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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101127/mental-health-and-trauma-in-asylum-seekers-landing-in-sicily-in-2015-a-descriptive-study-of-neglected-invisible-wounds
#1
Anna Crepet, Francesco Rita, Anthony Reid, Wilma Van den Boogaard, Pina Deiana, Gaia Quaranta, Aurelia Barbieri, Francesco Bongiorno, Stefano Di Carlo
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093665/disproportionality-and-disparities-among-sexual-minority-youth-in-custody
#2
Bianca D M Wilson, Sid P Jordan, Ilan H Meyer, Andrew R Flores, Lara Stemple, Jody L Herman
Research indicates that sexual minority youth are disproportionately criminalized in the U.S. and subjected to abusive treatment while in correctional facilities. However, the scope and extent of disparities based on sexual orientation remains largely overlooked in the juvenile justice literature. This study, based on a nationally representative federal agency survey conducted in 2012 (N = 8785; 9.9% girls), reveals that 39.4% of girls and 3.2% of boys in juvenile correctional facilities identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076443/predicting-reoffending-using-the-structured-assessment-of-violence-risk-in-youth-savry-a-5-year-follow-up-study-of-male-juvenile-offenders-in-hunan-province-china
#3
Jiansong Zhou, Katrina Witt, Xia Cao, Chen Chen, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. OBJECTIVE: The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. METHODS: A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068483/immunity-to-commensal-fungi-detente-and-disease
#4
Matthew L Wheeler, Jose J Limon, David M Underhill
Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut)...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061942/a-study-on-hydrodynamic-behavior-of-fine-sediment-in-retention-structure-using-particle-image-velocimetry
#5
Masoumeh MoayeriKashani, Lai Sai Hin, Shaliza Ibrahim, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman
  Detention ponds are one type of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) that can be used for the quantity control of stormwater. The pond works by reducing peak discharge downstream through temporary storage and gradual release. In this paper, a new experimental procedure using particle image velocimetry (PIV) is introduced for a two-dimensional study of the hydrodynamic behavior of fine particles in a specially designed sediment basin. The hydrodynamic behavior of fine particles under different hydraulics parameters was achieved by shifting outlet placement, using different particle-size diameters, varying the distance of the inlet from the water surface, and varying the flow rate...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053362/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-for-active-cases-of-tuberculosis-in-flanders-belgium
#6
G Suzanne A Smit, Ludwig Apers, Wouter Arrazola de Onate, Philippe Beutels, Pierre Dorny, An-Marie Forier, Kristien Janssens, Jean Macq, Ruud Mak, Sandrina Schol, Dirk Wildemeersch, Niko Speybroeck, Brecht Devleesschauwer
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the tuberculosis screening activities currently funded by the Flemish government in Flanders, Belgium. METHODS: After estimating the expenses for 2013-2014 of each of nine screening components - which include high-risk groups, contacts and people who are seeking tuberculosis consultation at a centre for respiratory health care - and the associated costs per active case of tuberculosis identified between 2007 and 2014, we compared the cost-effectiveness of each component...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044032/overcoming-challenges-to-care-in-the-juvenile-justice-system-a-case-study-and-commentary
#7
Rebekah J Savage, Jasmine M Reese, Stephenie Wallace, Timothy Wang, Traci Jester, Robert Lowe, LaKeshia Hyndman, Nefertiti Durant
Youth in the criminal justice system commonly suffer from multiple medical and psychological health problems. Because they likely live in lower socioeconomic environments, the medical care they receive through the justice system might be their only recent medical care and can result in the discovery of health problems or chronic illnesses that must be managed while in the system and beyond. We describe the case of an adolescent diagnosed with a serious chronic disease during his time in an urban detention center to illustrate how health workers and justice staff must use a team approach in caring for this vulnerable population of children...
January 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040228/the-compulsory-psychiatric-regime-in-hong-kong-constitutional-and-ethical-perspectives
#8
Daisy Cheung
This article examines the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong. Under section 36 of the Mental Health Ordinance, which authorises long-term detention of psychiatric patients, a District Judge is required to countersign the form filled out by the registered medical practitioners in order for the detention to be valid. Case law, however, has shown that the role of the District Judge is merely administrative. This article suggests that, as it currently stands, the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong is unconstitutional because it fails the proportionality test...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008614/unfitness-for-detention-among-arrestees-with-suspected-mental-disorders-in-paris-france
#9
Aude Lepresle, Camille Vidal, Eric Mairesse, Patrick Chariot
In this retrospective study (11/2013-04/2014), we aimed to identify the factors associated with psychiatric hospitalization among detainees in police custody. We included 137 patients (M/F, 74%/26%; median age, 37 years), and 125 (91%) had a mental disorder. Seventy-seven patients (56%) had involuntary hospitalization. Sixty patients (44%) were declared fit for detention, and 48 (80%) of these patients had a mental disorder. All patients who required urgent psychiatric care and could not provide valid consent for care were declared as requiring involuntary hospitalization...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992626/sex-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-positive-outcomes-in-delinquent-youth-after-detention-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#10
Karen M Abram, Nicole M Azores-Gococo, Kristin M Emanuel, David A Aaby, Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Melinda S Rosenbaum, Linda A Teplin
Importance: Longitudinal studies of delinquent youth have focused on criminal recidivism, not on psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. This omission is critical because after detention most youth return to the community, where they become the responsibility of pediatric health care professionals. Objective: To investigate 8 positive outcomes among delinquent youth 5 and 12 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal US study of long-term outcomes of delinquent youth after detention, participants were interviewed in detention between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and reinterviewed up to 9 times during the 12-year study period, through May 12, 2011...
December 19, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973700/strange-bedfellows-nurses-as-responsible-clinicians-under-the-mental-health-act-england-wales
#11
P Veitch, J Oates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964869/relapse-to-opioid-use-in-opioid-dependent-individuals-released-from-compulsory-drug-detention-centres-compared-with-those-from-voluntary-methadone-treatment-centres-in-malaysia-a-two-arm-prospective-observational-study
#12
Martin P Wegman, Frederick L Altice, Sangeeth Kaur, Vanesa Rajandaran, Sutayut Osornprasop, David Wilson, David P Wilson, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
BACKGROUND: Detention of people who use drugs into compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) is common throughout East and Southeast Asia. Evidence-based pharmacological therapies for treating substance use disorders, such as opioid agonist treatments with methadone, are generally unavailable in these settings. We used a unique opportunity where CDDCs coexisted with voluntary drug treatment centres (VTCs) providing methadone in Malaysia to compare the timing and occurrence of opioid relapse (measured using urine drug testing) in individuals transitioning from CDDCs versus methadone maintenance in VTCs...
December 7, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964868/compulsory-drug-detention-centres-time-to-question-their-continued-use
#13
Anne Bergenstrom, Gino Vumbaca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936184/freshwater-detention-by-oyster-reefs-quantifying-a-keystone-ecosystem-service
#14
David A Kaplan, Maitane Olabarrieta, Peter Frederick, Arnoldo Valle-Levinson
Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#15
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900592/tuberculosis-among-incarcerated-hispanic-persons-in-the-united-states-1993-2014
#16
Godwin Mindra, Jonathan M Wortham, Maryam B Haddad, Jorge L Salinas, Krista M Powell, Lori R Armstrong
We examined the National tuberculosis surveillance system to describe Hispanic persons who were incarcerated at time of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and to compare their characteristics with those of non-Hispanic incarcerated TB patients. After declines between 1993 and 2002, the annual proportion of Hispanic TB patients who were incarcerated grew from 4.9% in 2003 to 8.4% in 2014. During 2003-2014, 19% of incarcerated US-born TB patients were Hispanic, and 86% of the foreign-born were Hispanic. Most incarcerated TB patients were in local jails, but about a third of all foreign-born Hispanics were in the facility category that includes Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention centers...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872112/too-much-detention-street-triage-and-detentions-under-section-136-mental-health-act-in-the-north-east-of-england-a-descriptive-study-of-the-effects-of-a-street-triage-intervention
#17
Patrick Keown, Jo French, Graham Gibson, Eddy Newton, Steve Cull, Paul Brown, Jo Parry, Diana Lyons, Iain McKinnon
OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of Street Triage (ST) on the number and rate of Section 136 Mental Health Act (S136) detentions in one NHS Mental Health and Disability Trust (Northumberland, Tyne and Wear (NTW)). DESIGN: Comparative descriptive study of numbers and rates of S136 detentions prior to and following the introduction of ST in NTW. More detailed data were obtained from one local authority in the NTW area. SETTING: NTW, a secondary care NHS Foundation Trust providing mental health and disability services in the north-east of England, in conjunction with Northumbria Police Service...
November 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871918/the-impact-of-interprofessional-student-led-reproductive-health-education-on-youths-in-juvenile-detention
#18
Ji Son, Willa M Miller, Krystel Tossone, Fredrick Butcher, Kelly Kuo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of an interprofessional student-led comprehensive sexual education curriculum in improving the reproductive health literacy among at-risk youths in detention. DESIGN: Setting, and Participants: We performed a prospective cohort study involving 134 incarcerated youth and an interprofessional team of 23 medical, nursing, and social work students, who participated in a comprehensive reproductive health curriculum over the course of 3 days...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868173/-validation-of-tools-for-assessing-the-intelligence-and-the-functional-impairment-of-papiamento-speaking-suspects
#19
M van de Vorst, D J Vinkers, G E Matroos, F Heijtel, H W Hoek
BACKGROUND: Although Antillean suspects in the Netherlands are often diagnosed as being intellectually impaired, there are no validated tests available Papiamento (the native language) for assessing intelligence or functional impairment. AIM: To validate the use of the GIT 2 (Groninger Intelligentie Test 2) and the Barkley Functioning Impairment Scale (BFIS) for Antillean defendants detained by the Judicial Service of the Caribbean Netherlands in Bonaire. METHOD: With the approval of the publishers, the GIT 2 and the BFIS were translated in Papiamento by two independent experts...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852256/health-conditions-of-inmates-in-italy
#20
Fabio Voller, Caterina Silvestri, Gianrocco Martino, Eleonora Fanti, Giorgio Bazzerla, Fabio Ferrari, Marco Grignani, Sandro Libianchi, Antonio Maria Pagano, Franco Scarpa, Cristina Stasi, Teresa Di Fiandra
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that prison is characterized by a higher prevalence of chronic diseases than unconfined settings. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and health of inmates, focusing on internal diseases. METHODS: We designed a specific clinical record using the Python programming language. We considered all of the diagnoses according to the ICD-9-CM. RESULTS: Of a total of 17,086 inmates, 15,751 were enrolled in our study (M = 14,835; F = 869), corresponding to 92...
November 16, 2016: BMC Public Health
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