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Brin Freund, James J Gugger, Alexandra Reynolds, William O Tatum, Jan Claassen, Peter W Kaplan
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges (PDs) are EEG patterns denoting brain dysfunction and ictal tendency. Their exact meaning regarding etiology and outcomes is not well known. In particular, bilateral independent PDs (BIPDs) are poorly described. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study evaluating neuroimaging, epileptic, clinical, and EEG correlates of BIPDs. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients studied with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale 6...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Alain Cunqueiro, Meir H Scheinfeld
Intracranial gas is commonly detected on neuroimaging. The recognition of this finding can at first blush be unsettling. Being able to localize this gas to a specific compartment: intraarterial, intravenous, intraparenchymal, subdural, epidural, subarachnoid and intraventricular, is the first step in determining the importance of the gas. Determination of the route of entry: through the skull, extension from a paranasal sinus or the mastoid air cells, via the spine, or trans-vascular, is the other important factor in determining potential consequences...
March 15, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Didem Yücel-Yılmaz, Emrah Yücesan, Dilek Yalnızoğlu, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Mahmut Şamil Sağıroğlu, Uğur Özbek, Esra Serdaroğlu, Başar Bilgiç, Sevim Erdem, Sibel Aylin Uğur İşeri, Haşmet Hanağası, Hakan Gürvit, Rıza Köksal Özgül, Ali Dursun
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetic disorders resulting in pyramidal tract impairment, predominantly in lower limbs. KIF1C gene has recently been identified as one of the genetic causes of HSP and associated with pure or complicated HSP. We present three patients with complicated HSP from two unrelated families, who had early onset progressive cerebellar signs and developed pyramidal tract signs during follow-up. Whole exome sequencing in these patients followed by segregation analysis identified novel truncating KIF1C mutations (c...
March 12, 2018: Brain & Development
Qihong Zou, Shuqin Zhou, Jing Xu, Zihui Su, Yuezhen Li, Yundong Ma, Hongqiang Sun, Changwei W Wu, Jia-Hong Gao
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been frequently associated with dreaming. However, mounting evidence obtained from behavioral, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies suggests that REM sleep is not indicative of the dream report and may originate from diverse neural substrates in brain functionality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the functional systems associated with inter-individual differences in dream recall and REM sleep through assessments of the resting-state functional connectivity...
March 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Nicole R Giuliani, Junaid S Merchant, Danielle Cosme, Elliot T Berkman
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of human neuroimaging studies seeking to predict behavior above and beyond traditional measurements such as self-report. This trend has been particularly notable in the area of food consumption, as the percentage of people categorized as overweight or obese continues to rise. In this review, we argue that there is considerable utility in this form of health neuroscience, modeling the neural bases of eating behavior and dietary change in healthy community populations...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Evgeny J Chumin, Joaquín Goñi, Meredith E Halcomb, Timothy C Durazzo, Mario Džemidžić, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely used to investigate the integrity of white matter (WM; indexed by fractional anisotropy, FA) in alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. These disorders are highly comorbid, yet cigarette use has often not been adequately controlled in neuroimaging studies of alcohol dependent populations. In addition, information on white matter deficits in currently drinking, nontreatment-seeking (NTS) individuals with alcohol dependence is limited...
March 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
A V Kalinovskiy, D A Rzaev, K Yoshimitsu
INTRODUCTION: Modern neurosurgical practice is impossible without access to various information sources. The use of MRI and MSCT data during surgery is an integral part of the neurosurgeon's daily practice. Devices capable of managing an image viewer system without direct contact with equipment simplify working in the operating room. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To test operation of a non-contact MRI and MSCT image viewer system in the operating room and to evaluate the system effectiveness...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Hui Zhu, Zhixing Li, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) describes a syndrome of neuroimaging, pathological, and associated clinical features caused by small intracranial vascular lesions, which commonly coexists with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and has been identified as a major cause of motor impairment over time. In this review, we aim to summarize the relationship between CSVD and LAA, and discuss the effects of CSVD on the clinical outcome of patients with ischemic stroke caused by LAA...
March 15, 2018: Neurological Research
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Mirza A Hammad, Rana Adnan Tahir, Hafiza Nisha Akram, Faheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: As the number of elderly persons increases, neurodegenerative diseases are becoming ubiquitous. There is currently a great need for knowledge concerning management of old-age neurodegenerative diseases; the most important of which are: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential of computationally predicted molecules and targets against neurodegenerative diseases...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Philip T Reiss
Motivated by studies of the development of the human cerebral cortex, we consider the estimation of a mean growth trajectory and the relative merits of cross-sectional and longitudinal data for that task. We define a class of relative efficiencies that compare function estimates in terms of aggregate variance of a parametric function estimate. These generalize the classical design effect for estimating a scalar with cross-sectional versus longitudinal data, and are shown to be bounded above by it in certain cases...
March 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Yu-Jie Dai, Xin Zhang, Yang Yang, Hai-Yan Nan, Ying Yu, Qian Sun, Lin-Feng Yan, Bo Hu, Jin Zhang, Zi-Yu Qiu, Yi Gao, Guang-Bin Cui, Bi-Liang Chen, Wen Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pain disorders in women is higher than in men, making gender differences in pain a research focus. The human insular cortex is an important brain hub structure for pain processing and is divided into several subdivisions, serving different functions in pain perception. Here we aimed to examine the gender differences of the functional connectivities (FCs) between the twelve insular subdivisions and selected pain-related brain structures in healthy adults. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy males and 11 age-matched healthy females were recruited in this cross-sectional study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
Mohammad Vafaee Shahi, Samileh Noorbakhsh, Vida Zarrabi, Banafsheh Nourozi, Leila Tahernia
Background: Any mismatch between the production and absorption of CSF results in hydrocephalus. In most cases, the selected choice of treatment is the ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Although, the surgery could have complications such as infection, shunt malfunction, subdural hematoma, seizure and Shunt immigration; so, the early and proper detection of these complications could result in better prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of CT scan, CSF analysis and X-ray radiography in detection of shunt complications and problems in shunt placement and further follow-up in hospitalized children...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
Bo Jin, Wenhan Hu, Linmei Ye, Balu Krishnan, Thandar Aung, Stephen E Jones, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Kai Zhang, Junming Zhu, Jianguo Zhang, Meiping Ding, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang, Zhong Irene Wang
Objective: To investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE) in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. Methods: Patients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Maria Oliveira, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas W Maddox, Daniel Sanchez-Masian, Rita Gonçalves
The constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence has been widely used in human neuroimaging. It has been shown to be advantageous in the evaluation of intra-axial and extra-axial cystic abnormalities, arteriovenous and dysraphic malformations and disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in 145 dogs that underwent MRI of the spine for suspected spinal cord disease...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Melissa E Murray, David S Knopman, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Keith A Josephs, Christopher G Schwarz, Walter K Kremers, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Mary M Machulda, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
Predicting underlying pathology based on clinical presentation has historically proven difficult, especially in older cohorts. Age-related hippocampal sclerosis may account for a significant proportion of elderly participants with amnestic dementia. Advances in molecular neuroimaging have allowed for detailed biomarker-based phenotyping, but in the absence of antemortem markers of hippocampal sclerosis, cases of mixed pathology remain problematic. We evaluated the utility of 18F-FDG-PET to differentiate flortaucipir tau PET negative from flortaucipir positive amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and used an autopsy confirmed cohort to test the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis might account for the observed pattern...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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