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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926560/hiv-and-hcv-in-u-s-prisons-and-jails-the-correctional-facility-as-a-bellwether-over-time-for-the-community-s-infections
#1
Anne C Spaulding, Emeli J Anderson, Mohammed A Khan, Cesar A Taborda-Vidarte, Jennifer A Phillips
Screening and treating correctional populations for HIV and HCV infections is essential to successfully addressing both epidemics in the USA. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infection is high in prisons and jails due to increased rates of incarceration among disproportionately affected groups such as injection drug users. Through a search of the published and grey literature and surveying persons overseeing health programs in prisons, we collected data on efforts to determine prevalence first for HIV and then for HCV...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923679/inguinal-hernia-containing-urinary-bladder-a-case-report
#2
Milena Taskovska, Jurij Jane┼ż
INTRODUCTION: Inguinal bladder hernia is rare condition found in about 1-5% of inguinal hernias. The condition is usually diagnosed intraoperatively. Patients rarely have symptoms regarding urinary tract. The best management is surgical, open surgical technique is preferred over laparoscopic. Possible urinary tract damage during surgery should be recognized and resolved. CASE PRESENTATION: The following paper presents case of inguinal bladder hernia in 82-year old Caucasian male...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920031/enteroscrotal-fistula-in-a-neonate-following-incarcerated-inguinal-hernia
#3
Prince Raj, Hirendra Birua, Vikash Kumar Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920027/rupture-of-umbilical-hernia-with-evisceration-in-a-newborn-a-case-report
#4
Dinesh H Kittur, Kailas P Bhandarkar, Santosh V Patil, Sudhakar S Jadhav
Most umbilical hernias in infants do not need surgery and the ring will eventually close. Occasionally few complications can arise and incarceration is most common. Spontaneous rupture of the hernia and eventual evisceration is a rarely seen complication. A 3-week-old neonate having umbilical hernia presented with rupture of the sac with evisceration of bowel within a few days of first visit. No underlying cause like umbilical sepsis was found. The baby had emergency repair of the hernia with an uneventful recovery...
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919342/mothers-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-their-young-children-s-development
#5
Jing Sun, Falguni Patel, Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Deborah A Frank, Maureen M Black, Mariana Chilton
INTRODUCTION: This study examined how mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) relate to their children's developmental risk and assessed how the association is mediated through mothers' depressive symptoms and fair/poor health. METHODS: Mothers of children aged between 4 months and 4 years were recruited from the emergency department of a children's hospital between March 2012 and June 2015 and interviewed about ACEs, mothers' depressive symptoms and health status, and children's developmental risk (screened via Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status [PEDS])...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914124/case-management-helps-prevent-criminal-justice-recidivism-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#6
Heather Leutwyler, Erin Hubbard, Elaine Zahnd
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss how case management can decrease recidivism for people with serious mental illness (SMI) because people with SMI are at high risk for incarceration and recidivism. Design/methodology/approach Examples of successful case management models for formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI found through a secondary analysis of qualitative data and an analysis of the literature are presented. Findings Currently, no international, national, or statewide guidelines exist to ensure that formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI receive case management upon community reentry despite evidence that such services can prevent further criminal justice involvement...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914121/evidence-based-recommendations-to-improve-reproductive-healthcare-for-incarcerated-women
#7
Andrea Knittel, Angeline Ti, Sarah Schear, Megan Comfort
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe standards for evidence-based reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women. Design/methodology/approach The literature on reproductive healthcare in the US criminal justice system and recommendations from professional organizations were reviewed and critical areas of concern were identified. Within these areas, studies and expert opinion were synthesized and policy recommendations were formulated through an iterative process of group discussion and document revision...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914117/making-the-case-for-innovative-reentry-employment-programs-previously-incarcerated-women-as-birth-doulas-a-case-study
#8
Monica R McLemore, Zakeya Warner Hand
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to make a case for novel and innovative reentry programs focused on women of color and to describe policy recommendations that are necessary to support the sustainability of these programs and in turn the success of the women who participate in them. Design/methodology/approach A review and analysis of the literature that described job-training opportunities specifically targeted to women exiting jail and the impact on recidivism provided limited information. The authors developed, implemented, and evaluated doula training program for low-income and women of color to determine if birth work could provide stable income and decrease recidivism...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913835/retributive-justifications-for-jail-diversion-of-individuals-with-mental-disorder
#9
E Lea Johnston
Jail diversion programs have proliferated across the United States as a means to decrease the incarceration of individuals with mental illnesses. These programs include pre-adjudication initiatives, such as crisis intervention teams, as well as post-adjudication programs, such as mental health courts and specialized probationary services. Post-adjudication programs often operate at the point of sentencing, so their comportment with criminal justice norms is crucial. This article investigates whether and under what circumstances post-adjudication diversion for offenders with serious mental illnesses may cohere with principles of retributive justice...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913320/pediatric-orbital-medial-wall-trapdoor-fracture-with-normal-computed-tomography-findings
#10
Hyun Rok Lee, Gyu Yong Jung, Dong Lark Lee, Hea Kyeong Shin
With advances in diagnostic technology, radiologic diagnostic methods have been used more frequently, and physical examination may be neglected. The authors report a case of pediatric medial orbital trapdoor fracture in which the surgery was delayed because computed tomography (CT) findings did not indicate bone displacement, incarceration of rectus muscle, or soft tissue herniation. A healthy 6-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room for right eyebrow laceration. We could not check eyeball movement or diplopia, because the patient was irritable...
June 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912635/profile-of-justice-involved-marijuana-and-other-substance-users-demographics-health-and-health-care-family-and-justice-system-experiences
#11
REVIEW
Nikki Freeman, Justin Landwehr, Tasseli McKay, James Derzon, Anupa Bir
Substance users are more likely to have co-occurring health problems, and this pattern is intensified among those involved with the criminal justice system. Interview data for 1977 incarcerated men in 5 states from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering that was conducted between December 2008 and August 2011 were analyzed to compare pre-incarceration substance use patterns and health outcomes between men who primarily used marijuana, primarily used alcohol, primarily used other drugs, and did not use any illicit substances during that time...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905735/surgery-in-shackles-what-are-surgeons-obligations-to-incarcerated-patients-in-the-operating-room
#12
Sara Scarlet, Elizabeth Dreesen
Incarcerated patients frequently require surgery outside of the correctional setting, where they can be shackled to the operating table in the presence of armed corrections officers who observe them throughout the procedure. In this circumstance, privacy protection-central to the patient-physician relationship-and the need to control the incarcerated patient for the safety of health care workers, corrections officers, and society must be balanced. Surgeons recognize the heightened need for gaining a patient's trust within the context of an operation...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905734/swift-and-certain-proportionate-and-consistent-key-values-of-urine-drug-test-consequences-for-probationers
#13
Amy B Cadwallader
Traditionally, urine drug testing (UDT) in the correctional population (both prison and community corrections) has been infrequent, is scheduled, and has a high possibility of delayed results. Of practical relevance is that scheduled testing is ineffective for identifying drug misuse. Of ethical relevance is that consequences of positive scheduled tests can be unpredictable-in the form of overly severe punishment or a lack of treatment options-and that the scheduled testing paradigm is a poor way to change behaviors...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905733/why-it-s-inappropriate-not-to-treat-incarcerated-patients-with-opioid-agonist-therapy
#14
Sarah E Wakeman
Due to the criminalization of drug use and addiction, opioid use disorder is overrepresented in incarcerated populations. Decades of evidence supports opioid agonist therapy as a highly effective treatment that improves clinical outcomes and reduces illicit opioid use, overdose death, and cost. Opioid agonist therapy has been both studied within correctional facilities and initiated prerelease. It has been found to be beneficial, yet few incarcerated persons receive this evidence-based treatment. In addition to not offering treatment initiation for those who need it, most correctional facilities forcibly withdraw stable patients from opioid agonist therapy upon their entry into the criminal justice system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905732/medicine-and-mass-incarceration-education-and-advocacy-in-the-new-york-city-jail-system
#15
Jonathan Giftos, Andreas Mitchell, Ross MacDonald
The United States incarcerates more people than any other country in the world. The scale of mass incarceration ensures that almost all practicing physicians will treat formerly incarcerated patients. Yet the majority of physicians receive little training on this topic. In this paper, we will outline the need for expanded education on the interface between incarceration and health, describe initiatives taking place within the New York City jail system and nationally, and describe future directions for curriculum development...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905731/what-does-health-justice-look-like-for-people-returning-from-incarceration
#16
Lisa Puglisi, Joseph P Calderon, Emily A Wang
Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905730/how-should-a-health-care-professional-respond-to-an-incarcerated-patient-s-request-for-a-particular-treatment
#17
Tom Peteet, Matt Tobey
Incarceration complicates the ethical provision of clinical care through reduction in access to treatment modalities and institutional cultures that value order over autonomy. Correctional care clinicians should expand their guiding principles to consider autonomy and health justice for their patients, which in turn should prompt development of processes and care plans that are patient-centered and account for the inherent restrictions of the setting.
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905729/how-to-talk-with-patients-about-incarceration-and-health
#18
Kimberly Sue
The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any nation in the world-more than 700 people per 100,000. For this reason alone, clinicians practicing in the US should be aware of the numerous ways in which incarceration adversely affects the health of individuals, their families, and communities. While we clinicians are taught how to discuss ways that culture, religion, or sexuality can affect health outcomes, we are not instructed on how to talk about incarceration history with patients when it might be affecting their health, as highlighted in the case scenario...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905728/what-are-physicians-responsibilities-to-patients-whose-health-conditions-can-influence-their-legal-proceedings
#19
David Beckmann
Correctional populations are disproportionately affected by conditions that affect cognition, such as psychiatric illness and head trauma. Honoring bioethical principles in the care of such patients can be particularly difficult in the correctional setting. However, the approach should not change markedly because a patient is incarcerated. That is, the same standards of respecting patient autonomy and confidentiality should be maintained, and the fact that correctional populations are already marginalized makes it all the more important for clinicians to honor these principles...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905727/-teach-to-goal-to-better-assess-informed-consent-comprehension-among-incarcerated-clinical-research-participants
#20
Cyrus Ahalt, Rebecca Sudore, Marielle Bolano, Lia Metzger, Anna M Darby, Brie Williams
Correctional health research requires important safeguards to ensure that research participation is ethically conducted. In addition to having disproportionately low educational attainment and low literacy, incarcerated people suffer from health-related conditions that can affect cognition (e.g., traumatic brain injury, substance use disorders, mental illness). Yet modified informed consent processes that assess participants' comprehension of the risks and benefits of participation are not required by relevant federal guidelines...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
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