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Mohsen Dehghani Darmian, Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared, Gholamreza Azizyan, Shane A Snyder, John P Giesy
Selecting an appropriate crisis management plans during uncontrollable loading of pollution to water systems is crucial. In this research the quality of water resources against uncontrollable pollution is protected by use of suitable tools. Case study which was chosen in this investigation was a river-reservoir system. Analytical and numerical solutions of pollutant transport equation were considered as the simulation strategy to calculate the efficient tools to protect water quality. These practical instruments are dilution flow and a new tool called detention time which is proposed and simulated for the first time in this study...
June 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Elad Chamiel, Sophie D Walsh
Studies have examined the potential benefits and risks of alternative forms of detention, such as house arrest, for adults but, despite its growing use, little research has examined the implications of house arrest for juveniles. The current research examined the experience of 14 adolescents under house arrest. Six main themes were identified in the narratives of the participants: the experience of detention, daily schedule and utilization of time, emotions and self-reflection, relationships with peers, relation to parents and supervisor(s), and contact with professionals...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Carlos Willie Alvarenga, Luiz Henrique Fernandes, Antonio Pazin-Filho, Luciane Loures Dos Santos
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test whether training correctional facility (CF) officers in the admission process would identify risk factors for inmates' unscheduled transfers to healthcare units in the first 24 hours. Design/methodology/approach Correctional officers (COs) were trained to use a questionnaire with ten closed questions, which seeks to identify occupational or nosocomial risk, applied upon the admission of inmates to a CF. Findings There were 1,288 admissions in six CFs in Ribeirão Preto and Serra Azul/Brazil from March 2010 to May 2011...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Sophie Haesen, Tenzin Wangmo, Bernice S Elger
The increasing numbers of aging prisoners raise the issue of how they maintain their personal identity and self-esteem in light of long-standing detention. This study sought to answer this question since identity and self-esteem could influence mental and physical health. We conducted a secondary analysis of 35 qualitative interviews that were carried out with older inmates aged 51-75 years (mean age: 61 years) living in 12 Swiss prisons. We identified three main themes that characterized their identity: personal characterization of identity, occupational identity, and social identity...
June 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Gaëlle Picarda, Chris A Benedict
Systems-based based approaches have begun to shed light on extrinsic factors that contribute to immune system variation. Among these, CMV (HHV-5, a β-herpesvirus) imposes a surprisingly profound impact. Most of the world's population is CMV+ , and the virus goes through three distinct infection phases en route to establishing lifelong détente with its host. Immune control of CMV in each phase recruits unique arms of host defense, and in turn the virus employs multiple immune-modulatory strategies that help facilitate the establishment of lifelong persistence...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Janet Cleveland, Rachel Kronick, Hanna Gros, Cécile Rousseau
OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this qualitative component of a mixed-methods study is to provide a descriptive account of adult asylum seekers' experience of detention in Canadian immigration detention centers. The second objective is to identify the main underlying factors accounting for their reported feelings of distress. METHODS: Researchers interviewed 81 adult asylum seekers held in two Canadian immigration detention centers concerning their experience of detention...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Stuart A Kinner, Jesse T Young
The world prison population is growing at a rate that exceeds the rate of population growth. This issue of Epidemiologic Reviews comprises articles in which researchers summarize what is known about some of the key health issues facing people in prison, particularly in relation to human immunodeficiency virus and other blood-borne viral infections. A key recurring theme is that addressing the health needs of people in prison is important to reducing health inequalities at the population level-that prisoner health is public health...
June 1, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
Sally Dalton-Brown
This article considers recent ethical topics in Australia relating to the health rights of children in the contexts of (1) detention centers, (2) vaccination, and (3) procreative liberty, within a wider framework of discussion of the competing rights of society, parents, the child, and future generations.
July 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Jovana Arsenijević, Doris Burtscher, Aurelie Ponthieu, Nathalie Severy, Andrea Contenta, Stephane Moissaing, Stefano Argenziano, Federica Zamatto, Rony Zachariah, Engy Ali, Emilie Venables
During 2015 and 2016, an unprecedented flow of approximately 800,000 migrants coming from Turkey towards Western Europe crossed the Balkans. Male migrants are perceived as being less vulnerable compared to other migrants and they are not given priority in service and support provision. This qualitative study examines the self-perceived vulnerabilities of male migrants travelling alone along the Balkan route to Europe. Twenty-four individual in-depth interviews, two group interviews and participant observation were conducted with male migrants in Belgrade, Serbia in 2017...
July 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Vianney Gandon, Sophie Outh-Gauer, Patrick Chariot
INTRODUCTION: Little information is available regarding the medical status and health care needs of female arrestees. Our objective was to evaluate the perceived health and somatic or psychiatric disorders reported by female arrestees in police cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted an observational study in a regional reference department of forensic medicine in France. We studied female arrestees examined in police cells (01/01/2013-06/30/2013). Data were collected regarding individuals' medical characteristics, addictive behaviours, and perceived health status, as well as reported assaults or recent traumatic injuries...
July 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Aude Lepresle, Virginie Taprest, Patrick Chariot
Police custody is detention in response to a suspicion of crime. In France, it lasts less than 24 h, in most cases. According to French law, any individual placed in police custody may, at the individual's request, be examined by a doctor. The doctor decides whether the detainee's state of health is compatible with detention in a police station. Our objective was to assess the attending physicians' representations of police custody and medical intervention in this setting. In this study, physicians were asked to report on their own practice in custody and the way they perceived arrestees...
July 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Margot Moinester
The expansion of U.S. immigration enforcement from the borders into the interior of the country and the fivefold increase in immigration detentions and deportations since 1995 raise important questions about how the enforcement of immigration law is spatially patterned across American communities. Focusing on the practice of immigration detention, the present study analyzes the records of all 717,160 noncitizens detained by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in 2008 and 2009-a period when interior enforcement was at its peak-to estimate states' detention rates and examine geographic variation in detention outcomes, net of individual characteristics...
May 21, 2018: Demography
Maria Rae, Rosa Holman, Amy Nethery
The act of witnessing connects audiences with distant suffering. But what happens when bearing witness becomes severely restricted? External parties, including the mainstream news media, are constrained from accessing Australia's offshore immigration detention centres. The effect is that people seeking asylum are hidden from the public and excluded from national debates. Some detainees have adopted social media as a platform to communicate their stories of flight, and their experiences of immigration detention, to a wider audience...
May 2018: Media, culture, and society
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
May 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Alexandre Wullschleger, Jürgen Berg, Felix Bermpohl, Christiane Montag
Intensive outpatient models of need-adapted psychiatric care have been shown to reduce the length of hospital stays and to improve retention in care for people with severe mental illnesses. In contrast, evidence regarding the impact of such models on involuntary hospital treatment and other coercive measures in inpatient settings is still sparse, although these represent important indicators of the patients' wellbeing. In Germany, intensive models of care still have not been routinely implemented, and their effectiveness within the German psychiatric system is only studied in a few pioneering regions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jun Wang, Wei Bing Wu, Liang Chen, Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Mediastinum abscess caused by sharp esophageal foreign body perforation usually needs surgical treatment, and the surgical procedures vary according to size of perforation and scope of abscess, etc. For special case with small esophageal mucosal crevasse and focal abscess confined to mediastinum, minimally invasive surgery with guidance of video-mediastinoscopy would be an alternative method, however, application of video-mediastinoscopy in this life-threatening situation was rarely reported...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Arun Sondhi, Lisa Luger, Lina Toleikyte, Emma Williams
Introduction Detention under section 136(1) of the Mental Health Act 1983 allows for the police to arrest a person from a public place and remove them to a 'place of safety', typically an emergency department or mental-health unit if it is 'in the interests of that person or for the protection of other persons in immediate need of care or control'. Aims/objective: The aim of this study was to describe the views and perceptions of the process for people with lived experience of mental distress who have been detained under section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Saskia Mostert, Festus Njuguna, Renske H M van der Burgt, Joyce Musimbi, Sandra Langat, Jodi Skiles, Anneloes Seijffert, Mei N Sitaresmi, Terry A Vik, Peter M van de Ven, Gertjan J L Kaspers
BACKGROUND: Patients at Kenyan public hospitals are detained if their families cannot pay their medical bills. Access to health insurance and waiving procedures to prevent detention may be limited. This study explores the perspectives of health-care providers (HCP) on health-insurance access, waiving procedures, and hospital detention practices. PROCEDURE: A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by 104 HCP (response rate 78%) involved in childhood cancer care...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Nicola S Pocock, Reena Tadee, Kanokwan Tharawan, Wansiri Rongrongmuang, Brett Dickson, Soksreymom Suos, Ligia Kiss, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore and outside of national jurisdiction, where workers are commonly subjected to life-threatening risks. Yet, research on the health needs of trafficked fishermen is sparse. This paper describes abuses, occupational hazards, physical and mental health and post-trafficking well-being among a systematic consecutive sample of 275 trafficked fishermen using post-trafficking services in Thailand and Cambodia...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
Xiaohong Zhou, Zhenli He, Fenghua Ding, Liguang Li, Peter J Stoffella
Decaying experiments of four major aquatic macrophyte detritus, namely cattail (Typha orientalis), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), were conducted using the litterbag technique in the stormwater detention pond of South Florida, USA. Dry weight and chemical composition of remaining biomass were dynamically determined during the 185-day decay experiment. The results showed that decomposition rates (k), and the derived turnover (t50% and t95% ) were species specific...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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