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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528447/a-single-bout-of-endurance-exercise-modulates-eeg-microstates-temporal-features
#1
Jérôme N Spring, Miralena I Tomescu, Jérôme Barral
Electrical neuroimaging is a promising method to explore the spontaneous brain function after physical exercise. The present study aims to investigate the effect of acute physical exercise on the temporal dynamic of the resting brain activity captured by the four conventional map topographies (microstates) described in the literature, and to associate these brain changes with the post-exercise neuromuscular function. Twenty endurance-trained subjects performed a 30-min biking task at 60% of their maximal aerobic power followed by a 10 km all-out time trial...
May 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528357/cerebellar-gray-matter-alterations-in-huntington-disease-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#2
Paula C de Azevedo, Rachel P Guimarães, Camila C Piccinin, Luiza G Piovesana, Lidiane S Campos, Juliana R Zuiani, Eliza M Tamashiro, Giordanna Pinheiro, Augusto C Amato-Filho, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Anelyssa D'Abreu
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies in Huntington disease (HD) have suggested a role for the cerebellum. Our goal was to perform a detailed evaluation of cerebellar morphology. We performed the Unified HD rating scale (UHDRS) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) in 26 HD patients and 26 healthy controls. We created a two-sample test to analyze cerebellar gray matter (GM) differences between groups and another to correlate GM alterations with UHDRS and MOCA, corrected for age, expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, and disease duration using the spatially unbiased atlas template (SUIT)-SPM-toolbox which preserves anatomical detailing...
May 20, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527815/neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-cerebellar-injury-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#3
Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Sachio Takashima
OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological characteristics and pathogenic factors of cerebellar injury in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging examination was performed on 17 eligible surviving ELBWI. Their MR images were assessed and classified its pattern of cerebellar injuries. Brain pathology was examined on 15 patients, who isolated this neuroimaging subjects. The trend of brain pathologies was revealed. RESULTS: Four types of morphological pattern were recognized: (i) the absence of major portions in the cerebellum (6/17 cases); (ii) focal cerebellar tissue loss (2/17); (iii) unilateral cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia (3/17); (iv) small cerebellum with entrapped fourth ventricle (6/17)...
May 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527263/-racemose-neurocysticercosis-neuroimaging-guides-the-diagnosis
#4
Carlos Hugo Zapata, Sergio Alberto Vargas, Carlos Santiago Uribe
Neurocysticercosis is the leading cause of parasitosis of the central nervous system and acquired epilepsy in developing countries. The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis, especially its racemose variant, are pleomorphic and unspecific, characteristics that hinder the diagnosis and make it a challenge for the clinician.The objective of this report was to describe two cases of racemose neurocysticercosis in which neuroimaging led to the definitive diagnosis. The first case involved a patient with persistent headache and focal neurological signs...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527230/imaging-and-neuropsychological-correlates-of-white-matter-lesions-in-different-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#5
Charlene L M Lam, Jenny Yiend, Tatia M C Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter lesions (WML) are prevalent in older adults. The association between WML and cognition in different subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is inconsistent in the literature. OBJECTVES: We aim to provide a systematic review on the impact of WML in different subtypes of MCI, and discuss the recent findings on white matter plasticity. METHODS: We reviewed peer-reviewed articles from January 2011 to August 2016 and identified 12 studies investigating the association between WML and subtypes of MCI with both neuroimaging and cognitive measures...
May 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527209/neuroimaging-and-its-relevance-to-understanding-pathways-linking-diabetes-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#6
Chris Moran, Richard Beare, Thanh Phan, Sergio Starkstein, David Bruce, Mizrahi Romina, Velandai Srikanth
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an elevated risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration are two major pathways that may explain the effect of diabetes on the brain and therefore deserve investigation. Neuroimaging provides an effective way to investigate the contribution of these pathways in vivo, guiding further mechanistic research and providing biomarkers for clinical correlation or interventional studies. In this paper, we present a narrative review of the state of play with neuroimaging evidence in studies of people with diabetes mellitus, how these data are useful in understanding mechanistic links between diabetes and brain impairment, and possible ways that the field may develop in the future...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527175/chorea-and-orofaciolingual-dystonia-in-a-40-year-old-male
#7
Lulup Kumar Sahoo, Kali Prasanna Swain, Ashok Kumar Mallick, Geeta Mohanty, Maheswar Samanta, Srikanta Kumar Sahoo
Neuroacanthocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders which result in progressive neurodegeneration, predominantly of the basal ganglia, and erythrocyte acanthocytosis. We report a case of neuroacanthocytosis with typical phenotype of choreoacanthocytosis. A 40 year male presented with features of chorea with orofaciolingual dystonia producing eating and speech difficulties. There were features of self mutilation in form of lip and tongue biting. Peripheral blood smear examination revealed acanthocytes in our patient...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527171/lymphocytic-hypophysitis-mimicking-pituitary-macroadenoma
#8
Tarun Kumar Ralot, Jitesh Aggarwal, Raghavendra Haniadka, Kushal Gehlot, Nikhil Dongre, Swapnil Patil
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an inflammatory /autoimmune disorder that primarily involves the pituitary gland and the pituitary stalk. The common clinical presentations include headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, features of hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus as well as diplopia, orbital pain and bitemporal hemianopia. We report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis which presented as hemichorea. Neuroimaging showed a mass in the sella tursica region which, on histopathological examination was suggestive of lymphocytic hypophysitis...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527084/neurobiology-of-chronicization
#9
Gian Camillo Manzoni, Marco Russo, Arens Taga, Paola Torelli
In the past few years, research on chronicization of headache has focussed primarily on migraine, even though there are other types of primary headache that over time can turn into chronic forms. Only a minority of migraine sufferers will develop a chronic condition, with attacks that are likely to vary in their clinical features. As a result, in chronic migraine the specific diagnostic criteria for this headache type do not always exhibit the typical features of migraine. Among the factors that play a major role in favouring chronicization are a high frequency of migraine attacks since the beginning, overuse of symptomatic medication and onset of depression or arterial hypertension...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526878/a-data-mining-approach-using-cortical-thickness-for-diagnosis-and-characterization-of-essential-tremor
#10
J Ignacio Serrano, Juan P Romero, Ma Dolores Del Castillo, Eduardo Rocon, Elan D Louis, Julián Benito-León
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most prevalent movement disorders. Being that it is a common disorder, its diagnosis is considered routine. However, misdiagnoses may occur regularly. Over the past decade, several studies have identified brain morphometric changes in ET, but these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the informativeness of measuring cortical thickness for the purposes of ET diagnosis, applying feature selection and machine learning methods to a study sample of 18 patients with ET and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526817/myelination-of-the-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-in-vivo-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#11
Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
Evidence from post-mortem, genetic, neuroimaging, and non-human animal research suggests that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in brain myelin content. Brain regions implicated in this research, and in MDD more generally, include the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), insula, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We examined whether MDD is characterized by reduced myelin at the whole-brain level and in NAcc, LPFC, insula, sgACC, and mPFC...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526811/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-identifies-candidate-proteins-relating-to-tumor-metastatic-spread
#12
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524225/-how-must-we-manage-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infants-conclusions
#13
V Soto-Insuga
Epileptic encephalopathies are defined as epileptic syndromes in which the epileptic activity per se (in the form of frequent seizures or the presence of interictal epileptiform activity) contributes to a cognitive and behavioural disorder that is more important than could be expected from the causation of the disorder. Their aetiological diagnosis is fundamental to allow an early treatment to be established. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for patients with epileptic encephalopathy with onset during the first year of life, which includes management coordinated with electroencephalographic studies, neuroimaging, and screening for metabolic and genetic disorders...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524222/-neuroimaging-in-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infants
#14
M A Lopez-Pino, E Garcia-Esparza
Magnetic resonance plays a vital role in the aetiological diagnosis of epileptic encephalopathies, since it is capable of identifying specific aetiological patterns or patterns which are suggestive of different conditions. We review the main magnetic resonance findings that are observed in symptomatic epileptic encephalopathies.
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523216/foresight-beats-hindsight-the-neural-correlates-underlying-motor-preparation-in-the-pro-anti-cue-paradigm
#15
Franziska Emmerling, Felix Duecker, Tom A de Graaf, Teresa Schuhmann, Jos J Adam, Alexander T Sack
BACKGROUND: Human motor behaviors are characterized by both, reactive and proactive mechanisms. Yet, studies investigating the neural correlates of motor behavior almost exclusively focused on reactive motor processes. Here, we employed the pro-/anti-cue motor preparation paradigm to systematically study proactive motor control in an imaging environment. In this paradigm, either pro- or anti-cues are presented in a blocked design. Four fingers (two from each hand) are mapped onto four visual target locations...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522823/the-influence-of-emotional-interference-on-cognitive-control-a-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies-using-the-emotional-stroop-task
#16
Sensen Song, Anna Zilverstand, Hongwen Song, Federico d'Oleire Uquillas, Yongming Wang, Chao Xie, Li Cheng, Zhiling Zou
The neural correlates underlying the influence of emotional interference on cognitive control remain a topic of discussion. Here, we assessed 16 neuroimaging studies that used an emotional Stroop task and that reported a significant interaction effect between emotion (stimulus type) and cognitive conflict. There were a total of 330 participants, equaling 132 foci for an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis. Results revealed consistent brain activation patterns related to emotionally-salient stimuli (as compared to emotionally-neutral trials) during cognitive conflict trials [incongruent trials (with task-irrelevant information interfering), versus congruent/baseline trials (less disturbance from task-irrelevant information)], that span the lateral prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus), the medial prefrontal cortex, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522665/nonmicrocephalic-infants-with-congenital-zika-syndrome-suspected-only-after-neuroimaging-evaluation-compared-with-those-with-microcephaly-at-birth-and-postnatally-how-large-is-the-zika-virus-iceberg
#17
M F V V Aragao, A C Holanda, A M Brainer-Lima, N C L Petribu, M Castillo, V van der Linden, S C Serpa, A G Tenório, P T C Travassos, M T Cordeiro, C Sarteschi, M M Valenca, A Costello
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although microcephaly is the most prominent feature of congenital Zika syndrome, a spectrum with less severe cases is starting to be recognized. Our aim was to review neuroimaging of infants to detect cases without microcephaly and compare them with those with microcephaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all neuroimaging (MR imaging/CT) of infants 1 year of age or younger. Patients with congenital Zika syndrome were divided into those with microcephaly at birth, postnatal microcephaly, and without microcephaly...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522089/sleep-stage-distribution-in-persons-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-polysomnographic-study-according-to-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-standards
#18
Tatyana Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio, J David Cassidy, Lee Vernich, Rahim Moineddin, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Sleep stage disruption in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has received little research attention. We examined deviations in sleep stage distribution in persons with mTBI relative to population age- and sex-specific normative data and the relationships between such deviations and brain injury-related, medical/psychiatric, and extrinsic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional polysomnographic investigation in 40 participants diagnosed with mTBI (mean age 47...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521281/functional-connectivity-in-incarcerated-male-adolescents-with-psychopathic-traits
#19
Sandra Thijssen, Kent A Kiehl
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
May 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520725/reading-positional-codes-with-fmri-problems-and-solutions
#20
Kristjan Kalm, Dennis Norris
Neural mechanisms which bind items into sequences have been investigated in a large body of research in animal neurophysiology and human neuroimaging. However, a major problem in interpreting this data arises from a fact that several unrelated processes, such as memory load, sensory adaptation, and reward expectation, also change in a consistent manner as the sequence unfolds. In this paper we use computational simulations and data from two fMRI experiments to show that a host of unrelated neural processes can masquerade as sequence representations...
2017: PloS One
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