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Liu Liu, Suh Chen Hsiao, Charles Kaplan
This study explored drug initiation among 46 Chinese women in a compulsory drug treatment institution. The study adopted a mixed method with a strong emphasis on qualitative techniques to capture the perspectives of women in long-term treatment regarding their drug initiation experiences. A complementary analysis of quantitative data was used to help interpret, refine, deepen, and extend qualitative findings. Participants were divided into two groups according to their main drug of choice: 27 used methamphetamines and 19 used heroin (11 of them used methamphetamines occasionally)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Iain G McKinnon, Stuart Dm Thomas, Heather L Noga, Jane Senior
This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Hannes Bielas, Steffen Barra, Christine Skrivanek, Marcel Aebi, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Cornelia Bessler, Belinda Plattner
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychiatric disorders are common in juvenile detainees. Emotional dysregulation resulting from cumulated ACEs may be characterized by symptoms of irritability. The present study examined whether the accumulation of ACEs, irritability, or both predicted mental disorders in incarcerated adolescents with and without controlling for one another and for socio-demographic factors. METHODS: One hundred thirty male detained juvenile offenders (aged 13...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Nada A Soliman, Rania Elalaily, Salvatore Di Maio, Elsaid M A Bedair, Islam Kassem, Giuseppe Millimaggi
Unaccompanied minors refer to immigrants who are under the age of 18 and are not under the care of a parent or legal guardian. Age assessment is used in Europe mainly to establish whether or not an individual is under 18 years of age and therefore eligible for protection under the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN - CRC). EU Member States use a combination of techniques to determine the age of a minor and to certify minor status, including interviews and documentation, physical examinations (anthropometric assessment; sexual maturity assessment; dental observation); psychological and sociological assessment; radiological tests (carpal, dental or collarbone x-rays)...
2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Annette Opitz-Welke, Katharina Bennefeldt-Kersten, Norbert Konrad, Justus Welke
Specific risk factors for suicide among female prisoners were examined using an exhaustive sample of all suicides in German prisons between 2000 and 2013. The rate of prison suicide was lower among female (53,5/100,000) than among male prisoners (101/100,000). Differences between the genders regarding the various risk factors for prison suicide are few. Significant differences were observed only for bullying among men and higher percentages of drug withdrawal syndrome among women. Factors specific to the prison setting that contribute to suicide risk in incarcerated women should be examined...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Shouli Wu, Pingping Yan, Tianfei Yang, Zhenghua Wang, Yansheng Yan
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4(+) T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Michael Woodhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Allyson J Sharf, Richard Rogers, Margot M Williams, Eric Y Drogin
Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning...
August 8, 2016: Psychological Assessment
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Nursing
Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer, Fredrick L Altice
The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and tuberculosis in prisoners. We further modelled the contribution of imprisonment and the potential impact of prevention interventions on HIV transmission in this population. Of the estimated 10·2 million people incarcerated worldwide on any given day in 2014, we estimated that 3·8% have HIV (389 000 living with HIV), 15·1% have HCV (1 546 500), 4·8% have chronic HBV (491 500), and 2·8% have active tuberculosis (286 000)...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Lilanganee Telisinghe, Salome Charalambous, Stephanie M Topp, Michael E Herce, Christopher J Hoffmann, Peter Barron, Erik J Schouten, Andreas Jahn, Rony Zachariah, Anthony D Harries, Chris Beyrer, Joseph J Amon
Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Hugh Grant-Peterkin, Hilary Pickles, Cornelius Katona
Asylum seekers and migrants can be detained in immigration removal centres (IRCs) or, post sentence, in prison while the Home Office makes decisions on their immigration status and/or arrangements for their removal or deportation. Currently, there is no process for identifying detainees who lack the mental capacity to participate in decision making relating to their immigration situation. Mental illness and distress are common among detainees. There are often cultural and language barriers; there is no consistent system of advocates, and many detainees are without legal representation...
July 14, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Gisli Gudjonsson
There are three types of false confessions: 'voluntary', 'pressured-compliant' and 'pressured-internalized'. On the basis of case studies, in the early 1980s Gudjonsson and MacKeith coined the term 'memory distrust syndrome (MDS)' to describe a condition where people develop profound distrust of their memory and become susceptible to relying on external cues and suggestions from others. Memory distrust can, under certain circumstances, lead to a false confession, particularly of the pressured-internalized type, described as 'confabulation'...
June 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Marden Marques Soares, Paula Michele Martins Gomes Bueno
This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases...
June 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Katrien Devolder
In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it...
July 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Sean K Sayers, Marisa E Domino, Gary S Cuddeback, Nadine J Barrett, Joseph P Morrissey
Large urban jails have become a collection point for many persons with severe mental illness. Connections between jail and community mental health services are needed to assure in-jail care and to promote successful community living following release. This paper addresses this issue for 2855 individuals with severe mental illness who received community mental health services prior to jail detention in King County (Seattle), Washington over a 5-year time period using a unique linked administrative data source...
June 24, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Myles Balfe
This article examines why U.S. healthcare professionals became involved in "enhanced interrogation," or torture, during the War on Terror. A number of factors are identified including a desire on the part of these professionals to defend their country and fellow citizens from future attack; having their activities approved and authorized by legitimate command structures; financial incentives; and wanting to prevent serious harm from occurring to prisoners/detainees. The factors outlined here suggest that psychosocial factors can influence health professionals' ethical decision-making...
September 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Robert P Schwartz, Sharon M Kelly, Shannon G Mitchell, Laura Dunlap, Gary A Zarkin, Anjalee Sharma, Kevin E O'Grady, Jerome H Jaffe
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance is an effective treatment for opioid dependence but is rarely initiated in US jails. Patient navigation is a promising approach to improve continuity of care but has not been tested in bridging the gap between jail- and community-based drug treatment programs. METHODS: This is an open-label randomized clinical trial among 300 adult opioid dependent newly-arrested detainees that will compare three treatment conditions: methadone maintenance without routine counseling (termed Interim Methadone; IM) initiated in jail v...
July 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Ruud H J Hornsveld, Almar J Zwets, Ellie P E M Leenaars, Floris W Kraaimaat, Ruben Bout, Toine A L M Lagro-Janssen, Thijs Kanters
Psychological determinants of aggressive behavior (personality traits and problem behaviors) in 59 Dutch female offenders (outpatients and detainees) were compared with those in 170 male offenders (outpatients and detainees) who were all convicted of a violent crime. The violent female offenders scored significantly higher on neuroticism and trait anger, and significantly lower on hostility than the male offenders; however, effect sizes were small. A subgroup of female forensic psychiatric outpatients did not differ from a subgroup of male outpatients on all measures, whereas a subgroup of female detainees scored significantly higher on anger and aggression, but lower on hostility and psychopathy than did a subgroup of male detainees...
May 13, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Ben T Schoenbachler, Bryce D Smith, Arlene C Seña, Alison Hilton, Sallie Bachman, Mulamba Lunda, Anne C Spaulding
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated a hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and linkage-to-care post-release program among detainees of small- to medium-sized jails in North Carolina and South Carolina as part of the Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care initiative. METHODS: An HCV testing and linkage-to-care program was implemented in selected jails in North Carolina and South Carolina from December 2012 to March 2014. Health-care workers not affiliated with the jails conducted HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) testing and linkage-to-care activities...
May 2016: Public Health Reports
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