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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803503/hiv-testing-and-awareness-of-hiv-status-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greater-kuala-lumpur-malaysia
#1
Alexander R Bazazi, Aishwarya Vijay, Forrest W Crawford, Robert Heimer, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
HIV testing services are the gateway into HIV treatment and are critical for monitoring the epidemic. HIV testing is recommended at least annually in high-risk populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). In Malaysia, the HIV epidemic is concentrated among PWID, but their adherence to testing recommendations and the proportion of HIV-positive PWID who are aware of their status remain unknown. We recruited 460 PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur using respondent-driven sampling and conducted HIV testing. We examined past testing behaviors, estimating testing frequency, correlates of testing in the past 12 months, and the proportion of those living with HIV who were aware of their status...
August 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803153/comparison-of-sediment-and-nutrient-export-and-runoff-characteristics-from-watersheds-with-centralized-versus-distributed-stormwater-management
#2
Kristina G Hopkins, J V Loperfido, Laura S Craig, Gregory B Noe, Dianna M Hogan
Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are used to retain stormwater and pollutants. SCMs have traditionally been installed in a centralized manner using detention to mitigate peak flows. Recently, distributed SCM networks that treat runoff near the source have been increasingly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences among watersheds that vary in SCM arrangement by assessing differences in baseflow nutrient (NOx-N and PO4(-)) concentrations and fluxes, stormflow export of suspended sediments and particulate phosphorus (PP), and runoff characteristics...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794237/prolonged-immigration-detention-complicity-and-boycotts
#3
Melanie Jansen, Alanna Sue Tin, David Isaacs
Australia's punitive policy towards people seeking asylum deliberately causes severe psychological harm and meets recognised definitions of torture. Consequently, there is a tension between doctors' obligation not to be complicit in torture and doctors' obligation to provide best possible care to their patients, including those seeking asylum. In this paper, we explore the nature of complicity and discuss the arguments for and against a proposed call for doctors to boycott working in immigration detention. We conclude that a degree of complicity is unavoidable when working in immigration detention, but that it may be ethically justifiable...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763920/-an-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-timeliness-of-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-aids-from-2010-to-2014-in-china
#4
H L Tang, J Xu, J Han, J Li, Y R Mao
Objective: To analyze timeline of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS from 2010 to 2014, as well as influencing factors. Methods: Data from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System was used to collect newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Inclusion criteria of HIV/AIDS were confirmed cases and clinically diagnosed HIV positive, Chinese mainland cases, 14 years old and above, the first CD4(+)T lymphocyte ≤350 cells/μl in the follow up period...
August 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759620/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-prison-inmates-a-cross-sectional-survey-at-the-correctional-and-detention-facility-of-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#5
Benjamin Séri, Ange Koffi, Christine Danel, Timothée Ouassa, Marcel-Angora Blehoué, Eric Ouattara, Jeanne-d'Arc Assemien, Jean-Marie Masumbuko, Patrick Coffie, Nathalie Cartier, Arnaud Laurent, Gilles Raguin, Denis Malvy, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Serge P Eholié, Serge K Domoua, Xavier Anglaret, Marie-Catherine Receveur
BACKGROUND: In Côte d'Ivoire, a TB prison program has been developed since 1999. This program includes offering TB screening to prisoners who show up with TB symptoms at the infirmary. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB among inmates at the Correctional and Detention Facility of Abidjan, the largest prison of Côte d'Ivoire, 16 years after this TB program was implemented. METHODS: Between March and September 2015, inmates, were screened for pulmonary TB using systematic direct smear microscopy, culture and chest X-ray...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750353/old-and-dangerous-prison-and-dementia
#6
REVIEW
Gabriele Cipriani, Sabrina Danti, Cecilia Carlesi, Mario Di Fiorino
Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in many countries. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenon of detention of persons suffering from dementia. Medline searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters and books published until August 2016. Search terms included dementia, elderly, prison and criminal. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. As results, there is a lack of data about elderly with dementia in prisons...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748986/chronic-acromioclavicular-dislocation-and-torture-allegations-in-detention
#7
M Yassine Braham, M Jedidi, Y Chkirbene, M Kamel Souguir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734270/a-case-study-of-an-unknown-mass-grave-hostages-killed-70-years-ago-by-a-nazi-firing-squad-identified-thanks-to-genetics
#8
Andrzej Ossowski, Marta Diepenbroek, Marcin Zwolski, Adam Falis, Maria Wróbel, Milena Bykowska-Witowska, Grażyna Zielińska, Maria Szargut, Tomasz Kupiec
Almost 6 million people died in Poland during the Nazi occupation and about 570 thousand during the Soviet occupation. But the end of the war was not the end of the trauma. Historians estimate that at least 30 thousand people were killed during the Stalinist regime in Poland. In 2012 the Institute of National Remembrance started to search for hidden burials of victims of communism. Many exhumations were carried out under the project. One of them took place in Białystok, eastern Poland. According to information gathered by local historians, a detention centre in the heart of city was the place of secret burials of victims of the communist regime...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720011/facial-emotion-recognition-and-empathy-in-employees-at-a-juvenile-detention-center
#9
Luz Anyela Morales Quintero, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado, José Carlos Sánchez-Ferrer, Ana Fresán, Martin Brüne, Iván Arango de Montis
Numerous studies have shown that emotion recognition is impaired in individuals with a history of violent offenses, especially in those diagnosed with psychopathy. However, in criminological contexts, there is insufficient research regarding the role of empathy and facial emotion recognition abilities of personnel employed in correction centers. Accordingly, we sought to explore facial emotion recognition abilities and empathy in administrative officers and security guards at a center for institutionalized juvenile offenders...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715984/cost-of-an-integrated-care-program-to-reduce-ed-visits-during-diabetic-prisoner-court-hearings
#10
Tim Pauley, Joy Matienzo, Joseph Ventura, Josie Barbita
Diabetic events occurring during court hearings previously required emergency medical services (EMS) transport to the emergency department (ED). A new process was implemented whereby the provincial court (PC) was notified by the detention center of diabetes status of prisoners scheduled for court later that day, enabling a community nursing services provider to provide on-site diabetes assessment and treatment at the PC. During the 13-month pre-implementation phase, there were 10 incidents of diabetic distress resulting in an ED visit at a total cost of $797...
July 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#11
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709048/intentional-burn-injury-assessment-of-allegations-of-self-infliction
#12
Juliet Cohen, Jo Pettitt, Emily Wilbourn
This study investigates the question of whether there is evidence that suggests the possibility of self-infliction, or self-infliction by proxy, of burn injury among a group of asylum claimants in the UK who have attributed such injuries to torture, and how such evidence might be assessed. The question arose from the observations of doctors at the UK-based charity Freedom from Torture that increasing numbers of individuals from Sri Lanka who described a history of torture had suffered severe and disfiguring burn injuries from heated metal objects, and the suggestion from asylum decision-makers that in some cases such injuries could have been acquired deliberately by self-infliction or self-infliction by proxy rather than by torture as claimed...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693512/a-prospective-quantitative-study-of-mental-health-act-assessments-in-england-following-the-2007-amendments-to-the-1983-act-did-the-changes-fulfill-their-promise
#13
Swaran P Singh, Moli Paul, Helen Parsons, Tom Burns, Peter Tyrer, Seena Fazel, Shoumitro Deb, Zoebia Islam, Jorun Rugkåsa, Ruchika Gajwani, Lavanya Thana, Michael J Crawford
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the Mental Health Act (MHA) 2007 amendments to the MHA 1983 were implemented in England and Wales. The amendments were intended to remove perceived obstacles to the detention of high risk patients with personality disorders (PDs), sexual deviance and learning disabilities (LDs). The AMEND study aimed to test the hypothesis that the implementation of these changes would lead to an increase in numbers or proportions of patients with these conditions who would be assessed and detained under the MHA 2007...
July 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689625/the-preventive-approach-opcat-and-the-prevention-of-violence-and-abuse-of-persons-with-mental-disabilities-by-monitoring-places-of-detention
#14
REVIEW
Nora Sveaass, Victor Madrigal-Borloz
Adopted in December 2002, the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment establishes a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The article explores how this collaboration between national and international bodies, with independent mandates to carry out such unannounced visits, represents an important effort in the process of protecting persons with mental disabilities who are detained and who are particularly exposed to exploitation and other forms of serious human rights violations, contrary to Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities...
July 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672787/the-efficacy-of-dog-assisted-therapy-in-detained-drug-users-a-pilot-study-in-an-italian-attenuated-custody-institute
#15
Laura Contalbrigo, Marta De Santis, Marica Toson, Maria Montanaro, Luca Farina, Aldo Costa, Felice Alfonso Nava
Drug addiction is a major care and safety challenge in prison context. Nowadays, rehabilitation and specific therapeutic programs are suggested to improve health and well-being of inmates during their detention time and to reduce substance abuse relapse after release from prison. Among these programs, several studies reported the benefits for inmates coming from animal assisted interventions. In this pilot controlled study, we investigated the efficacy of a dog assisted therapy program addressed to 22 drug addicted male inmates housed in an attenuated custody institute in Italy...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669292/service-users-experiences-of-involuntary-hospital-admission-under-the-mental-health-act-2001-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#16
Rebecca Murphy, David McGuinness, Emma Bainbridge, Liz Brosnan, Heike Felzmann, Mary Keys, Kathy Murphy, Brian Hallahan, Colm McDonald, Agnes Higgins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the experiences of individuals admitted to the hospital involuntarily under the Mental Health Act 2001 in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: In this qualitative descriptive study, 50 individuals who had been involuntarily admitted to a hospital underwent face-to-face semistructured interviews approximately three months after revocation of the involuntary admission order. Data were analyzed by using an inductive thematic process...
July 3, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658994/socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-schizophrenia-in-migrants-under-mental-health-detention-orders
#17
Jan Bulla, Klaus Hoffmann, Jan Querengässer, Thomas Ross
BACKGROUND: Migrants with mental hospital orders according to section 63 of the German criminal code are overrepresented in relation to their numbers in the general population. Subgroups originating from certain world regions are diagnosed with schizophrenia at a much higher rate than others. In the present literature, there is a strong evidence for a substantial correlation between migration, social disadvantage and the prevalence of schizophrenia. AIMS: This study investigates the relationship between countries of origin, the risk of becoming a forensic patient and the proportion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643110/refugee-children-s-sandplay-narratives-in-immigration-detention-in-canada
#18
Rachel Kronick, Cécile Rousseau, Janet Cleveland
Asylum seeking children arriving in Canada regularly face incarceration in medium-security-style immigration detention centres. Research demonstrates the human cost of detaining migrant children and families and the psychiatric burden linked with such imprisonment. This study aims to understand the lived experiences of children aged 3-13 held in detention. Informed by a qualitative methodology of narrative inquiry, child participants created worlds in the sand and generated stories to express their subjective experience...
June 22, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640610/the-role-of-denitrification-in-stormwater-detention-basin-treatment-of-nitrogen
#19
Natalie R Morse, Lauren E McPhillips, James P Shapleigh, M Todd Walter
The nitrogen (N) cycling dynamics of four stormwater basins, two often saturated sites ("Wet Basins") and two quick draining sites ("Dry Basins"), were monitored over a ∼ 1-year period. This study paired stormwater and greenhouse gas monitoring with microbial analyses to elucidate the mechanisms controlling N treatment. Annual dissolved inorganic N (DIN) mass reductions (inflow minus outflow) were greater in the Dry Basin than in the Wet Basin, 2.16 vs 0.75 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. The Dry Basin infiltrated a much larger volume of water and thus had greater DIN mass reductions, even though incoming and outgoing DIN concentrations were statistically the same for both sites...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637536/mental-health-morbidity-among-people-subject-to-immigration-detention-in-the-uk-a-feasibility-study
#20
P Sen, J Arugnanaseelan, E Connell, C Katona, A A Khan, P Moran, K Robjant, K Slade, J Tan, K Widyaratna, J Youd, A Forrester
AIMS: The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting...
June 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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