-mri-in-rodents-at-9-4-t
#8
Ferdinand Schweser, Marilena Preda, Robert Zivadinov
Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) is an established part of the clinical neuroimaging toolbox and, since its inception, has also successfully been used in various preclinical studies. Exploiting the effect of variations of magnetic susceptibility between different tissues on the externally applied, static, homogeneous magnetic field, the method visualizes venous vasculature, hemorrhages and blood degradation products, calcifications, and tissue iron deposits. The chapter describes in vivo and ex vivo protocols for preclinical SWI in rodents...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341004/diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Irene Guadilla, Daniel Calle, Pilar López-Larrubia
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique based on the contents and relaxation features of water in tissues. In basic MRI sequences, diffusion phenomenon of water molecules is not taken into account although it has a notable influence in the relaxation times, and therefore in the signal intensity of images. In fact, MRI techniques that take advantage of water diffusion have experienced a huge development in last years. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has spectacularly evolved reaching nowadays a great impact both in clinical and preclinical imaging-especially in the neuroimaging field-and in basic research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340998/on-pacing-trials-while-scanning-brain-hemodynamics-the-case-of-the-snarc-effect
#10
Sabrina Brigadoi, Sara Basso Moro, Roberta Falchi, Simone Cutini, Roberto Dell'Acqua
Experimental designs used to describe psychological effects on overt human behavior are seldom suited to localize their corresponding neural substrates based on the analysis of stimulus-evoked brain hemodynamic responses. This is because stimuli in behavioral studies are usually separated by intertrial intervals (ITIs) in the order of 1 second or so following a behavioral response, which is notoriously too brief a time to detect a corresponding hemodynamic response. In fact, a solution commonly adopted in neuroimaging studies is to prolong the ITI up to several seconds...
January 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340847/comparative-analysis-of-aneurysm-volume-by-different-methods-based-on-angiography-and-computed-tomography-angiography
#11
Víctor Hugo Escobar-de la Garma, Marco Zenteno, Felipe Padilla-Vázquez, Daniel San-Juan, Aurelio Cerón-Morales
Endovascular treatment and prognosis of intracranial aneurysms are based on size and volume, which demand more accurate neuroimaging techniques. Aneurysm volume calculation is important to choose endovascular treatment modalities and packing density calculation. Of all these methods, it remains unknown which one is the most accurate to calculate aneurysm volume. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of three angiography-based versus three tomographic-based methods which calculate aneurysm volume...
January 16, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#12
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340569/associations-of-the-top-20-alzheimer-disease-risk-variants-with-brain-amyloidosis
#13
Liana G Apostolova, Shannon L Risacher, Tugce Duran, Eddie C Stage, Naira Goukasian, John D West, Triet M Do, Jonathan Grotts, Holly Wilhalme, Kwangsik Nho, Meredith Phillips, David Elashoff, Andrew J Saykin
Importance: Late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 20 AD risk genes. The precise mechanism through which many of these genes are associated with AD remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of the top 20 AD risk variants with brain amyloidosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study analyzed the genetic and florbetapir F 18 data from 322 cognitively normal control individuals, 496 individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and 159 individuals with AD dementia who had genome-wide association studies and 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomographic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a prospective, observational, multisite tertiary center clinical and biomarker study...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340386/on-chip-functional-neuroimaging-with-mechanical-stimulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-larvae-for-studying-development-and-neural-circuits
#14
Yongmin Cho, David N Oakland, Sol Ah Lee, William R Schafer, Hang Lu
Mechanosensation is fundamentally important for the abilities of an organism to experience touch, hear sounds, and maintain balance. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful system for studying mechanosensation as this worm is well suited for in vivo functional imaging of neurons. Many years of research using labor-intensive methods have generated a wealth of knowledge about mechanosensation in C. elegans, and the recent microfluidic-based platforms continue to push the boundary for this field. However, developmental aspects of sensory biology, including mechanosensation, are still not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339771/etiology-of-language-network-changes-during-recovery-of-aphasia-after-stroke
#15
Casper A M M van Oers, H Bart van der Worp, L Jaap Kappelle, Mathijs A H Raemaekers, Willem M Otte, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns of language network changes may help in predicting outcome in aphasic stroke patients. Here we assessed language function and performed functional MRI four times during one year to measure language network activation and cerebrovascular reactivity (with breath-holding) in twelve left-hemispheric stroke patients, of whom two dropped out before the final measurement, and eight age-matched controls. Language outcome was related to increase of activation in left and right posterior inferior temporal gyrus over the first year, while activation increase in right inferior frontal gyrus was inversely correlated to language recovery...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339316/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Maurizio La Cava, Magda Gharbiya, Massimo Ralli, Alessandro Lambiase, Armando de Virgilio, Antonio Greco
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune conditions characterized by inflammatory involvement of the optic nerve, spinal cord and central nervous system. Novel evidence showed a key role of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4 IgG) in the pathogenesis of NMOSD and, recently, new classification and diagnostic criteria have been adopted to facilitate an earlier identification and improve the management of these conditions. Diagnosis of NMOSD is currently based on clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features...
January 12, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339004/differential-activation-of-brain-areas-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-during-tasks-of-manual-dexterity-an-ale-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
I Fuelscher, K Caeyenberghs, P G Enticott, J Williams, J Lum, C Hyde
Recent neuroimaging studies have reported atypical neural activation in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during tasks assessing manual dexterity. However, small sample sizes and subtle differences in task parameters have led to inconsistent findings, rendering interpretation difficult. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize this body of evidence using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis to identify reliable regions of differential neural activation in children with DCD, compared to age-matched controls...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338921/faster-progression-from-mci-to-probable-ad-for-carriers-of-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Hugo Girard, Olivier Potvin, Scott Nugent, Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Stephen Cunnane, Simon Duchesne
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), as opposed to its autosomal dominant form, is likely caused by a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and health lifestyle factors. Twin studies indicate that sporadic AD heritability could be between 58% and 79%, around half of which is explained by the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE4). We hypothesized that genes associated with known risk factors for AD, namely hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, would contribute significantly to the remaining heritability...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338912/-surgical-outcomes-of-traumatic-cervical-fractures-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#19
Alberto Isla Guerrero, Beatriz Mansilla Fernández, Borja Hernández Garcia, Álvaro Gómez de la Riva, María Luisa Gandía González, Elena Isla Paredes
OBJECTIVE: Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton. The rigid spine may secondarily develop osteoporosis, further increasing the risk of spinal fracture. In this study, we reviewed fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis that had been clinically diagnosed to better define the mechanism of injury, associated neurological deficit, predisposing factors, and management strategies. METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2014, 6 patients with ankylosing spondylitis and neurological complications after injuries were treated...
January 12, 2018: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338905/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-rare-childhood-case-with-unconsciousness
#20
Akira Komori, Daisuke Mizu, Koichi Ariyoshi
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a condition characterized by seizures, altered consciousness, visual disturbances, and headache. Characteristic findings on neuroimaging include cerebral edema, typically involving the parieto-occipital white matter. PRES has been associated with hypertension, autoimmune disease, and Henoch-Schölein purpura (HSP), but few cases have been reported, and fewer cases of PRES have been reported in children. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with blindness and semi-consciousness...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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