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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239903/subcutaneous-midline-nasal-mass-in-an-infant-due-to-an-intramuscular-lipoma
#1
Jessica Vincent, Peter Baker, Jonathan Grischkan, Esteban Fernandez Faith
Intramuscular lipomas are rare, benign, mesenchymal tumors occurring deep in the fascia, typically involving large muscle groups in adults. We report a case of an intramuscular lipoma occurring as a subcutaneous midline nasal mass in a 3-month-old infant. The differential diagnosis of a midline mass on the glabella of an infant is important and should include developmental anomalies such as nasal glioma, nasal dermoid cyst, and encephalocele, so neuroimaging is an essential first step in evaluating these lesions to exclude intracranial extension...
February 27, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239640/serum-il-8-is-a-marker-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Yanan Zhu, Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, M Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Boon-Seng Wong, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) have been implicated in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to examine serum inflammatory markers in preclinical stages of dementia and in AD, as well as to investigate their associations with concomitant CeVD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study including 96 AD, 140 cognitively impaired no dementia (CIND), and 79 noncognitively impaired participants...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239637/alzheimer-s-disease-the-influence-of-age-on-clinical-heterogeneity-through-the-human-brain-connectome
#3
Bradford C Dickerson, Michael Brickhouse, Scott McGinnis, David A Wolk
INTRODUCTION: One major factor that influences the heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is age: younger AD patients more frequently exhibit atypical forms of AD. We propose that this age-related heterogeneity can be understood better by considering age-related differences in atrophy in the context of large-scale brain networks subserving cognitive functions that contribute to memory. METHODS: We examined data from 75 patients with mild AD dementia from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239546/functional-hemispherotomy-in-rasmussen-syndrome-in-the-absence-of-classic-mri-findings
#4
Yasunori Nagahama, Charuta Joshi, Brian Dlouhy, Angela Y Wu, Taylor J Abel, Gary Baumbach, Hiroto Kawasaki
A 7-year-old previously healthy girl presented with a left-sided focal seizure without impaired consciousness and subsequently developed epilepsia partialis continua. Initial MRI was normal, and the subsequent images only showed a focal T2/FLAIR hyperintense area without cortical atrophy. She was diagnosed with Rasmussen syndrome by pathology and promptly treated with functional hemispherotomy. Rasmussen syndrome is a rare progressive neurological disorder, the only definitive cure for which is hemispheric disconnection...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239455/the-underlying-mechanism-of-prodromal-pd-insights-from-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-and-the-olfactory-system
#5
REVIEW
Shu-Ying Liu, Piu Chan, A Jon Stoessl
Neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) starts in an insidious manner, 30-50% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost in the substantia nigra before clinical diagnosis. Prodromal stage of the disease, during which the disease pathology has started but is insufficient to result in clinical manifestations, offers a valuable window for disease-modifying therapies. The most focused underlying mechanisms linking the pathological pattern and clinical characteristics of prodromal PD are the prion hypothesis of alpha-synuclein and the selective vulnerability of neurons...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238944/brain-correlates-of-hypnosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analytic-exploration
#6
REVIEW
Mathieu Landry, Michael Lifshitz, Amir Raz
Imaging of the living human brain elucidates the neural dynamics of hypnosis; however, few reliable brain patterns emerge across studies. Here, we methodically assess neuroimaging assays of hypnosis to uncover common neural configurations using a twofold approach. First, we systematically review research on the neural correlates of hypnotic phenomena; then, we meta-analyze these collective data seeking specific activation and deactivation patterns that typify hypnosis. Anchored around the role of top-down control processes, our comprehensive examination focuses on the involvement of intrinsic brain networks known to operationalize cognitive control and self-referential cognition, including the executive, salience, and default networks...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238938/estimating-direction-in-brain-behavior-interactions-proactive-and-reactive-brain-states-in-driving
#7
Javier O Garcia, Justin Brooks, Scott Kerick, Tony Johnson, Tim R Mullen, Jean M Vettel
Conventional neuroimaging analyses have ascribed function to particular brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to study task-dependent networks. Here, we examined on-going oscillatory activity as measured with EEG and use a methodology to estimate directionality in brain-behavior interactions...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238766/a-split-brain-case-study-on-the-hemispheric-lateralization-of-inhibitory-control
#8
Nicholas D'Alberto, Margaret Funnell, Alexandra Potter, Hugh Garavan
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inhibitory control is crucial given its role in various disease states and substance abuse/misuse. Neuroimaging research examining inhibitory control has yielded conflicting results on the relative importance of the left and right hemisphere during successful inhibition of a motor response. In the current study, a split-brain patient was examined in order to assess the independent inhibitory capabilities of each hemisphere. The patient's right hemisphere exhibited superior inhibitory ability compared to his left hemisphere on three inhibitory control tasks...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238738/reference-standard-space-hippocampus-labels-according-to-the-eadc-adni-harmonized-protocol-utility-in-automated-volumetry
#9
Dominik Wolf, Martina Bocchetta, Gregory M Preboske, Marina Boccardi, Michel J Grothe
BACKGROUND: A harmonized protocol (HarP) for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently been developed by an international European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium-Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative project. We aimed at providing consensual certified HarP hippocampal labels in Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard space to serve as reference in automated image analyses. METHODS: Manual HarP tracings on the high-resolution MNI152 standard space template of four expert certified HarP tracers were combined to obtain consensual bilateral hippocampus labels...
February 23, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238701/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subcallosal-cingulate-for-treatment-refractory-anorexia-nervosa-1-year-follow-up-of-an-open-label-trial
#10
Nir Lipsman, Eileen Lam, Matthew Volpini, Kalam Sutandar, Richelle Twose, Peter Giacobbe, Devin J Sodums, Gwenn S Smith, D Blake Woodside, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a life-threatening illness. Brain circuits believed to drive anorexia nervosa symptoms can be accessed with surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Initial results suggest that DBS of the subcallosal cingulate is safe and associated with improvements in mood and anxiety. Here, we investigated the safety, clinical, and neuroimaging outcomes of DBS of the subcallosal cingulate in a group of patients during 12 months of active stimulation...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238681/early-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-for-monitoring-neonates-at-high-risk-for-brain-injury
#11
Gabriel Fernando Todeschi Variane, Maurício Magalhães, Renato Gasperine, Heitor Castelo Branco Rodrigues Alves, Thiago Luiz Pereira Donoso Scoppetta, Rodrigo de Jesus Gonçalves Figueredo, Francisco Paulo Martins Rodrigues, Alexandre Netto, Marcelo Jenne Mimica, Clery Bernardi Gallacci
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to correlate amplitude-integrated electroencephalography findings with early outcomes, measured by mortality and neuroimaging findings, in a prospective cohort of infants at high risk for brain injury in this center in Brazil. METHODS: This blinded prospective cohort study evaluated 23 preterm infants below 31 weeks of gestational age and 17 infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to perinatal asphyxia, with gestational age greater than 36 weeks, monitored with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in a public tertiary center from February 2014 to January 2015...
February 23, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238273/a-novel-approach-to-identifying-a-neuroimaging-biomarker-for-patients-with-serious-mental-illness
#12
Alok Madan, J Christopher Fowler, Michelle A Patriquin, Ramiro Salas, Philip R Baldwin, Kenia M Velasquez, Humsini Viswanath, David L Molfese, Carla Sharp, Jon G Allen, Susan Hardesty, John M Oldham, B Christopher Frueh
Serious mental illness (SMI) is disabling, and current interventions are ineffective for many. This exploratory study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of applying topological data analysis (TDA) to resting-state functional connectivity data obtained from a heterogeneous sample of 235 adult inpatients to identify a biomarker of treatment response. TDA identified two groups based on connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions: patients admitted with greater functional connectivity between these regions evidenced less improvement from admission to discharge than patients with lesser connectivity between them...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237458/inattention-and-reaction-time-variability-are-linked-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-volume-in-adolescents
#13
Matthew D Albaugh, Catherine Orr, Bader Chaarani, Robert R Althoff, Nicholas Allgaier, Nicholas D'Alberto, Kelsey Hudson, Scott Mackey, Philip A Spechler, Tobias Banaschewski, Rüdiger Brühl, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Robert Goodman, Penny Gowland, Yvonne Grimmer, Andreas Heinz, Viola Kappel, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Jani Penttila, Luise Poustka, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Maren Struve, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Alexandra S Potter
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention. We also tested for associations between brain structural correlates of ADHD symptomatology and maps of dopaminergic gene expression...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237426/the-role-of-the-human-visual-cortex-in-assessment-of-the-long-term-durability-of-retinal-gene-therapy-in-follow-on-rpe65-clinical-trial-patients
#14
Manzar Ashtari, Elena S Nikonova, Kathleen A Marshall, Gloria J Young, Puya Aravand, Wei Pan, Gui-Shuang Ying, Aimee E Willett, Mani Mahmoudian, Albert M Maguire, Jean Bennett
PURPOSE: Gene therapy (GT) has offered immense hope to individuals who are visually impaired because of RPE65 mutations. Although GT has shown great success in clinical trials enrolling these individuals, evidence for stability and durability of this treatment over time is still unknown. Herein we explored the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an objective measure to assess independently the longevity of retinal GT. DESIGN: Individuals with RPE65 mutations who underwent GT in their worse-seeing eye in a phase 1 clinical trial received a second subretinal injection in their contralateral eye in a follow-on clinical trial...
February 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237248/the-potential-for-advanced-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-techniques-in-pediatric-stroke-research
#15
REVIEW
Trish Domi, Arastoo Vossough, Nicholas V Stence, Ryan J Felling, Jackie Leung, Pradeep Krishnan, Christopher G Watson, P Ellen Grant, Andrea Kassner
BACKGROUND: This article was written to provide clinicians and researchers with an overview of a number of advanced neuroimaging techniques in an effort to promote increased utility and the design of future studies using advanced neuroimaging in childhood stroke. The current capabilities of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques provide the opportunity to build on our knowledge of the consequences of stroke on the developing brain. These capabilities include providing information about the physiology, metabolism, structure, and function of the brain that are not routinely evaluated in the clinical setting...
January 24, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237122/a-new-era-for-nuclear-medicine-neuroimaging-in-spain-where-do-we-start-from-in-spain
#16
M A Balsa, V Camacho, P Garrastachu, D García-Solís, M Gómez-Río, S Rubí, X Setoain, J Arbizu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of neuroimaging studies of Nuclear Medicine in Spain during 2013 and first quarter of 2014, in order to define the activities of the neuroimaging group of the Spanish Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire of 14 questions was designed, divided into 3 parts: characteristics of the departments (equipment and professionals involved); type of scans and clinical indications; and evaluation methods...
February 22, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237005/pediatric-epilepsy-neurology-functional-imaging-and-neurosurgery
#17
REVIEW
James M Mountz, Christina M Patterson, Mandeep S Tamber
In this chapter we provide a comprehensive review of the current role that functional imaging can have in the care of the pediatric epilepsy patient from the perspective of the epilepsy neurologist and the epilepsy neurosurgeon. In the neurology section, the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy adapted by the International League Against Epilepsy as well as the etiology and incidence of the disease is presented. The neuroimaging section describes how advanced nuclear medicine imaging methods can be synergized to provide a maximum opportunity to localize an epileptogenic focus...
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236166/alteration-of-regional-homogeneity-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-subtypes-are-related-to-cognition-and-csf-biomarkers
#18
Xiao Luo, Yerfan Jiaerken, Peiyu Huang, Xiao Jun Xu, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment can be further classified as single-domain aMCI (SD-aMCI) with isolated memory deficit, or multi-domain aMCI (MD-aMCI) if memory deficit is combined with impairment in other cognitive domains. Prior studies reported these clinical subtypes presumably differ in etiology. Thus, we aimed to explore the possible mechanisms between different aMCI subtypes by assessing alteration in brain activity and brain vasculature, and their relations with CSF AD biomarkers. 49 healthy controls, 32 SD-aMCI, and 32 MD-aMCI, who had undergone structural scans, resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) scans and neuropsychological evaluations, were identified...
February 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235680/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-status-is-associated-with-white-matter-hyperintensities-volume-accumulation-rate-independent-of-ad-diagnosis
#19
Carole H Sudre, M Jorge Cardoso, Chris Frost, Josephine Barnes, Frederik Barkhof, Nick Fox, Sébastien Ourselin
To assess the relationship between carriage of APOE ε4 allele and evolution of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) volume, we longitudinally studied 339 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort with diagnoses ranging from normal controls to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). A purpose-built longitudinal automatic method was used to segment WMH using constraints derived from an atlas-based model selection applied to a time-averaged image. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the differences in rate of change across diagnosis and genetic groups...
January 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235565/neural-correlates-of-social-exclusion-across-ages-a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-mri-studies
#20
REVIEW
Nandita Vijayakumar, Theresa W Cheng, Jennifer H Pfeifer
Given the recent surge in functional neuroimaging studies on social exclusion, the current study employed activation likelihood estimation (ALE) based meta-analyses to identify brain regions that have consistently been implicated across different experimental paradigms used to investigate exclusion. We also examined the neural correlates underlying Cyberball, the most commonly used paradigm to study exclusion, as well as differences in exclusion-related activation between developing (7-18 years of age, from pre-adolescence up to late adolescence) and emerging adult (broadly defined as undergraduates, including late adolescence and young adulthood) samples...
February 21, 2017: NeuroImage
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