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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161699/patterns-of-detection-of-fetal-posterior-fossa-anomalies-analysis-of-81-cases-in-the-second-half-of-gestation
#1
Stéphanie Friszer, Ferdinand Dhombres, Eléonore Blondiaux, Marie-Laure Moutard, Catherine Garel, Jean-Marie Jouannic
OBJECTIVE: To establish which characteristics of fetal ultrasound screening lead to the diagnosis of posterior fossa (PF) anomalies. METHODS: A total of 81 fetuses with PF anomalies diagnosed after dedicated neuroimaging between July 1, 2007, and January 1, 2013, were included. The ultrasound characteristics of the fetal cerebellum categorized according to an anatomical approach to the PF, associated fetal anomalies, gestational age at diagnosis, and the potential benefits from systematic measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) were analyzed...
November 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161349/relation-of-retinal-and-serum-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-to-white-matter-integrity-in-older-adults-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#2
Catherine M Mewborn, Douglas P Terry, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, L Stephen Miller
Objective: Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are phytonutrients that accumulate in human brain tissue and positively impact cognition. Given their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their role in stabilizing cell membranes, L&Z may relate to measures of white matter integrity (WMI). Method: The current study tested the relation of retinal (macular pigment optical density/MPOD) and blood serum concentrations of L&Z to WMI in community-dwelling older adults (n = 54) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#3
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160744/modulation-of-neural-oscillatory-activity-during-dynamic-face-processing
#4
Elaine Foley, Gina Rippon, Carl Senior
Various neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods have been used to examine neural activation patterns in response to faces. However, much of previous research has relied on static images of faces, which do not allow a complete description of the temporal structure of face-specific neural activities to be made. More recently, insights are emerging from fMRI studies about the neural substrates that underpin our perception of naturalistic dynamic face stimuli, but the temporal and spectral oscillatory activity associated with processing dynamic faces has yet to be fully characterized...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160084/serial-testing-of-the-ichd-3-beta-diagnostic-criteria-for-probable-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-a-prospective-validation-study
#5
Mi Ji Lee, Hyun Ah Choi, Hanna Choi, Chin-Sang Chung
Objectives To serially test the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) 3rd edition beta version criteria for 6.7.3.1 probable reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (probable RCVS) in patients with thunderclap headache. Methods We prospectively screened consecutive patients with thunderclap headache who visited the Samsung Medical Center between October 2015 and March 2017. Patients were included in the analysis if they a) visited our hospital within 1 month after onset, b) completed a diagnostic work-up, and c) had no secondary causes other than RCVS...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159664/dual-roles-of-the-hippocampus-and-intraparietal-sulcus-in-network-integration-and-segregation-support-scene-recognition
#6
Xin Hao, Xu Wang, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Jia Liu
Effectively recognizing surroundings is a critical ability in human navigation. Previous neuroimaging studies have depicted distributed brain regions underpinning spatial navigation, but little is known about how these regions are formed into the navigation network (NN) supporting scene recognition. In this study, we addressed this issue by using a voxel-based global functional connectivity method to characterize the integration (i.e., within-network connectivity, WNC) of the NN and its segregation (i.e., between-network connectivity, BNC) from non-NN networks...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159265/characterizing-biomarker-features-of-cognitively-normal-individuals-with-ventriculomegaly
#7
Xiaofeng Li, Maowen Ba, Kok Pin Ng, Sulantha Mathotaarachchi, Tharick A Pascoal, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Serge Gauthier
Introduction: The clinical significance of ventriculomegaly in cognitively normal elderly individuals remains unclear. Methods: We selected cognitively normal individuals (n = 425) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database and calculated Evans index (EI) based on the ratio of the frontal horn and skull diameter. We defined ventriculomegaly as EI ≥ 0.30, and the participants were stratified into EI ≥ 0.30 group and EI < 0.30 group...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159193/prep2-a-biomarker-based-algorithm-for-predicting-upper-limb-function-after-stroke
#8
Cathy M Stinear, Winston D Byblow, Suzanne J Ackerley, Marie-Claire Smith, Victor M Borges, P Alan Barber
Objective: Recovery of motor function is important for regaining independence after stroke, but difficult to predict for individual patients. Our aim was to develop an efficient, accurate, and accessible algorithm for use in clinical settings. Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging biomarkers of corticospinal integrity obtained within days of stroke were combined to predict likely upper limb motor outcomes 3 months after stroke. Methods: Data from 207 patients recruited within 3 days of stroke [103 females (50%), median age 72 (range 18-98) years] were included in a Classification and Regression Tree analysis to predict upper limb function 3 months poststroke...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159052/subcortical-grey-matter-changes-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#9
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Bin Kim, Sang-Il Suh, Dong Wook Kim
Recent neuroimaging studies have provided converging evidence of structural and functional abnormalities of the thalamus in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). There has also been limited evidence indicating involvement of the subcortical grey matter structures other than thalamus in JME, but with inconsistent findings across the studies. In the present study, we combined volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to investigate macrostructural and microstructural alterations of the subcortical grey matter in 64 JME patients compared to 58 matched control subjects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159047/voxel-based-comparison-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-between-patients-with-cushing-s-disease-and-healthy-subjects
#10
Shuai Liu, Yinyan Wang, Kaibin Xu, Fan Ping, Fang Li, Renzhi Wang, Xin Cheng
Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) owing to elevated levels of glucocorticoids. Molecular neuroimaging methods may help to detect changes in the brain of patients with CD. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metabolism and its association with serum cortisol level in CD. We compared brain metabolism, as measured using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), between 92 patients with CD and 118 normal subjects on a voxel-wise basis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159043/neuroimaging-and-other-modalities-to-assess-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Natalie Neale, Concepcion Padilla, Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca, Tony Holland, Shahid Zaman
People with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher rates and a younger age of onset compared to the general population. As the average lifespan of people with DS is increasing, AD is becoming an important health concern in this group. Neuroimaging is becoming an increasingly useful tool in understanding the pathogenesis of dementia development in relation to clinical symptoms. Furthermore, neuroimaging has the potential to play a role in AD diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutics. This review describes major recent findings from in vivo neuroimaging studies analysing DS and AD via ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET), [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159037/reorganization-of-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-associated-with-impaired-sensory-tracts
#12
Christos Papadelis, Erin E Butler, Madelyn Rubenstein, Limin Sun, Lilla Zollei, Donna Nimec, Brian Snyder, Patricia Ellen Grant
Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158585/child-abuse-associates-with-an-imbalance-of-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-white-matter
#13
A Tanti, J J Kim, M Wakid, M-A Davoli, G Turecki, N Mechawar
Child abuse (CA) is a major risk factor for depression, and strongly associates with suicidal behavior during adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have reported widespread changes in white matter integrity and brain connectivity in subjects with a history of CA. Although such observations could reflect changes in myelin and oligodendrocyte function, their cellular underpinnings have never been addressed. Using postmortem brain samples from depressed suicides with or without history of CA and matched controls (18 per group), we aimed to characterize the effects of CA on oligodendrocyte-lineage (OL) cells in the ventromedial prefrontal white matter...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158303/teaching-neuroimages-myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-positive-hypertrophic-pachymeningitis
#14
Collin J Culbertson, Seth C Lummus, Carl A Gold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158112/subtle-behavioral-changes-and-increased-prefrontal-hippocampal-network-synchronicity-in-app-nl-g-f-mice-before-prominent-plaque-deposition
#15
Amira Latif Hernandez, Disha Shah, Kathleen Craessaerts, Takaomi Saido, Takashi Saito, Bart De Strooper, Annemie Van der Linden, Rudi D'Hooge
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in functional impairment is still debated. High levels of APP and APP fragments in mice that overexpress APP might confound their use in preclinical research. We examined the occurrence of behavioral, cognitive and neuroimaging changes in APP(NL-G-F) knock-in mice that display Aβ42 amyloidosis in the absence of APP overexpression. Female APP(NL-G-F) mice (carrying Swedish, Iberian and Arctic APP mutations) were compared to APP(NL) mice (APP Swedish) at 3, 7 and 10 months...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157937/pure-word-deafness-following-left-temporal-damage-behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-evidence-from-a-new-case
#16
Chiara Maffei, Rita Capasso, Giulia Cazzolli, Cesare Colosimo, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Francesca Piludu, Marco Catani, Gabriele Miceli
Pure Word Deafness (PWD) is a rare disorder, characterized by selective loss of speech input processing. Its most common cause is temporal damage to the primary auditory cortex of both hemispheres, but it has been reported also following unilateral lesions. In unilateral cases, PWD has been attributed to the disconnection of Wernicke's area from both right and left primary auditory cortex. Here we report behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a new case of left unilateral PWD with both cortical and white matter damage due to a relatively small stroke lesion in the left temporal gyrus...
October 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157853/perfusion-imaging-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
David B Douglas, Ruchir Chaudhari, Jason M Zhao, James Gullo, Jared Kirkland, Pamela K Douglas, Ely Wolin, James Walroth, Max Wintermark
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem worldwide and neuroimaging plays a critical role in diagnosis and management. Recently, perfusion neuroimaging techniques have been explored in TBI to determine and characterize potential perfusion neuroimaging biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In this article, computed tomography (CT) bolus perfusion, MR imaging bolus perfusion, MR imaging arterial spin labeling perfusion, and xenon CT are reviewed with a focus on their applications in acute TBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157852/imaging-of-concussion-in-young-athletes
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Guenette, Martha E Shenton, Inga K Koerte
Conventional neuroimaging examinations are typically normal in concussed young athletes. A current focus of research is the characterization of subtle abnormalities after concussion using advanced neuroimaging techniques. These techniques have the potential to identify biomarkers of concussion. In the future, such biomarkers will likely provide important clinical information regarding the appropriate time interval before return to play, as well as the risk for prolonged postconcussive symptoms and long-term cognitive impairment...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157851/multimodal-advanced-imaging-for-concussion
#19
REVIEW
Khader M Hasan, Zafer Keser, Paul E Schulz, Elisabeth A Wilde
In the United States alone, 1.6 to 3.8 million people have sports-related concussions yearly. The patho-mechanisms of concussions may not be directly measured by conventional neuroimaging; advanced models may be needed to address the shortcomings of the current clinical protocols. Multimodal advanced imaging may provide more accurate diagnosis and predict the clinical course of concussion, assessing the efficacy of existing and emerging multifaceted therapies. In this article, the authors present an overview and pictorial display of conventional and advanced multimodal MR imaging methods that have been applied to identify the brain structures affected in traumatic brain injuries...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157850/conventional-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-in-brain-concussion
#20
REVIEW
Juan Nicolas Useche, Sonia Bermudez
Conventional neuroimaging is still the mainstay in the assessment of the acute, follow-up, and chronic settings of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Computed tomography (CT) is preferred for the initial assessment of acute mTBI, repeat evaluation in acute mTBI with neurologic deterioration, and cautious use in children with mTBI. Clinical rules have been developed to identify pediatric and adult patients with mTBI who can safely forego CT. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is mostly used in patients with acute mTBI when initial or follow-up CT is normal and there are persistent neurologic findings and in subacute or chronic mTBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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