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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661109/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infections-in-custodial-populations-a-systematic-review
#1
Leigh Haysom, Melanie Cross, Rebecca Anastasas, Elizabeth Moore, Stephen Hampton
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in prisons can result in serious morbidity and death. We reviewed rates and risk factors for MRSA infection in custody, searching Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Between 1997 and 2015, 17 studies reported MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), with four case reports of MRSA non-SSTI (necrotizing pneumonias, brain abscess, and epiduritis). Significant associations with MRSA SSTI were found: MRSA colonization, previous skin infection, sharing soap or personal items, SSTI presenting as an abscess or furuncle, younger age, non-Caucasian, overweight, communal laundering, infrequent handwashing, lower hygiene score...
April 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566649/contextualising-health-screening-risk-assessments-in-police-custody-suites-qualitative-evaluation-from-the-help-pc-study-in-london-uk
#2
Iain McKinnon, Tracy Finch
BACKGROUND: In the UK, police custody officers have a responsibility to screen for health morbidity and vulnerability among detainees. This study aimed to develop an understanding of the barriers to performing effective health screening in police custody suites, understand the impact of screening tools on practice within the custody suite, and to identify factors that could hinder or facilitate the future implementation of a new screening intervention in this environment. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted alongside a quantitative evaluation of a novel screening tool...
March 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562798/-we-all-come-together-to-learn-about-music-1-a-qualitative-analysis-of-a-5-year-music-program-in-a-juvenile-detention-facility
#3
Maud Hickey
The purpose of this long-term qualitative study was to uncover evidence that might support components of positive youth development (PYD) in a music composition program at an urban youth detention center. The constructs of PYD come from self-determination theory-competence, autonomy, and relatedness-and formed the theoretical lens from which the data were analyzed. Over a period of 5 years, more than 700 youth participated in the program and created primarily rap music compositions. Comments from their feedback, as well as interviews, were analyzed using qualitative content analysis...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544869/criminal-justice-continuum-for-opioid-users-at-risk-of-overdose
#4
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Nickolas Zaller, Sarah Martino, David H Cloud, Erin McCauley, Andrew Heise, David Seal
The United States (US) is in the midst of an epidemic of opioid use; however, overdose mortality disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, more than half of state prisoners and approximately two-thirds of county jail detainees report issues with substance use. Overdose is one of the leading causes of mortality among individuals released from correctional settings. Even though the criminal justice (CJ) system interacts with a disproportionately high number of individuals at risk of opioid use and overdose, few CJ agencies screen for opioid use disorder (OUD)...
February 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544377/does-juvenile-detention-impact-health
#5
Titilola Balogun, Catherine Troisi, Michael D Swartz, Linda Lloyd, Rebecca Beyda
Youth involved in the juvenile justice system represent a medically underserved population. Recidivist youth have poorer health outcomes compared to youth detained for the first time. This study determined differences in immunization history, substance use, mental health symptoms, and sexual behavior between recidivist youth and first-time detainees following improvements in intake screenings at a large, urban juvenile detention center in the Southeastern United States. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that recidivist youth had significantly higher acellular pertussis immunization rates compared with first-time detainees (odds ratio [ OR] = 3...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503873/exploring-healthcare-experiences-for-incarcerated-individuals-who-identify-as-transgender-in-a-southern-jail
#6
Erin McCauley, Kristen Eckstrand, Bethlehem Desta, Ben Bouvier, Brad Brockmann, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein
Purpose: To document the health-related experiences and needs of jail detainees who self-identified as transgender women. Methods: Semistructured interviews with 10 transgender women of color were conducted in a county jail in a mid-sized southern city between 2015 and 2016. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and later analyzed using a general inductive approach. Results: Participants experienced high levels of abuse and harassment, solitary confinement, mental health issues, and lack of access to hormone treatment...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488259/the-role-of-socioeconomic-status-in-the-relationship-between-detention-and-self-rated-health-among-prison-detainees-in-belgium
#7
Lise G M Hanssens, Veerle Vyncke, Eva Steenberghs, Sara J T Willems
Prisoners are known to report worse health than the general population. Research has also shown that the prison population counts disproportionally more people with a lower socioeconomic status (SES), making it difficult to determine whether the worse self-reported health of prisoners is an effect of their detention or of their lower SES. This study assesses the influence of being in prison on self-rated health and if (and how) this relationship is mediated by SES. Data from detainees were collected in 12 Flemish prisons...
February 28, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478389/chinese-female-drug-users-experiences-and-attitudes-with-institutional-drug-treatment
#8
Liu Liu, Suh Chen Hsiao
With its rapid economic growth and the increased influence of Western culture, China has become a drug-consuming country. Forty-six semistructured interviews were conducted in a compulsory drug treatment institution to document Chinese female drug users' experiences with and attitudes toward two mandated treatment modalities: vocational training and educational activities. Detainees required to participate in first institutional treatment showed enthusiasm and had more positive attitudes; those who had entered the compulsory treatment facilities 2 or more times generally had a negative outlook on their pursuit of abstinence...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460439/the-mrci-with-juvenile-detainees-optimizing-performance-or-emphasizing-ecological-validity
#9
Richard Rogers, Allyson J Sharf, Rachel M Carter, Darby B Winningham, Rose N Sternad
The Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI) are intended to be administered to legally involved youths in a setting free from distractions and stressors with the explicit goal of assessing the examinee's best understanding. However, marked disparities have been observed between juveniles' MRCI performance and their unassisted recall of a representative Miranda warning. We hypothesized that youths' very strong MRCI performance might be partially due to prompts and clarifications used whenever incomplete or ambiguous answers are provided...
January 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443781/unexpected-custodial-death-due-to-acute-epiglottitis-a-rare-autopsy-case-report
#10
Shifan Wu, Luo Zhuo, Xingang Qiu, Zijiao Ding, Mingzhen Yang, Meichen Pan, Qian Liu
RATIONALE: Acute epiglottitis is a potentially life-threaten disease, which makes it more challenging to save the life for doctors. Unexpected deaths in custody are a primary cause of concern for the forensic community and doctor worldwide. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 44-year-old male detainee who was clinically suspected of dying of acute epiglottitis. The man experienced failure of resuscitation and died after admitted to a hospital. DIAGNOSES: The autopsy, toxicological testing, the test of immunoglobulin E and bacterial culture suggested the patient died of acute epiglottitis...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412377/tuberculosis-and-latent-infection-in-employees-of-different-prison-unit-types
#11
Péricles Alves Nogueira, Regina Maura Cabral de Melo Abrahão, Vera Maria Neder Galesi, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection among the staff that is in contact and the staff that is not in contact with prisoners, and investigate factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in this population. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study, conducted from 2012 to 2015, in employees of different prison units in the municipality of Franco da Rocha, SP. It consisted of the application of a questionnaire, application and reading of the tuberculin test, sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture, and radiological examination...
February 5, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388907/ethnic-variations-regarding-clinical-profiles-and-symptom-representation-in-prisoners-with-psychotic-disorders
#12
A Dorina Denzel, Joke M Harte, Mattis van den Bergh, Erik J A Scherder
BACKGROUND: Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are known to have higher prevalences of psychotic disorders and are over-represented in western penitentiaries and forensic psychiatric institutions. Research from regular mental healthcare settings suggests that they could show different and more severe psychotic symptoms. Aims To explore ethnic variations in severity of symptomatology of BME and non-BME detainees with psychotic disorders. METHOD: In this study, 824 patients with psychotic disorders from seven different ethnic groups, imprisoned in a penitentiary psychiatric centre in the Netherlands, were compared on symptom severity and symptom representation using the BPRS-E clinical interview...
January 2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373393/extended-release-naltrexone-improves-viral-suppression-among-incarcerated-persons-living-with-hiv-with-opioid-use-disorders-transitioning-to-the-community-results-of-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#13
Sandra A Springer, Angela Di Paola, Marwan M Azar, Russell Barbour, Breanne E Biondi, Maureen Desabrais, Thomas Lincoln, Daniel J Skiest, Frederick L Altice
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) would improve or maintain viral suppression (VS) among prisoners or jail detainees with HIV and opioid use disorder (OUD) transitioning to the community. DESIGN: A 4-site, prospective randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among prison and jail inmates with HIV and OUD transitioning to the community from September 2010 through March 2016. METHODS: Eligible participants (N = 93) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n = 66) or placebo (n = 27) starting at release and observed for 6 months...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367172/the-pathology-of-torture
#14
Michael S Pollanen
Detainees may be subjected to torture and extra-judicial execution by State actors and terrorists. But, the pathology of torture has not been well-described. This is due to the lack of autopsies performed on victims of torture, mostly due to the disposal of the bodies of the victims by their torturers. On this basis, the cause of death of detainees subjected to torture is often a matter of speculation or remains obscure. This paper provides an overview of the pathology of torture based on the authour's experience with the autopsies of torture victims...
March 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319805/the-captive-brain-torture-and-the-neuroscience-of-humane-interrogation
#15
S O'Mara
Despite it being abhorrent and illegal, torture is sometimes employed for information gathering. However, the extreme stressors employed during torture force the brain away from the relatively narrow, adaptive range of function it operates within. Torture degrades signal-to-noise ratios of information yield and increases false positive discovery rates. As a discovery methodology, torture fails basic tests of veridical, reliable and replicable information discovery. Torture fails during interrogation because it is an assault on our core integrated, social, psychological and neural functioning...
February 1, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316458/self-reported-violent-ideation-and-its-link-to-interpersonal-violence-among-offenders-with-mental-disorders-and-general-psychiatric-patients
#16
Mats Persson, Joakim Sturup, Henrik Belfrage, Marianne Kristiansson
This study aims at comparing mentally disordered offenders and general psychiatric patients regarding violent ideation and at exploring its association with interpersonal violence. We recruited 200 detainees undergoing forensic psychiatric evaluation and 390 general psychiatric patients at discharge. At baseline, they were asked about violent ideation; at the 20-week follow-up, information about violent acts was gathered from crime conviction registry, interviews, and records. The lifetime prevalence of violent ideation was 32...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313797/suicidality-and-other-health-risk-behaviors-among-female-youth-in-juvenile-detention
#17
Schnavia Smith Hatcher, Dione Moultrie King, Anne Nordberg, Dante Bryant, Christopher C Woolen
This study investigates suicidality and health-risk behaviors among female juvenile detainees and identifies the extent to which suicidal behaviors are correlated with other risky activities. This study also explores 12 health risk behaviors, their prevalence, and relative associations to suicidal behaviors within the sample-population. Researchers collected data from 104 female adolescents, ages 12 to 20, residing in a long-term, detention center in the southeastern region of the United States. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were utilized...
2018: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275557/-forensic-analysis-of-63-cases-of-non-violent-death-occurred-in-custody
#18
S M Yang, Y B Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To collect cases of non-violent death occurred in custody for analyzing the forensic characteristics and related influencing factors. METHODS: Sixty-three cases of non-violent death among detainees in custody that handled by a forensic science center from 2000 to 2015 were collected. The type, onset season, medical history, clinical manifestation, treatment and duration of related fatal diseases were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The deaths due to diseases in custody were common in male, and with a high incidence in middle aged adults...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246463/-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-in-a-black-african-carceral-area-experience-of-mali
#19
Y Toloba, K Ouattara, D Soumaré, T Kanouté, G Berthé, B Baya, B Konaté, M Keita, B Diarra, A Cissé, F S Camara, S Diallo
INTRODUCTION: Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case...
February 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226821/patterns-of-civilian-and-child-deaths-due-to-war-related-violence-in-syria-a-comparative-analysis-from-the-violation-documentation-center-dataset-2011-16
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schlüter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
BACKGROUND: Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war. METHODS: We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC)...
January 2018: Lancet Global Health
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