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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236192/augmenting-lagoon-process-using-reactivated-freeze-dried-biogranules
#1
Roya Pishgar, Rania Ahmed Hamza, Joo Hwa Tay
This study investigated the feasibility of using freeze-dried biogranules in lagoon basins. The effect of different operational conditions on treatment performance and detention time of granule-based lagoons was examined in a series of laboratory-scale batch studies. Optimal granule dosage was 0.1 g/L under anaerobic condition, resulting in 80-94% removal of 1000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) in 7-10 days. Under aerobic condition, granule dosage of 0.2 g/L achieved the best result for identical COD concentration...
February 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#2
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191447/reexamining-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-surprising-activity-for-a-dormant-parasite
#3
Anthony P Sinai, Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Robert D Murphy, Matthew S Gentry, Abhijit Patwardhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite over a third of the world's population being chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii, little is known about this largely asymptomatic phase of infection. This stage is mediated in vivo by bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The absence of overt symptoms has been attributed to the dormancy of bradyzoites. In this review, we reexamine the conventional view of chronic toxoplasmosis in light of emerging evidence challenging both the nature of dormancy and the consequences of infection in the CNS...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185995/study-protocol-community-links-to-establish-alcohol-recovery-clear-for-women-leaving-jail
#4
Jennifer E Johnson, Yael Chatav Schonbrun, Bradley Anderson, Megan Kurth, Christine Timko, Michael Stein
PURPOSE: This article describes the protocol for a randomized effectiveness trial of a method to link alcohol use disordered women who are in pretrial jail detention with post-release 12-step mutual help groups. BACKGROUND: Jails serve 15 times more people per year than do prisons and have very short stays, posing few opportunities for treatment or treatment planning. Alcohol use is associated with poor post-jail psychosocial and health outcomes including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, especially for women...
February 7, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168401/dyslipidemia-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Melinda Zsuzsanna Szabó, Peter Szodoray, Emese Kiss
Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accelerated atherosclerosis is related to traditional (age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, and positive family history) and non-traditional, disease-related factors. Traditional risk factors are still more prominent in patients with lupus, as both hypertension and hypercholesterinemia were independently associated with premature atherosclerosis in several SLE cohorts...
February 7, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160783/prevalence-of-hiv-among-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-australians-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Simon Graham, Catherine C O'Connor, Stephen Morgan, Catherine Chamberlain, Jane Hocking
Background: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) are Australia's first peoples. Between 2006 and 2015, HIV notifications increased among Aboriginal people; however, among non-Aboriginal people, notifications remained relatively stable. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people overall and by subgroups. Methods: In November 2015, a search of PubMed and Web of Science, grey literature and abstracts from conferences was conducted. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people tested and those who tested positive for HIV...
February 6, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157562/life-cycle-assessment-and-nutrient-analysis-of-various-processing-pathways-in-algal-biofuel-production
#7
Dongyan Mu, Roger Ruan, Min Addy, Sarah Mack, Paul Chen, Yong Zhou
This study focuses on analyzing nutrient distributions and environmental impacts of nutrient recycling, reusing, and discharging in algal biofuels production. The three biomass conversion pathways compared in this study were: hydrothermal liquefaction technology (HTL), hydrothermal hydrolysis pretreatment +HTL (HTP), and wet lipid extraction (WLE). Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous (C, N, P) flows were described in each pathway. A primary cost analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic performance. The LCA results show that the HTP reduced life cycle NOx emissions by 10% from HTL, but increased fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential by 14%, 5%, and 28% respectively...
January 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152636/needs-and-achievements-of-the-juvenile-justice-system
#8
Miguel Basto-Pereira, Sofia Ribeiro, Ângela Maia
Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139964/the-taiwan-tobacco-and-liquor-corporation-to-join-the-ranks-of-global-companies
#9
Jappe Eckhardt, Jennifer Fang, Kelley Lee
Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures...
March 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138985/exploring-physical-activity-engagement-and-barriers-for-asylum-seekers-in-australia-coping-with-prolonged-uncertainty-and-no-right-to-work
#10
Lisa Hartley, Caroline Fleay, Marian E Tye
This paper explores the engagement in physical activity as a potential coping strategy for asylum seekers living in the Australian community without the right to work and with prolonged uncertainty, and benefits or barriers to undertaking such activity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held with 29 asylum seekers who had arrived to Australia by boat and were living in the community in the cities of Perth, Sydney or Melbourne in July-October 2013 after their release from immigration detention. The ratio of the numbers of men and women interviewed (23 men and 6 women) was comparable to the ratio of men and women who came by boat to Australia seeking asylum in 2012-2013...
January 30, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125302/psychological-distress-among-re-education-through-labour-camp-detainees-in-guangxi-autonomous-region-china
#11
Lorraine Yap, Su Shu, Lei Zhang, Wei Liu, Yi Chen, Zunyou Wu, Jianghong Li, Handan Wand, Basil Donovan, Tony Butler
BACKGROUND: There is currently no information about the prevalence of, and factors contributing to psychological distress experienced by re-education through labour camp detainees in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, China. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic characteristics; sexually transmissible infections (STIs); drug use; psychological distress (K-10); and health service usage and access inside the labour camps...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120402/preliminary-data-on-the-role-of-emotional-intelligence-in-mediating-the-relationship-between-psychopathic-characteristics-and-detention-terms-of-property-offenders
#12
Antonietta Curci, Emanuela Soleti, Amelia Manuti
We present preliminary data on the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in mediating the relationship between psychopathy and detention term of authors of property crimes. We assumed that the detention term is an approximation of the severity of criminal behavior. A sample of 24 property offenders were individually administered a brief anamnestic interview, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Information concerning the detention term was obtained from prison records...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117060/trajectories-of-substance-use-disorder-in-youth-after-detention-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#13
Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Karen M Abram, Hongyun Han, Gayle R Byck, Linda A Teplin
OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of substance use disorders (SUDs) in youth during the 12 years after detention and how gender, race/ethnicity, and age at baseline predict trajectories. METHOD: As part of the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal study of 1,829 youth randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois from 1995 through 1998, participants were reinterviewed in the community or correctional facilities up to 9 times over 12 years. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115987/prevalence-of-psychiatric-disorders-comorbidity-patterns-and-repeat-offending-among-male-juvenile-detainees-in-south-korea-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Bongseog Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Soon-Beom Hong, Dong Woo Lee, Ju-Young Chung, Ji Young Choi, Bum-Sung Choi, Young-Rim Oh, Miwon Youn
BACKGROUND: High rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities have been reported in juvenile detainees, and both phenomena are thought to contribute to repeat offending. However, research on this topic has been limited in Asian countries, like South Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, comorbidity patterns, and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending among a cross-section of youths detained in a male juvenile detention center in South Korea...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115541/disparities-in-hiv-aids-risk-behaviors-after-youth-leave-detention-a-14-year-longitudinal-study
#15
Karen M Abram, Marquita L Stokes, Leah J Welty, David A Aaby, Linda A Teplin
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in the prevalence of 15 HIV/AIDS sex and drug risk behaviors in delinquent youth during the 14 years after they leave detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. METHODS: The Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youth randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, recruited between 1995 and 1998 and reinterviewed up to 11 times. Independent interviewers assessed HIV/AIDS risk behaviors using the National Institutes on Drug Abuse Risk Behavior Assessment...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111221/differential-experiences-of-mexican-policing-by-people-who-inject-drugs-residing-in-tijuana-and-san-diego
#16
Emily F Wood, Dan Werb, Leo Beletsky, Gudelia Rangel, Jazmine Cuevas Mota, Richard S Garfein, Steffanie A Strathdee, Karla D Wagner
BACKGROUND: Research among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the USA and Mexico has identified a range of adverse health impacts associated with policing of PWIDs. We employed a mixed methods design to investigate how PWIDs from San Diego and Mexico experienced policing in Tijuana, and how these interactions affect PWIDs behavior, stratifying by country of origin. METHODS: In 2012-2014, 575 PWIDs in San Diego, 102 of whom had used drugs in Mexico in the past six months, were enrolled in the STAHR-II study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 who had recently injected drugs in Mexico...
January 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101127/mental-health-and-trauma-in-asylum-seekers-landing-in-sicily-in-2015-a-descriptive-study-of-neglected-invisible-wounds
#17
Anna Crepet, Francesco Rita, Anthony Reid, Wilma Van den Boogaard, Pina Deiana, Gaia Quaranta, Aurelia Barbieri, Francesco Bongiorno, Stefano Di Carlo
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093665/disproportionality-and-disparities-among-sexual-minority-youth-in-custody
#18
Bianca D M Wilson, Sid P Jordan, Ilan H Meyer, Andrew R Flores, Lara Stemple, Jody L Herman
Research indicates that sexual minority youth are disproportionately criminalized in the U.S. and subjected to abusive treatment while in correctional facilities. However, the scope and extent of disparities based on sexual orientation remains largely overlooked in the juvenile justice literature. This study, based on a nationally representative federal agency survey conducted in 2012 (N = 8785; 9.9% girls), reveals that 39.4% of girls and 3.2% of boys in juvenile correctional facilities identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076443/predicting-reoffending-using-the-structured-assessment-of-violence-risk-in-youth-savry-a-5-year-follow-up-study-of-male-juvenile-offenders-in-hunan-province-china
#19
Jiansong Zhou, Katrina Witt, Xia Cao, Chen Chen, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. OBJECTIVE: The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. METHODS: A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068483/immunity-to-commensal-fungi-detente-and-disease
#20
Matthew L Wheeler, Jose J Limon, David M Underhill
Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut)...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
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