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Niall McCrae
With a spring in his step, lecturer Jeroen Ensink left his suburban London home to post cards to his many friends around the world, announcing the arrival of his baby daughter. Seconds later his life was over. A young man had pounced, and in a state of frenzy, savagely stabbed his random victim (Daily Mail, 4 January 2016). As psychiatric patient Femi Nandap begins detention in a high-security institution, we should spare some thought for Jeroen's wife, and his only child. This article is protected by copyright...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Gerald J Haeffel, Sascha Hein, Amanda Square, Donna Macomber, Maria Lee, John Chapman, Elena L Grigorenko
This study reports findings from the administration of a social problem-solving training (SPST) intervention to juvenile detainees in the Connecticut Youth Detainee Program. SPST is a cognitive behavioral intervention that teaches children and youth how to more effectively cope with interpersonal stress and conflict. In the current study, we tested whether SPST could decrease depressive symptoms in a sample of detained adolescent offenders. The study used a randomized-control design with detention staff administering the intervention...
October 19, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Ryan Essex
Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott...
October 18, 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
Iain G McKinnon, Stuart Dm Thomas, Heather L Noga, Jane Senior
This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Verner S Westerberg, Barbara S McCrady, Mandy Owens, Paul Guerin
Because it is not common in the U.S. for jails to allow inmates to continue opioid medications that have been started in the community, we aimed to assess whether inmates maintained on methadone showed different rates of recidivism, lengths of incarceration, and types of offenses than other incarcerated groups. We also analyzed rates of return to home clinics after release. In order to answer these questions this study used extant data from 960 adult inmates in a large metropolitan detention center who were in 1 of 4 groups: general population with no known substance use disorders, alcohol detoxification, methadone maintenance (MMT), and opioid detoxification...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Tilman Steinert
The author discusses a pragmatic approach to decisions about coercive treatment that is based on four principles from principle-based ethics: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. This approach can reconcile psychiatry's perspective with the U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities. Coercive treatment can be justified only when a patient's capacity to consent is substantially impaired and severe danger to health or life cannot be prevented by less intrusive means...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Guillaume MuasaPatoka Kalonji, Gérard De Connick, Léon Okenge Ngongo, Dieudonné Kazumba Nsaka, Thierry Kabengele, Félicien Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga, Albert Adelin, Didier Giet
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis still remains a major public health concern in several provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo, especially in prison settings. The present study aimed at determining tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and associated risk factors in inmates of the Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed over a 6-month period (January to June 2015) in Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison. A total of 733 inmates were screened systematically for TB...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
(no author information available yet)
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
John A Schneider, Michael Kozloski, Stuart Michaels, Britt Skaathun, Dexter Voisin, Nicola Lancki, Ethan Morgan, Aditya Khanna, Keith Green, Robert W Coombs, Samuel R Friedman, Edward Laumann, Phil Schumm
OBJECTIVE: To examine how history of criminal justice involvement(CJI) is related to HIV care continuum metrics among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) 16-29 years of age. DESIGN: Population-based survey. METHODS: From 2013-2014 a representative sample of YBMSM was generated using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) in Chicago (n = 618). HIV antibody/Ag and RNA testing were performed using dry blood spots. Factors assessed in the care continuum included HIV testing, HIV diagnosis, linkage-to-care within 6 months, retention-in-care, adherence to antiretrovirals, and viral suppression...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
Xiaobo Zhou, Zhihua Yi, Xiaorong Yang, Zhuo Wang, Xianxiang Lyu, Jing Li
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in illicit drug use are becoming increasingly recognized. However, there are few studies concerning differences between male and female heroin users in China. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to explore gender differences in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, drug-related behaviors, and treatment history among a heroin-using population in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four cities in December 2013...
September 12, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
September 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Gregory L Gaskin, Janine Bruce, Arash Anoshiravani
BACKGROUND: Although today's youth are interested in using the internet to access and manage information related to their health, little information exists about parental attitudes towards the release of health information to adolescents. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with the parents of 83 adolescents detained at a large Northern California juvenile detention facility to examine parental perceptions toward allowing their children online access to their own health information...
2016: Journal of Participatory Medicine
N Salmanikhas, M Tizghadam, A Rashidi Mehrabadi
BACKGROUND: In this study, a hybrid treatment system (Fluidized Bed positioned in a biological reactor of an Activated Sludge process) was used to treat saline domestic wastewater. The performance of the mentioned hybrid system was compared with the conventional activated sludge. A pilot study was conducted, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH were measured to investigate treatment efficiency. Three saline wastewater samples with salt concentrations of 0...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Yan Zhang, Bing Feng, Wenxiu Geng, Laurence Owens, Juzhe Xi
BACKGROUND: Compulsory drug detention is the most frequent way to control drug use in China; however, it has often been criticized. This qualitative study aimed to investigate abstinence self-efficacy and its sources of drug users in a compulsory male drug detention center in Shanghai, China, and the attitudes of the drug users to this form of rehabilitation. METHODS: Thirty-six participants were interviewed (semi-structured, in depth) about their history of drug use and rehabilitation, self-evaluation of addiction, motivations to abstain, plans for the future and attitudes toward rehabilitation...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Romain Arnal, Gülen Ayhan, Éric Pinganaud, Célia Basurko, Louis Jehel
Despite the recent interest in psychiatric illness in prison, the psychopathology of the Remire-Montjoly prison population remains largely unknown. Subject to significant population movements, French Guiana and its prison houses a very mixed population in which recent history has left a strong mark (earthquake in Haïti, civil war in Suriname, violence related to gold mining population and drug trafficking). These negative life events appear as potential vectors of psychological trauma. Additionally, strong links have been established in the literature between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and many other psychiatric disorders, including suicidal behavior and addictions...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Merrian J Brooks, Michael P Marshal, Heather L McCauley, Antoine Douaihy, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Hopefulness has been associated with increased treatment retention and reduced substance abuse among adults, and may be a promising modifiable factor to leverage in substance abuse treatment settings. Few studies have assessed the relationship between hopefulness and substance use in adolescents, particularly those with high-risk backgrounds. OBJECTIVE: We explored whether high hope is associated with less likelihood for engaging in a variety of substance use behaviors in a sample of marginalized adolescents...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Muazzam Nasrullah, Emma Frazier, Jennifer Fagan, Felicia Hardnett, Jacek Skarbinski
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe factors associated with incarceration as well as the association between recent incarceration and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, access to insurance, healthcare utilization (emergency department (ED) and hospital use), antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and viral suppression. Design/methodology/approach Using 2009-2010 data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative three-stage sample of HIV-infected adults receiving care in the USA, the authors assessed the demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected persons who had been recently incarcerated (detention for>24 hours in the past year) using bivariate analyses...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Evelina Lesnic, Aurelia Ustian, Carmen Monica Pop
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Republic of Moldova reports the highest incidence of tuberculosis and the lowest treatment success rate among European region countries. In most of the patients the antituberculosis treatment failure is correlated with social risk factors (low socio-economical state, epidemiological danger characteristics) and biological factors (young age, male sex, physiological conditions, associated diseases). Clinical factors (advanced forms of tuberculosis, chronic evolution, immune disturbances), therapeutic factors (treatment errors and interruptions, individualized regimens) and administrative factors (drug interruption in supply, suboptimal treatment quality) prevail in regions with defficient in health care delivery...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
David Sando, Hannah Ratcliffe, Kathleen McDonald, Donna Spiegelman, Goodluck Lyatuu, Mary Mwanyika-Sando, Faida Emil, Mary Nell Wegner, Guerino Chalamilla, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND: In many countries, rates of facility-based childbirth have increased substantially in recent years. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the acceptability and quality of maternal health services provided at facilities and, consequently, maternal health outcomes have not improved as expected. Disrespect and abuse during childbirth is increasingly being recognized as an indicator of overall poor quality of care and as a key barrier to achieving improved maternal health outcomes, but little evidence exists to describe the scope and magnitude of this problem, particularly in urban areas in low-income countries...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Luzia Travado, William Breitbart, Luigi Grassi, Daisuke Fujisawa, Andrea Patenaude, Lea Baider, Stephen Connor, Michelle Fingeret
The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the "Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right" was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign...
August 17, 2016: Psycho-oncology
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