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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821570/juvenile-hormone-but-not-nutrition-or-social-cues-affects-reproductive-maturation-in-solitary-alkali-bees-nomia-melanderi
#1
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
Eusocial insect colonies are defined by extreme variation in reproductive activity among castes, but the ancestral conditions from which this variation arose are unknown. Investigating the factors that contribute to variation in reproductive physiology among solitary insects that are closely related to social species can help to fill this gap. We experimentally tested the role of nutrition, juvenile hormone, and social cues on reproductive maturation in solitary alkali bees (Halictidae: Nomia melanderi). We find that alkali bee females emerge from overwintering with small Dufour's glands and small ovaries, containing oocytes in the early stages of development...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820281/isolated-cranio-orbitofacial-neurofibroma-mimicking-vascular-malformation
#2
Harinder S Chahal, Brandon Kuiper, Puneet S Braich, A Tyrone Glover
Isolated neurofibromas in the absence of systemic neurofibromatosis are known as solitary or localized neurofibromas. When present in the orbit, these lesions may appear clinically and radiographically similar to other tumors, complicating diagnosis and management. Key radiographic signs may guide clinicians to the correct diagnosis when the presentation and patient demographic data obfuscate the disease entity. We present a case of a large multi-lobulated neurofibroma misdiagnosed as a lymphangioma. A brief review of these tumors emphasizing key radiographic features is also included...
August 18, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819637/cigarette-smoking-and-its-hazards-in-kidney-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Jackson Tan, Said Khamis, Muhammad AshhadUllah Khalil, Rabeea Azmat, Arslan Rahat Ullah
Cigarette smoking affects many organs. It causes vasoconstriction through activation of sympathetic nervous system which leads to elevation of blood pressure and reduction in glomerular filtration rate and filtration pressure. It also causes thickening of renal arterioles. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of microalbuminuria and accelerates progression of microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria. Furthermore, it causes rapid loss of glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patients. After kidney donation, these factors may be injurious to the solitary kidney...
2017: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819337/predation-cues-in-solitary-bee-nests
#4
Justyna Kierat, Michał Filipiak, Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Michal Woyciechowski
Predation at the nesting site can significantly affect solitary bees' reproductive success. We tested female red mason bees' (Osmia bicornis L.) acceptance of potential nesting sites, some of which were marked with cues coming from predated conspecifics (crushed bees) or from a predator itself (rodent excreta). In our experiment, females did not avoid nests marked with either of the two predator cues. We suggest that bee females do not recognize these two cues as risky. Alternatively, costs of abandoning natal aggregation might be too high compared with any perceived predation risk of staying...
2017: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818771/one-pot-synthesis-of-oxazolidine-2-thione-and-thiozolidine-2-thione-from-sugar-azido-alcohols
#5
Kunj B Mishra, Anand K Agrahari, Vinod K Tiwari
A controlled and facile synthesis of various glycosyl 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones and 1,3- thiozolidine-2-thiones has been accomplished from corresponding sugar azido alcohols utilizing Staudinger reaction (PPh3 and CS2) via isothiocynate route. A series of reactions were performed to investigate the effects of CS2 and PPh3 on the selectivity of product formed. The excessive addition of CS2 with PPh3(1.2 equiv) afforded oxazolidine-2-thione alone, while the solitary addition of PPh3 for 30 min followed by addition of CS2 to the reaction mixture resulted both the products in different ratios, which were successfully isolated using column chromatography (SiO2)...
August 4, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818175/solitary-fibrous-tumor-hemangiopericytoma-of-palate-report-of-a-case-with-immunohistochemical-interpretation-using-cd-34
#6
Manas Bajpai, Nilesh Pardhe, Betina Chandolia, Manika Arora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816874/does-surgical-intervention-or-timing-of-surgery-have-an-effect-on-neurological-recovery-in-the-setting-of-a-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture
#7
So Kato, Jean-Christophe Murray, Brian K Kwon, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures are one of the most common forms of spinal trauma with the majority occurring at the junctional area where mechanical load is maximal (AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System Subtype A3 or A4). Burst fractures entail the involvement of the middle column, and therefore, they are typically associated with bone fragment in the spinal canal, which may cause compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, cauda equina, or a combination of these. Fortunately, approximately half of the patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures are neurologically intact due to the wide canal diameter...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816553/a-rare-case-of-giant-multicystic-solitary-fibrous-tumor-of-the-orbit
#8
Shahid Alam, Varsha Backiavathy, Bipasha Mukherjee, Krishnakumar Subramanian
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor of the orbit of mesenchymal origin. Though these tumors are mostly solid, partial or complete cystic changes can rarely occur. Only six such previous cases of cystic fibrous tumor of the orbit have been mentioned in the literature. We report a case of an elderly male who presented with a huge left sided medial orbital mass. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a predominant cystic orbital mass separated by septae and suggested a diagnosis of Hydatid cyst...
August 17, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814591/spleno-renal-artery-transposition-in-a-solitary-functioning-kidney-for-treatment-resistant-hypertension-and-acute-kidney-injury
#9
Subash Somalanka, Fiona E Harris, Eric Chemla, Rebecca Jo Suckling, Pauline A Swift
Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS) is an important cause of treatment-resistant hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension with RAS can cause progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to end-stage kidney disease. Therapeutic revascularisation can be helpful in appropriate circumstances where pharmaceutical intervention has failed and significant renovascular disease contributes to resistant hypertension. We present an interesting case of a Caucasian male with peripheral vasculopathy, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), single functioning kidney and ostial RAS caused by stent struts from an endovascular AAA stent graft...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814289/cohort-study-on-living-arrangements-of-older-men-and-women-and-risk-for-basic-activities-of-daily-living-disability-findings-from-the-ages-project
#10
Tami Saito, Chiyoe Murata, Jun Aida, Katsunori Kondo
BACKGROUND: Living arrangements of older adults have changed worldwide with increasing solitary and non-spouse households, which could affect social care systems. However, the relationship between these households and disability onset has remained unclear. We examined the relationship between living arrangements and the onset of basic activities of daily living disability in older adults, with a focus on gender differences and cohabitation status of those without a spouse. METHODS: Data from 6600 men and 6868 women aged 65 years or older without disability were obtained from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in Japan...
August 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811947/solitary-skull-metastasis-as-the-first-presentation-of-a-metachronous-primary-lung-cancer-in-a-survivor-from-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Ali Altalhy, Yazid Maghrabi, Zuhoor Almansouri, Saleh S Baeesa
Skull metastasis from lung cancer is relatively common, yet the first presentation for this malignant disease is a rare occurrence. We herein report a case of a 54-year-old female, who had a good outcome following Whipple procedure for periampullary adenocarcinoma five years before her current presentation. During a routine follow-up, she was found to have a slowly progressive painless right parietal swelling. The systemic screening workup revealed no abdominal disease, but a solitary pulmonary nodule was identified...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811803/a-study-of-galactin-3-on-fine-needle-aspiration-as-a-diagnostic-marker-differentiating-benign-from-malignant-thyroid-neoplasm
#12
Alliya Muzafar, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari, Ihtesham Uddin Qureshi
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Thyroid nodules are very common in our setup and their diagnosis on fine needle aspiration is not easy and is a taxing affair. It is a challenge to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma without histology. Our objective was to investigate the role of Galectin-3 in fine needle aspirates of thyroid nodules as a prospective diagnostic marker and consequently its ability to differentiate benign from malignant neoplasms. METHODS: The research was conducted at the department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, in association with other teaching institutions of Lahore from June 2012 to July 2014...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807787/trigeminal-nerve-stimulation-induces-fos-immunoreactivity-in-selected-brain-regions-increases-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-and-reduces-seizure-severity-in-rats
#13
Beniamina Mercante, Paolo Enrico, Gabriele Floris, Marina Quartu, Marianna Boi, Maria Pina Serra, Paolo Follesa, Franca Deriu
Sites and mechanisms by which trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) exerts beneficial effects on symptoms of drug-resistant epilepsy and depression are still unknown. Effects of short-term TNS on brain regions involved in the physiopathology of these disorders were investigated in this study. Forty male rats were assigned to 3 groups: TNS (undergoing electrical stimulation of the left infraorbitary nerve via surgically implanted cuff electrodes); Sham (undergoing surgical procedure but without a stimulation); Naïve rats...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807343/anisometric-cell-lipoma-insight-from-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature-on-adipocytic-neoplasms-in-survivors-of-retinoblastoma-suggest-a-role-for-rb1-loss-and-possible-relationship-to-fat-predominant-fat-only-spindle-cell-lipoma
#14
Abbas Agaimy
The term "anisometric cell lipoma" (ACL) has been proposed recently by Evans for a lipoma variant characterized by striking variation in size and shape of adipocytes but little or no cytological atypia. One patient with multiple ACL had a history of retinoblastoma. The current study analyzed six patients with ACL (4 males and two females aged 34 to 87years; median, 58); all seen in consultation. Five patients presented with solitary and one with multiple subcutaneous masses measuring 5 to 9cm (median, 7.5cm)...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807106/developmental-adaptations-of-trypanosome-motility-to-the-tsetse-fly-host-environments-unravel-a-multifaceted-in-vivo-microswimmer-system
#15
Sarah Schuster, Timothy Krüger, Ines Subota, Sina Thusek, Brice Rotureau, Andreas Beilhack, Markus Engstler
The highly motile and versatile protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex life cycle in the tsetse fly. Here we introduce the host insect as an expedient model environment for microswimmer research, as it allows examination of microbial motion within a diversified, secluded and yet microscopically tractable space. During their week-long journey through the different microenvironments of the fly´s interior organs, the incessantly swimming trypanosomes cross various barriers and confined surroundings, with concurrently occurring major changes of parasite cell architecture...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806541/surgical-management-of-an-aggressive-multifocal-squamous-odontogenic-tumor
#16
Pieter-Jan Verhelst, Laury Grosjean, Eman Shaheen, Constantinus Politis
Squamous odontogenic tumor is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaw. Most are solitary lesions, although rare multifocal lesions have been described. Maxillary lesions have more aggressive behavior. Because of their benign character, these lesions are usually treated using a conservative surgical approach with curettage and surgical enucleation. This report describes the case of a 29-year-old woman with multifocal lesions who was initially treated with conservative surgical therapy. Early recurrence 6 months after surgery prompted more aggressive resection...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806219/selective-activation-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-inflammation-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#17
Qian Zhai, Dengming Lai, Ping Cui, Rui Zhou, Qixing Chen, Jinchao Hou, Yunting Su, Libiao Pan, Hui Ye, Jing-Wei Zhao, Xiangming Fang
OBJECTIVES: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are proposed as a major neuromodulatory system in inflammatory modulation. However, the function of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in sepsis is unknown, and the neural pathways underlying cholinergic anti-inflammation remain unexplored. DESIGN: Animal research. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice and ChAT-ChR2-EYFP (ChAT) transgenic mice...
August 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#19
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805480/current-evidence-on-the-use-of-anti-raas-agents-in-congenital-or-acquired-solitary-kidney
#20
Mariadelina Simeoni, Annarita Armeni, Chiara Summaria, Annamaria Cerantonio, Giorgio Fuiano
RATIONAL: The inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a major strategy for slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The utility of anti-RAAS agents in patients with congenital or acquired solitary kidney is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: A systematic literature review was conducted. MAIN FINDINGS: The conclusions of the few available studies on the topic are homogeneously in agreement with a long-term reno-protective activity of anti-RAAS drugs in patients with solitary kidney, especially if patients are hypertensive or proteinuric...
November 2017: Renal Failure
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