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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443781/unexpected-custodial-death-due-to-acute-epiglottitis-a-rare-autopsy-case-report
#1
Shifan Wu, Luo Zhuo, Xingang Qiu, Zijiao Ding, Mingzhen Yang, Meichen Pan, Qian Liu
RATIONALE: Acute epiglottitis is a potentially life-threaten disease, which makes it more challenging to save the life for doctors. Unexpected deaths in custody are a primary cause of concern for the forensic community and doctor worldwide. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 44-year-old male detainee who was clinically suspected of dying of acute epiglottitis. The man experienced failure of resuscitation and died after admitted to a hospital. DIAGNOSES: The autopsy, toxicological testing, the test of immunoglobulin E and bacterial culture suggested the patient died of acute epiglottitis...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412377/tuberculosis-and-latent-infection-in-employees-of-different-prison-unit-types
#2
Péricles Alves Nogueira, Regina Maura Cabral de Melo Abrahão, Vera Maria Neder Galesi, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection among the staff that is in contact and the staff that is not in contact with prisoners, and investigate factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in this population. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study, conducted from 2012 to 2015, in employees of different prison units in the municipality of Franco da Rocha, SP. It consisted of the application of a questionnaire, application and reading of the tuberculin test, sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture, and radiological examination...
February 5, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388907/ethnic-variations-regarding-clinical-profiles-and-symptom-representation-in-prisoners-with-psychotic-disorders
#3
A Dorina Denzel, Joke M Harte, Mattis van den Bergh, Erik J A Scherder
BACKGROUND: Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are known to have higher prevalences of psychotic disorders and are over-represented in western penitentiaries and forensic psychiatric institutions. Research from regular mental healthcare settings suggests that they could show different and more severe psychotic symptoms. Aims To explore ethnic variations in severity of symptomatology of BME and non-BME detainees with psychotic disorders. METHOD: In this study, 824 patients with psychotic disorders from seven different ethnic groups, imprisoned in a penitentiary psychiatric centre in the Netherlands, were compared on symptom severity and symptom representation using the BPRS-E clinical interview...
January 2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373393/extended-release-naltrexone-improves-viral-suppression-among-incarcerated-persons-living-with-hiv-with-opioid-use-disorders-transitioning-to-the-community-results-of-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#4
Sandra A Springer, Angela Di Paola, Marwan Azar, Russell Barbour, Breanne E Biondi, Maureen Desabrais, Thomas Lincoln, Daniel J Skiest, Frederick L Altice
OBJECTIVE: To determine if extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) would improve or maintain viral suppression (VS) among prisoners or jail detainees with HIV and opioid use disorders (OUD) transitioning to the community. DESIGN: A four-site, prospective randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among prison and jail inmates with HIV and OUD transitioning to the community from September 2010 through March 2016. METHODS: Eligible participants (N=93) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n=66) or placebo (n=27) starting at release and observed for 6 months...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367172/the-pathology-of-torture
#5
Michael S Pollanen
Detainees may be subjected to torture and extra-judicial execution by State actors and terrorists. But, the pathology of torture has not been well-described. This is due to the lack of autopsies performed on victims of torture, mostly due to the disposal of the bodies of the victims by their torturers. On this basis, the cause of death of detainees subjected to torture is often a matter of speculation or remains obscure. This paper provides an overview of the pathology of torture based on the authour's experience with the autopsies of torture victims...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319805/the-captive-brain-torture-and-the-neuroscience-of-humane-interrogation
#6
Shane O'Mara
Despite it being abhorrent and illegal, torture is sometimes employed for information gathering. However, the extreme stressors employed during torture force the brain away from the relatively narrow, adaptive range of function it operates within. Torture degrades signal-to-noise ratios of information yield, and increases false positive discovery rates. As a discovery methodology, torture fails basic tests of veridical, reliable, and replicable information discovery. Torture fails during interrogation because it is an assault on our core integrated, social, psychological, and neural functioning...
January 3, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316458/self-reported-violent-ideation-and-its-link-to-interpersonal-violence-among-offenders-with-mental-disorders-and-general-psychiatric-patients
#7
Mats Persson, Joakim Sturup, Henrik Belfrage, Marianne Kristiansson
This study aims at comparing mentally disordered offenders and general psychiatric patients regarding violent ideation and at exploring its association with interpersonal violence. We recruited 200 detainees undergoing forensic psychiatric evaluation and 390 general psychiatric patients at discharge. At baseline, they were asked about violent ideation; at the 20-week follow-up, information about violent acts was gathered from crime conviction registry, interviews, and records. The lifetime prevalence of violent ideation was 32...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313797/suicidality-and-other-health-risk-behaviors-among-female-youth-in-juvenile-detention
#8
Schnavia Smith Hatcher, Dione Moultrie King, Anne Nordberg, Dante Bryant, Christopher C Woolen
This study investigates suicidality and health-risk behaviors among female juvenile detainees and identifies the extent to which suicidal behaviors are correlated with other risky activities. This study also explores 12 health risk behaviors, their prevalence, and relative associations to suicidal behaviors within the sample-population. Researchers collected data from 104 female adolescents, ages 12 to 20, residing in a long-term, detention center in the southeastern region of the United States. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were utilized...
2018: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275557/-forensic-analysis-of-63-cases-of-non-violent-death-occurred-in-custody
#9
S M Yang, Y B Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To collect cases of non-violent death occurred in custody for analyzing the forensic characteristics and related influencing factors. METHODS: Sixty-three cases of non-violent death among detainees in custody that handled by a forensic science center from 2000 to 2015 were collected. The type, onset season, medical history, clinical manifestation, treatment and duration of related fatal diseases were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The deaths due to diseases in custody were common in male, and with a high incidence in middle aged adults...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246463/-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-in-a-black-african-carceral-area-experience-of-mali
#10
Y Toloba, K Ouattara, D Soumaré, T Kanouté, G Berthé, B Baya, B Konaté, M Keita, B Diarra, A Cissé, F S Camara, S Diallo
INTRODUCTION: Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case...
December 12, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226821/patterns-of-civilian-and-child-deaths-due-to-war-related-violence-in-syria-a-comparative-analysis-from-the-violation-documentation-center-dataset-2011-16
#11
Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schlüter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
BACKGROUND: Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war. METHODS: We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC)...
November 29, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187239/a-model-of-population-dynamics-of-tb-in-a-prison-system-and-application-to-south-africa
#12
Peter Witbooi, Sibaliwe Maku Vyambwera
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. RESULTS: We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the prison population can be either by death or by being released from prison, as compared to a general population in which removal is only by death...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141893/lawyers-for-guantanamo-bay-detainees-on-hunger-strike-will-fight-us-government-in-court
#13
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105203/self-reported-injection-practices-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-french-prisons-public-health-implications-anrs-coquelicot-survey-2011-2013
#14
Laurent Michel, Philippe Trouiller, Aude Chollet, Marie Molinier, Lucie Duchesne, Marie Jauffret-Roustide
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The aims of this study were to describe the prevalences of injection practices and needle/syringe sharing in people who use drugs in French prisons, and to investigate associated factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the ANRS-Coquelicot survey (2011-2013), a random sample of 1718 people who used drugs in free society was included. Information regarding a history of incarceration, drug-injection practices inside prison and needle/syringe sharing was collected during interviews...
November 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082787/psychopathology-and-borderline-personality-pathology-associated-with-lifetime-self-injurious-behavior-in-adolescent-psychiatric-inpatients-and-detainees
#15
Julian Koenig, Romuald Brunner, Johannes Michael Schmidt, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
OBJECTIVE: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a widespread phenomenon among adolescent psychiatric inpatients. It is also reported among delinquent adolescents detained in correctional facilities. While previous studies have addressed different functions of SIB within offender populations, here we investigate particular patterns of borderline personality pathology and psychopathology underlying SIB in both adolescent psychiatric inpatients and detainees. METHOD: Adolescent psychiatric inpatients and detainees were recruited consecutively...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945148/serological-susceptibility-to-varicella-among-u-s-immigration-and-customs-enforcement-detainees
#16
Aiden K Varan, Edith R Lederman, Shanon S Stous, Diana Elson, Jennifer L Freiman, Mona Marin, Adriana S Lopez, William M Stauffer, Rachael H Joseph, Stephen H Waterman
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for detaining unauthorized aliens during immigration proceedings. During 2014 to 2015, adult ICE detainees at a California facility were invited to complete a survey concerning self-reported varicella history and risk factors. Participants underwent serological testing for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG; susceptible individuals were offered varicella vaccination. Among 400 detainees with available serology results, 48 (12%) were susceptible to varicella...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924450/comorbidities-and-correlates-of-conduct-disorder-among-male-juvenile-detainees-in-south-korea
#17
Bum-Sung Choi, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Bongseog Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea. METHODS: In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844810/-respiratory-diseases-in-black-african-carceral-area
#18
Y Toloba, D Soumaré, K Ouattara, T Kanouté, O Boré, O Dolo, B Baya, G Berthé, S Diallo
INTRODUCTION: The measures for people in specific situations such as prisoners are part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to assess respiratory pathologies in a black African carceral center. METHODS: Retrospective study about the prevalence of respiratory pathologies in the arrest central house for men in Bamako (Mali), from May 2012 to April 2013. The admission records have served as data checking support on detainee's records...
September 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841492/neurocognitive-impairment-and-suicide-risk-among-prison-inmates
#19
Francesco Vadini, Giulio Calella, Alessandro Pieri, Elena Ricci, Mario Fulcheri, Maria Cristina Verrocchio, Alfredo De Risio, Antonina Sciacca, Francesca Santilli, Giustino Parruti
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Reducing the number of suicides in jails and prisons is an international priority. Several risk factors for suicide attempts, such as historical, prison-related, psychosocial and clinical factors, have been found in prisoners. We assessed whether demographic, conviction-related and neuro-behavioral variables might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. METHODS: On a preliminary sample of 254 detainees within an ongoing project, we assessed whether demographic, conviction-related, psychiatric, cognitive variables and illness comorbidity might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692209/the-science-of-durban-aids-2016
#20
Chris Beyrer, Olive Shisana, Stefan D Baral, Koleka Milsana, Kenneth H Mayer, Anton Pozniak, Bruce D Walker, Souleman Mboup, Annette H Sohn, David Serwadda, Helen Rees, Sergii Dvoriak, Mitchell Warren, Safiatou Thiam, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Xavier Hospital, Owen Ryan, Nicolas Thomson, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: The science presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa, in July 2016, addressed the state of the field across basic, clinical, prevention, law and policy and implementation science. METHODS AND RESULTS: The AIDS response has seen remarkable achievements in scientific advances, in translation of those advances into prevention, treatment and care for affected individuals and communities, and in large scale implementation - reaching 18 million people with antiviral therapy by mid-year 2016...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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